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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 (1994)

Chapter: 8. Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements

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Suggested Citation:"8. Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

8
Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements

Current information on toxic dietary levels of inorganic elements for poultry is summarized in Table 8-1. A similar summary that describes the mineral tolerances of animals has been provided by the National Research Council (1980b). Toxicity, as defined here, is any adverse effect on performance. Reduced growth rate is the most common criterion used to indicate the specific level at which a particular mineral is toxic. Although most of the information in the table was obtained from experiments in which the mineral was added in the form of an inorganic compound, organic compounds served as the source of minerals in some reports. For instance, some of the information on the toxicity of selenium was obtained by feeding seleniferous wheat.

The toxicity of a mineral is influenced by the nature of the compound in which it is present (for example, methyl mercury is much more toxic than mercuric chloride). Toxicity may also be influenced markedly by the composition of the diet, particularly with respect to other minerals and chelating agents. Selenium included in the diet at 10 ppm reduces the growth rate, but when it is fed in combination with 1,000 ppm of silver, a level as high as 40 ppm does not reduce growth (Jensen, 1975a). Copper at a level of 800 ppm in a practical turkey diet is not toxic, but 50 ppm of copper in a purified diet reduces growth. The toxicity of copper is modified by the sulfur amino acid content of the diet. Vanadium is much more toxic in a purified diet than in a practical diet, and the toxicity is increased by adding lactose to the practical diet (Hafez and Kratzer, 1976). Conversely, vanadium toxicity is reduced by including cottonseed meal in the diet (Berg, 1965; Berg and Lawrence, 1971; Sell et al., 1986a). In many instances, a high dietary level of one mineral antagonizes another element, resulting in a physiological deficiency of minerals essential for the animal. Because many different factors affect the quantity of a mineral needed to produce toxicity, diverse observations have been reported on the toxic effects of any given mineral.

Suggested Citation:"8. Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 8-1 Toxic Dietary Concentrations of Inorganic Elements and Compounds for Poultry

Element or Compound

Species

Age

Chemical Form

Toxic Concentration (ppm)a

Toxic Effects

References

Aluminum

Chicken

Immature

AlCl2

500

Reduced growth

Storer and Nelson, 1968

Aluminum

Chicken

Immature

Al2(SO4)3

1,000

Reduced growth

Storer and Nelson, 1968

Aluminum

Chicken

Immature

Al2(SO4)3

2,200

Rickets

Deobold and Elvehjem, 1935

Aluminum

Chicken

Mature

Al2(SO4)3

3,000

Reduced egg production

Hussein et al., 1989

Arsenic

Chicken

Laying hen

As2O5

100

Reduced body weight; reduced egg production

Hermayer et al., 1977

Barium

Chicken

Immature

BaCO3, BaCl2

200

Reduced growth

Taucins et al., 1969

Barium

Chicken

Immature

BaCl2

2,000

Death

Taucins et al., 1969

Bromine

Chicken

Immature

NaBr

5,000

Reduced growth

Doberenz et al., 1965

Cadmium

Chicken

Immature

CdSO4·H2O

25

Reduced growth

Hill et al., 1963

Cadmium

Chicken

Immature

CdSO4

40

Reduced growth

Hill, 1974

Cadmium

Turkey

Immature

CdCl2

20

Reduced growth

Supplee, 1961

Cadmium

Chicken

Adult

CdSO4

12

Decreased egg production

Leach et al., 1979

Chlorine

Chicken

Immature

Arginine·HCL, NaCl and KCl

15,000

Reduced growth

Nesheim et al., 1964

Chromium

Chicken

Immature

K2CrO4

300

Reduced growth

Kunishisa et al., 1966

Chromium

Chicken

Immature

Cr2(SO4)3

300

Reduced growth

Kunishisa et al., 1966

Chromium

Chicken

Adult

CrCl3·6H2O

10

Egg quality

Jensen and Maurice, 1980

Cobalt

Chicken

Immature

CoCl2·6H2O

200

Reduced growth

Hill, 1974

Cobalt

Chicken

Immature

CoCl2

100

Reduced growth

Hill, 1979

Copper

Chicken

Immature

CuO

806

Reduced growth; mortality

Mehring et al., 1960

Copper

Chicken

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

800

Exudative diathesis; muscular dystrophy

Jensen, 1975b

Copper

Chicken

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

500

Reduced growth; gizzard erosion

Poupoulis and Jensen, 1976

Copper

Chicken

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

250

Reduced growth; gizzard erosion

Robbins and Baker, 1980a,b

Copper

Turkey

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

676 (practical diet)

Reduced growth

Vohra and Kratzer, 1968

Copper

Turkey

Immature

CuSO4·5H2O

800 (purified diet)

Reduced growth

Supplee, 1964

Copper

Turkey

Immature

CuCO3

50 (purified diet)

800 (practical diet not toxic)

Reduced growth

Waibel et al., 1964

Fluorine

Chicken

Immature

NaF

1,000

Reduced growth

Doberenz et al., 1965

Fluorine

Chicken

Immature

NaF

500 (similar level of F as CaF not toxic)

Reduced growth

Gardiner et al., 1959

Fluorine

Chicken

Immature

NaF

500

Reduced growth

Weber et al., 1969

Fluorine

Chicken

Immature

NaF

750

Reduced growth

Berg and Martinson, 1972

Fluorine

Chicken

Adult

NaF

1,300

Reproductive characteristics

Guenter and Hahn, 1986

Iodine

Chicken

Laying hen

KI

625

Reduced egg production, egg size, and hatchability

Arrington et al., 1967

Iron

Chicken

Immature

Fe2(SO4)3

4,500

Rickets

Deobold and Elvehjem, 1935

Lead

Chicken

Immature

Pb acetate

1,000

Reduced growth

Damron et al., 1969

Lead

Chicken

Immature

Pb acetate

320

Lethargy, 50% mortality

Vengris and Mare, 1974

Lead

Chicken

Mature

Pb acetate

200

Reduced egg production

Edens and Garlich, 1983

Lead

Japanese quail

Mature

Pb acetate

10

Reduced egg production

Edens and Garlich, 1983

Magnesium

Chicken

Immature

MgO

5,700

Growth, skeletal development

Atteh and Leeson, 1983

Magnesium

Chicken

Immature

MgCO3

6,000

Reduced growth

Chicco et al., 1967

Magnesium

Chicken

Immature

MgCO3

6,400

Reduced growth; mortality

Nugara and Edwards, 1963

Magnesium

Chicken

Adult

MgSO4

19,600

Reduced egg production

McWard, 1967

Magnesium

Chicken

Adult

MgCO3

11,200

Reduced egg production

Stillmak and Sunde, 1971

Manganese

Chicken

Immature

MnCl2·4H2O

4,000

Reduced growth

Southern and Baker, 1983a

Manganese

Turkey

Immature

MnSO4·H2O

4,800

Reduced growth

Vohra and Kratzer, 1968

Mercury

Chicken

Immature

HgSO4, HgCl2

400

Reduced growth

Hill et al., 1964

Mercury

Chicken

Immature

HgCl2

250b

Reduced growth; mortality

Parkhurst and Thaxton, 1973

Mercury

Chicken

Immature

CH3Hg dicyanamide

33

Reduced growth; mortality

Gardiner, 1972

Mercury

Chicken

Immature

CH3HgCl

5

50% mortality

Soares et al., 1973

Molybdenum

Chicken

Immature

Na2MoO4

500

Reduced growth; mortality

Davies et al., 1960

Molybdenum

Chicken

Immature

Na2MoO4·2H2O

350

Reduced growth

Berg and Martinson, 1972

Molybdenum

Chicken

Laying hen

Na2MoO4·2H2O

500

Reduced egg production and hatchability

Lepore and Miller, 1965

Molybdenum

Turkey

Immature

NaMoO4

300

Reduced growth

Kratzer, 1952

Nickel

Chicken

Immature

NiSO4 or Ni acetate

500

Reduced growth

Weber and Reid, 1968

Suggested Citation:"8. Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Element or Compound

Species

Age

Chemical Form

Toxic Concentration (ppm)a

Toxic Effects

References

Nickel

Chicken

Immature

NiCl

400

Reduced growth

Hill, 1979

Nitrate

Turkey

Immature

NaNO3

900b

Reduced growth; mortality

Adams et al., 1967

Nitrate

Turkey

Immature

NaNO3

450(N)b

No effect on meat color

Mugler et al., 1970

Nitrite

Chicken

Immature

KNO2

658(N)

Decreased vitamin A in liver and thyroid enlargement

Sell and Roberts, 1963

Selenium

Chicken

Immature

Na2SeO3 + Se in wheat

10

Reduced growth

Carlson and Leitis, 1957

Selenium

Chicken

Immature

Na2SeO3

10

Reduced growth

Jensen, 1975a

Selenium

Chicken

Immature

Na2SeO3

20 (+1,000 Ca)

Reduced growth

Jensen, 1975a

Selenium

Chicken

Laying hen

Se in wheat

10

Reduced hatchability

Moxon and Wilson, 1944

Selenium

Chicken

Adult

Na2SeO3

5

Decreased hatchability

Ort and Latshaw, 1978

Silver

Chicken

Immature

AgSO4

200

Reduced growth

Hill et al., 1964

Silver

Chicken

Immature

AgNO3

900

Exudative diathesis (prevented by Se or vitamin E)

Peterson and Jensen, 1975a

Silver

Chicken

Immature

AgNO3

900

Anemia, enlarged hearts

Peterson and Jensen, 1975b

Silver

Turkey

Immature

Ag acetate or nitrate

900

Anemia, enlarged hearts, and muscular dystrophy prevented by Cu + Se)

Jensen et al., 1974

Sodium

Chicken

Immature

Na glutamate

8,900c

Reduced growth

Nesheim et al., 1964

Sodium

Chicken

Laying hen

Na2SO4

12,000b

Reduced egg production

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Chicken

Immature

NaCl

7,000b

Reduced growth; mortality

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Chicken

Laying hen

NaCl

10,000b

Reduced egg production

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Chicken

Adult

NaCl

40,000–60,000

Reduced egg production

Damron and Kelly, 1987

Sodium chloride

Turkey

Immature

NaCl

4,000b

Reduced body weight; mortality

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Turkey

Immature

NaCl

27,000

Lung congestion; enlarged kidneys; mortality

Morrison et al., 1975

Sodium chloride

Duck

Immature

NaCl

4,000b

Reduced body weight

Krista et al., 1961

Sodium chloride

Turkey

Mature

NaCl

60,000

Reduced growth

Roberts, 1957

Sodium chloride

Turkey

Immature

NaCl

40,000

Reduced growth; pendulous crop

Harper and Arscott, 1962

Strontium

Chicken

Immature

SrCO3

6,000

Reduced growth

Weber et al., 1968

Sulfate

Chicken

Immature

K2SO4, Na2SO4, CaSO4

14,000

Reduced growth

Leach et al., 1960

Sulfate

Chicken

Laying hen

Na2SO4

8,100

Reduced egg production

Krista et al., 1961

Tungsten

Chicken

Immature

Sodium tungstate

500

Reduced growth

Teekell and Watts, 1959

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

NH4VO3

8

Reduced growth

Berg, 1963

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

Ca3(VO4)2

30

Reduced growth

Romoser et al., 1961

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

Ca3(VO4)2

200

Mortality

Romoser et al., 1961

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

NH4VO3 or VOSO4

25

Reduced growth; mortality

Hathcock et al., 1964

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

NaVO3

5

Reduced growth

Hill, 1974

Vanadium

Chicken

Immature

NH4VO3

10

Reduced growth

Summers and Moran, 1972

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

V in dicalcium phosphate

6

Depressed albumin quality

Sell et al., 1982

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

NH4VO3

15

Depressed albumin quality

Berg et al., 1963

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

NH4VO3

20

Depressed albumin quality; reduced body weight

Berg et al., 1963

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

NH4VO3

30

Depressed egg production

Berg et al., 1963

Vanadium

Chicken

Laying hen

NH4VO3

50

Depressed hatchability

Berg et al., 1963

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnSO4, ZnCO3

1,500

Reduced growth

Roberson and Schaible, 1960

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnO

3,000

Reduced growth

Johnson et al., 1962

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnO

800

Reduced growth; bone ash (sucrose-fish meal diet)

Berg and Martinson, 1972

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnSO4

2,000

Exudative diathesis; muscular dystrophy

Jensen, 1975b

Zinc

Chicken

Immature

ZnSO4

3,000

Reduced growth (0.5 ppm Se in diet)

Jensen, 1975b

Zinc

Turkey

Immature

ZnO

4,000

Reduced growth

Vohra and Kratzer, 1968

a Dietary concentrations of the elements unless specified otherwise.

b In water.

c Diet low in Cl- ion.

Suggested Citation:"8. Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 58
Suggested Citation:"8. Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 59
Suggested Citation:"8. Toxicity of Certain Inorganic Elements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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This classic reference for poultry nutrition has been updated for the first time since 1984. The chapter on general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predicting the energy value of individual feed ingredients from their proximate composition.

This volume includes the latest information on the nutrient requirements of meat- and egg-type chickens, incorporating data on brown-egg strains, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail.

This publication also contains new appendix tables that document in detail the scientific information used to derive the nutrient requirements appearing in the summary tables for each species of bird.

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