National Academies Press: OpenBook

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 (1994)

Chapter: 9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets

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Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

9
Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets

Feed formulation involves the judicious use of feed ingredients to supply in adequate amounts and proportions the nutrients required by poultry. Because it is impractical to analyze each batch of feedstuff for its nutrient content, reliance must be placed on feedstuff composition data that have been compiled on the basis of many laboratory analyses. Feedstuffs vary in composition. The nutrient values given in the following tables are averages reflecting the concentrations of nutrients most likely to be present in the feedstuffs commonly used in poultry feeds.

Feedstuff composition data presented in this edition (Tables 9-1 and 9-2) were obtained from several sources, including the United States-Canadian Tables of Feed Composition (National Research Council, 1982), the Association of American Feed Control Officials, commercial firms, and individual scientists. In many instances, the values have been changed to reflect results of analyses of feed ingredients obtained from contemporary crop cultivars and recently employed processing methods. Additional information provided in the composition tables include nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) data for many feed ingredients and information on the true digestibility of amino acids for numerous feedstuffs. Also, equations are provided to estimate the amino acid concentration of certain ingredients on the basis of proximate analysis or on the basis of the protein content of the ingredients.

From a nutritional point of view, there is no "best" diet formula in terms of ingredients that are used. Ingredients should, therefore, be selected on the basis of availability, price, and the quality of the nutrients they contain. Certain ingredients invariably constitute the greatest part of diets, in terms of both amount and cost. Cereal grains and fats are the primary energy-supplying ingredients, and oilseed meals and animal-protein meals are used commonly as major sources of amino acids. Some important nutritional characteristics of many energy- and protein-supplying ingredients are discussed in this chapter. Sulphur, which are common contaminants in feedstuffs, and their effects are discussed in the final section.

CEREAL GRAINS

Bushel weights (bulk densities) of cereal grains are used in commerce to establish market grades and prices. Bushel weights of grains also have been used as criteria of feeding value, and in some instances this practice seems justified for poultry. For example, at standard moisture levels there is a strong relationship between bushel weight and general feeding value of oats and barley. An increase in bushel weight of these grains is a reflection of an increase in the proportion of the meaty kernel and a decrease in the proportion of fibrous hull. Thus there is a definite increase in the metabolizable energy (ME)—and usually protein—content of barley and oats as bushel weight increases. Similarly, there seems to be a direct relationship between the ME content of grain sorghum and wheat as bushel weight increases over a wide range. A relationship between bushel weight and the ME content of corn is not so evident. In situations in which corn, sorghum, or wheat fails to achieve maturity because of early frost or early harvest, there usually are decreases in the starchy endosperm portion of the grain and bushel weight and ME content are usually low. Regression equations relating the ME of corn to various factors such as moisture content at harvest and bushel weight have been reported (Leeson and Summers, 1975, 1976b; Leeson et al., 1977b). Ranges in bushel weight that may be encountered with different grains are shown in Table 9-3.

The feeding value of grain sorghums (milo) is markedly

Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-1 Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)

Entry Number

Feed Name Description   

International Feed Numbera

Dry Matter (%)

MEn (kcal/kg)

TMEn (kcal/kg)

Protein (%)

Ether Extract (%)

Linoleic Acid (%)

Crude Fiber (%)

Calcium (%)

Total Phosphorus (%)

Nonphytate Phosphorus (%)

Potassium (%)

Chlorine (%)

 

Alfalfa Medicago sativa

01    

meal dehydrated, 17% protein  

1-00-023

92

1,200

1,011

17.5

2.5

0.47

24.1

1.44

0.22

0.22

2.15

0.47

02

meal dehydrated, 20% protein

1-00-024

92

1,630

20.0

3.6

0.58

20.2

1.67

0.28

2.15

0.47

03

Bakery waste, dehydrated (dried bakery product)

4-00-466

92    

3,862

3,696

10.5

11.7

1.2

0.13

0.24

0.35

1.23

 

Barley Hordeum vulgare

04        

grain

4-00-549

89

2,640

2,900

11.0

1.8

0.83

5.5

0.03

0.36

0.17

0.48

0.15

05         

grain, Pacific coast

4-07-939

89

2,620

9.2

2.0

0.85

6.4

0.05

0.32

0.53

0.15

 

Broadbean Vicia faba

06

seeds

5-09-262

87

2,431

2,339

24.0

1.4

7.0

0.11

0.54

1.2

 

Blood

07  

meal, vat dried

5-00-380

94

2,830

81.1

1.6

0.5

0.55

0.42

0.18

0.27

08        

meal, spray or ring dried

5-00-381

93

3,420

3,625

88.9

1.0

0.10

0.6

0.41

0.30

0.18

0.27

 

Brewer's Grains

09        

dehydrated

5-02-141

92

2,080

25.3

6.2

2.94

15.3

0.29

0.52

0.08

0.12

 

Buckwheat, common

 

Fagopyrum sagittatum

10         

grain

4-00-994

88

2,660

2,755

10.8

2.5

10.5

0.09

0.32

0.12

0.40

0.04

 

Cane Molasses—see Molasses

 

Canola Brassica napus-Brassica campestris

11        

seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, low erucic acid, low glucosinolates

5-06-145

93

2,000

2,070

38.0

3.8

12.0

0.68

1.17

0.30

1.29

 

Casein

12         

dehydrated

5-01-162

93

4,130

4,134

87.2

0.8

0.2

0.61

1.00

1.00

0.01

13         

precipitated dehydrated

5-20-837

92

4,118

85.0

0.06

0.2

0.68

0.82

0.82

0.01

 

Cattle

14        

skim milk, dehydrated

5-01-175

93

2,537

36.1

1.0

0.2

1.28

1.02

1.02

1.60

0.90

 

Coconut Cocos nucifera

15        

kernels with coats, meal solvent extracted (copra meal)

5-01-573

92

1,525

19.2

2.1

14.4

0.17

0.65

1.41

0.03

 

Corn, Dent Yellow Zea mays indentata

16

distillers' grains, dehydrated

5-28-235

94

1,972

27.8

9.2

12.0

0.10

0.40

0.39

0.17

0.07

17        

distillers' grains with solubles, dehydrated

5-28-236

93

2,480

3,097

27.4

9.0

4.55

9.1

0.17

0.72

0.39

0.65

0.17

18         

distillers' solubles, dehydrated

5-28-237

92

2,930

28.5

9.0

4.55

4.0

0.35

1.27

1.17

1.75

0.26

19         

gluten, meal, 60% protein

5-28-242

90

3,720

3,811

62.0

2.5

1.3

0.50

0.14

0.35

0.05

20

gluten with bran (corn gluten feed)

5-28-243

90

1,750

2,228

21.0

2.5

8.0

0.40

0.80

0.57

0.22

21         

grain

4-02-935

89

3,350

3,470

8.5

3.8

2.20

2.2

0.02

0.28

0.08

0.30

0.04

22        

grits by-product (hominy feed)

4-03-011

90

2,896

3,269

10.4

8.0

3,28

5.0

0.05

0.52

0.59

0.05

 

Cotton Gossypium spp.

23         

seeds, meal mechanically extracted, 41% protein (expeller)

5-01-617

93

2,320

40.9

3.9

2.47

12.0

0.20

1.05

1.19

0.04

24         

seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, 41% protein

5-07-872

90

2,400

41.4

0.5

13.6

0.15

0.97

0.22

1.22

0.03

25         

seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, 44% protein

5-07-873

91

1,857

2,135

44.7

1.6

11.1

0.15

1.25

0.37

 

Feathers—see Poultry

 

Fish

26  

solubles, condensed

5-01-969

51

1,460

31.5

7.8

0.2

0.30

0.76

1.74

2.65

27         

solubles, dehydrated

5-01-971

92

2,830

63.6

9.3

0.12

0.5

1.23

1.63

0.37

 

Fish, Anchovy Engraulis ringen

28         

meal mechanically extracted

5-01-985

92

2,580

64.2

5.0

0.20

1.0

3.73

2.43

0.69

0.60

 

Fish, Herring Clupea harengus

29         

meal mechanically extracted

5-02-000

93

3,190

72.3

10.0

0.15

0.7

2.29

1.70

1.09

0.90

 

Fish, Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus

30         

meal mechanically extracted

5-02-009

92

2,820

2,977

60.05

9.4

0.12

0.7

5.11

2.88

0.65

0.60

31         

Fish, White Gadidae (family)-Lop hiidae (family) -Rajidae (family) meal mechanically extracted

5-02-025

91

2,593

62.6

4.6

0.08

0.7

7.31

3.81

0.83

0.50

 

Gelatin

32         

process residue (gelatin by-products)

5-14-503

91

2,360

3,029

88.0

0.0

0.50

Trace

 

Hominy Feed—see Corn

33        

Livers meal

5-00-389

92

2,860

65.6

15.0

1.4

0.56

1.25

 

Meat

34         

meal rendered

5-00-385

92

2,195

54.4

7.1

0.28

2.7

8.27

4.10

0.60

0.91

35         

with bone, meal rendered

5-00-388

93

2,150

2,495

50.4

10.0

0.36

2.8

10.30

5.10

1.45

0.69

 

Millet Pearl Pennisetum glaucum

36         

grain

4-03-118

91

2,675

3,367

14.0

4.3

0.84

3.0

0.05

0.32

0.12

0.43

0.14

 

Millet, Proso Panicum miliaceum



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-1 Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)

Entry Number

Iron (mg/kg)

Magnesium (%)

Manganese (mg/kg)

Sodium (%)

Sulfur (%)

Copper (mg/kg)

Selenium (mg/kg)

Zinc (mg/kg)

Biotin (mg/kg)

Choline (mg/kg)

Folacin (mg/kg)

Niacin (mg/kg)

Pantothenic Acid (mg/kg)

Pyridoxine (mg/kg)

Riboflavin (mg/kg)

Thiamin (mg/kg)

Vitamin B12 (µg/kg)

Vitamin E (mg/kg)

Alfalfa Medicago sativa

01

480

0.36

30

0.09

0.17

10

0.34

24

0.30

1,401

4.2

38

25.0

6.5

13.6

3.4

4

125

02

390

0.36

42

0.09

0.43

11

0.29

25

0.33

1,419

3.3

40

34.0

8.0

15.2

5.8

4

144

Bakery

03       

28

0.24

65

1.14

0.02

5

15

0.07

923

0.2

26

8.3

4.3

1.4

2.9

41

Barley Hordeum vulgare

04

78

0.14

18

0.04

0.15

10

0.10

30

0.15

990

0.07

55

8.0

3.0

1.8

1.9

20

05

110

0.12

16

0.02

0.15

8

0.10

15

0.15

1,034

0.05

48

7.0

2.9

1.6

4.0

20

Broadbean Vicia faba

06

70

0.13

8

0.08

4

42

0.09

1.7

22

3.0

1.6

5.5

1

Blood

07

2,020

0.16

5

0.32

0.32

10

0.01

4

0.08

695

0.1

29

3.0

4.4

2.6

0.4

44

08

3,000

0.40

6

0.33

0.32

8

306

0.20

280

0.4

13

5.0

4.4

1.3

0.5

44

Brewer's Grains

09

250

0.16

38

0.26

0.31

21

0.70

98

0.96

1,723

7.1

29

8.0

0.7

1.4

0.5

25

Buckwheat, common

10

44

0.09

34

0.05

0.14

10

9

440

19

12.0

5.5

4.0

Cane Molasses—see Molasses

Canola Brassica napus-Brassica campestris

11

159

0.64

54

10

1.00

71

0.90

6,700

2.3

160

9.5

3.7

5.2

Casein

12

18

0.01

4

0.01

4

33

0.05

205

0.5

1

3.0

0.4

1.5

0.5

13

17

0.01

4

0.01

4

32

0.04

208

0.5

1

2.7

0.4

1.5

0.5

Cattle

14

8

0.12

2

0.51

0.32

12

0.12

39

0.33

1,393

0.62

11.5

36.4

4.1

19.1

3.7

51

9

Coconut Cocos nucifera

15

0.31

54

0.04

1,089

0.30

23.8

6.5

4.4

3.5

Corn, Dent Yellow Zea mays indentata

16

300

0.25

22

0.09

0.43

25

0.45

55

0.49

1,180

0.9

37

11.7

4.4

5.2

1.7

17

280

0.19

24

0.48

0.30

57

0.39

80

0.78

2,637

0.9

71

11.0

2.2

8.6

2.9

40

18

560

0.64

74

0.26

0.37

83

0.33

85

1.10

4,842

1.1

116

21.0

10.0

17.0

6.9

3

55

19

400

0.15

4

0.02

0.43

26

1.00

33

0.15

330

0.2

55

3.0

6.2

2.2

0.3

24

20

460

0.29

24

0.15

0.22

48

0.10

70

0.33

1,518

0.3

66

17.0

15.0

2.4

2.0

15

21

45

0.12

7

0.02

0.08

3

0.03

18

0.06

620

0.4

24

4.0

7.0

1.0

3.5

22

22

67

0.24

15

0.08

0.03

13

0.10

3

0.13

1,155

0.3

47

8.2

11.0

2.1

8.1

Cotton Gossypium spp.

23

160

0.52

23

0.04

0.40

19

0.25

64

0.60

2,753

1.0

38

10.0

5.3

5.1

6.4

39

24

110

0.40

20

0.04

0.31

18

70

0.55

2,933

2.7

40

7.0

3.0

4.0

3.3

15

25

2,685

0.9

46

14.5

4.7

Feathers—see Poultry

Fish

26

160

0.02

14

2.62

0.12

45

2.00

38

0.18

3,519

0.02

169

35.0

12.2

14.6

5.5

347

27

300

0.30

50

0.3

0.40

76

0.26

5,507

0.06

271

55.0

23.8

7.7

7.4

401

Fish, Anchovy Engraulis ringen

28

220

0.24

10

0.65

0.54

9

1.36

103

0.23

4,408

0.2

100

15.0

4.0

7.1

0.1

352

4

Fish, Herring Clupea harengus

29

140

0.15

5

0.61

0.69

6

1.93

132

0.31

5,306

0.3

93

17.0

4.0

9.9

0.1

403

22

Fish, Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus

30

440

0.16

33

0.65

0.45

11

2.10

147

0.20

3,056

0.3

55

9.0

4.0

4.9

0.5

104

7

Fish, White Gadidae (family)-Lophiidae (family)-Rajidae (family)

31

181

0.18

12

0.78

0.48

6

1.62

90

0.08

3,099

0.3

59

9.9

5.9

9.1

1.7

90

9

Gelatin

32

0.05

Hominy Feed—see Corn

33

630

9

89

0.02

11,311

5.5

204

29.0

46.3

0.2

498

Meat

34

440

0.58

10

1.15

0.49

10

0.42

103

0.17

2,077

0.3

57

5.0

3.0

5.5

0.2

68

1

35

490

1.12

14

0.70

0.50

2

0.25

93

0.14

1,996

0.3

46

4.1

12.8

4.4

0.8

70

1

Millet Pearl Pennisetum glaucum

36

25

0.16

31

0.04

0.13

22

13

793

53

7.8

1.6

6.7

Millet, Proso Panicum miliaceum



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-1 Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)

Entry Number

Feed Name Description  

International Feed Numbera

Dry Matter (%)

MEn (kcal/kg)

TMEn (kcal/kg)

Protein (%)

Ether Extract (%)

Linoleic Acid (%)

Crude Fiber (%)

Calcium (%)

Total Phosphorus (%)

Nonphytate Phosphorus (%)

Potassium (%)

Chlorine (%)

37         

grain

4-03-120

90

2,898

11.6

3.5

6.1

0.03

0.30

0.14

0.43

 

Oats Avena sativa

38         

grain

4-03-309

89

2,550

2,625

11.4

4.2

1.47

10.8

0.06

0.27

0.05

0.45

0.11

39        

grain,

Pacific coast

4-07-999

91

2,610

9.0

5.0

11.0

0.08

0.30

0.37

0.12

40        

hulls

1-03-281

92

400

4.6

1.4

28.7

0.13

0.10

0.53

0.10

 

Pea Pisum spp.

41         

seeds

5-03-600

90

2,570

2,654

23.8

1.3

5.5

0.11

0.42

1.02

0.06

 

Peanut Arachis hypogaea

42       

kernels, meal mechani- cally extracted (peanut meal) (expeller) 

5-03-649

90

2,500

42.0

7.3

1.43

12.0

0.16

0.56

1.15

0.03

43       

kernels, meal solvent extracted (peanut meal)

5-03-650

92

2,200

2,462

50.7

1.2

0.24

10.0

0.20

0.63

0.13

1.15

0.03

 

Poultry

44      

by-product, meal rendered (viscera with feet and heads)  

5-03-798

93

2,950

3,120

60.0

13.0

2.54

1.5

3.00

1.70

0.55

0.54

45        

feathers, meal hydrolyzed

5-03-795

93

2,360

3,276

81.0

7.0

1.0

0.33

0.55

0.30

0.28

 

Rice Oryza sativa

46        

bran with germ (rice bran)

4-03-928

91

2,980

3,085

12.9

13.0

3.57

11.4

0.07

1.50

0.22

1.73

0.07

47        

grain, polished and broken (brewer's rice)

4-03-932

89

2,990

3,536

8.7

0.7

9.8

0.08

0.08

0.03

0.13

0.08

48         

polishings

4-03-943

90

3,090

12.2

11.0

3.58

4.1

0.05

1.31

0.14

1.06

0.11

 

Rye Secale cereale

49         

grain

4-04-047

88

2,626

2,931

12.1

1.5

2.2

0.06

0.32

0.06

0.46

0.03

 

Safflower Carthamus tinctorius

50         

seeds, meal solvent extracted

5-04-110

92

1,193

23.4

1.4

30.0

0.34

0.75

0.76

51        

seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted

5-07-959

92

1,921

43.0

1.3

13.5

0.35

1.29

0.39

1.10

0.16

 

Sesame Sesamum indicum

52         

seeds, meal mechani- cally extracted (expeller)

5-04-220

93

2,210

1,978

43.8

6.5

1.90

7.0

1.99

1.37

0.34

1.20

0.06

 

Sorghum Sorghum bicolor

53         

grain, 8-10% protein

4-20-893

87

3,288

3,376

8.8

2.9

1.13

2.3

0.04

0.30

0.35

0.09

54         

grain, more than 10% protein

4-20-894

88

3,212

11.0

2.6

0.82

2.3

0.04

0.32

0.33

0.09

 

Soybean Glycine max

55         

flour by-product (soybean mill feed)

4-04-594

89

720

13.3

1.6

33.0

0.37

0.19

1.50

0.02

56         

protein concen- trate, more than 70% protein

5-08-038

93

3,500

84.1

0.4

0.2

0.02

0.80

0.32

0.18

0.02

57         

seeds, heat processed

5-04-597

90

3,300

2,990

37.0

18.0

8.46

5.5

0.25

0.58

1.61

0.03

58         

seeds, meal solvent extracted

5-04-604

89

2,230

44.0

0.8

0.40

7.0

0.29

0.65

0.27

2.00

0.05

59         

seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted

5-04-612

90

2,440

2,485

48.5

1.0

0.40

3.9

0.27

0.62

0.22

1.98

0.05

 

Sunflower, common Helianthus annuus

60         

seeds, meal solvent extracted

5-09-340

90

1,543

32.0

1.1

0.60

24.0

0.21

0.93

0.14

0.96

61         

seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted

5-04-739

93

2,320

2,060

45.4

2.9

1.59

12.2

0.37

1.00

0.16

1.00

0.10

 

Triticale Triticale hexaploide

62

grain

4-20-362

90

3,163

3,144

14.0

1.5

4.0

0.05

0.30

0.10

0.36

 

Wheat Triticum aestivum

63         

bran

4-05-190

89

1,300

1,725

15.7

3.0

1.70

11.0

0.14

1.15

0.20

1.19

0.06

64         

flour by-product, less than 4% fiber (wheat red dog)

4-05-203

88

2,568

15.3

3.3

2.6

0.04

0.49

0.14

0.51

0.14

65         

flour by-product, less than 9.5% fiber (wheat middlings)

4-05-205

88

2,000

2,708

15.0

3.0

1.87

7.5

0.12

0.85

0.30

0.99

0.03

66         

flour by-product, less than 7% fiber (wheat shorts)

4-05-201

88

2,162

2,061

16.5

4.6

6.8

0.09

0.81

0.93

0.07

67         

grain, hard red winter

4-05-268

87

2,900

3,167

14.1

2.5

0.59

3.0

0.05

0.37

0.13

0.45

0.05

68         

grain, soft white winter

4-05-337

89

3,120

11.5

2.5

3.0

0.05

0.31

0.42

0.05

 

Whey Bos taurus

69         

dehydrated

4-01-182

93

1,900

693

13.0

0.8

0.01

0.2

0.97

0.76

1.05

1.5

70         

low lactose, dehydrated (dried whey product)

4-01-186

91

2,090

16.0

1.0

0.01

0.3

1.95

0.98

3.0

1.03

 

Yeast, Brewer's Saccharo-myces cerevisiae

71         

dehydrated

7-05-527

93

1,990

2,634

44.4

1.0

2.7

0.12

1.40

1.70

0.12

 

Yeast, Torula torulopsis utilis

72

dehydrated

7-05-534

93

2,160

47.2

2.5

0.05

2.4

0.58

1.67

1.70

0.12

NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were available.

a First digit is class of feed: 1, dry forages and roughages; 2, pasture, range plants, and forages fed green; 3, silages; 4, energy feeds; 5, protein supplements; 6, minerals; 7, vitamins; 8, additives; the other five digits are the International Feed Number.



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-1 Composition (Excluding Amino Acids) of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)

Entry Number

Iron (mg/kg)

Magnesium (%)

Managnese (mg/kg)

Sodium (%)

Sulfur (%)

Copper (mg/kg)

Selenium (mg/kg)

Zinc (mg/kg)

Biotin (mg/kg)

Choline (mg/kg)

Folacin (mg/kg)

Niacin (mg/kg)

Pantothenic Acid (mg/kg)

Pyridoxine (mg/kg)

Riboflavin (mg/kg)

Thiamin (mg/kg)

Vitamin B12 (µg/kg)

Vitamin E (mg/kg)

37

71

0.16

440

23

11.0

3.8

7.3

38

85

0.16

43

0.08

0.21

8

0.30

38

0.27

946

0.3

12

7.8

1.0

1.1

6.0

20

39

73

0.17

38

0.06

0.20

0.07

0.22

959

0.3

14

13.0

1.3

1.1

0.6

40

100

0.08

14

0.04

0.14

3

0.1

284

1.0

7

3.0

2.2

1.5

0.6

41

50

0.13

0.04

30

0.18

642

0.4

34

10.0

1.0

2.3

4.6

3

42

156

0.33

25

0.06

0.29

15

0.28

30

0.33

1,655

0.4

166

47.0

10.0

5.2

7.1

3

43

142

0.04

29

0.07

0.30

15

20

0.39

2,396

0.4

170

53.0

10.0

11.0

5.7

3

44

440

0.22

11

0.40

0.51

14

0.75

120

0.30

5,952

1.0

40

12.3

4.4

11.0

1.0

310

2

45

76

0.20

10

0.69

1.50

7

0.84

54

0.04

891

0.2

27

10.0

3.0

2.1

0.1

78

46

190

0.95

250

0.07

0.18

13

0.40

30

0.42

1,135

2.2

293

23.0

14.0

2.5

22.5

60

47

0.11

18

0.07

0.06

0.27

17

0.08

800

0.2

30

8.0

28.0

0.7

1.4

14

48

160

0.65

12

0.10

0.17

3

26

0.61

1,237

0.2

520

47.0

1.8

19.8

90

49

60

0.12

58

0.02

0.15

7

0.38

31

0.06

419

0.6

19

8.0

2.6

1.6

3.6

15

50

495

0.35

18

0.05

0.13

10

41

1.43

820

0.5

11

33.9

2.3

1

51

484

1.02

39

0.04

0.20

9

33

1.67

3,248

1.6

22

39.1

11.3

2.4

4.5

1

52

93

0.77

48

0.04

0.43

100

0.34

1,536

30

6.0

12.5

3.6

2.8

53

45

0.15

15

0.01

0.08

10

0.20

15

0.26

668

0.2

41

12.4

5.2

1.3

3.0

7

54

0.12

0.01

0.11

1.1

55

0.12

29

0.25

0.06

0.22

640

0.3

24

13.0

2.2

3.5

2.2

56

130

0.01

1

0.07

0.71

7

0.10

23

0.3

2

2.5

6

4.2

5.4

1.2

0.2

57

80

0.28

30

0.03

0.22

16

0.11

25

0.27

2,860

4.2

22

11.0

10.8

2.6

11.0

40

58

120

0.27

29

0.01

0.43

22

0.10

40

0.32

2,794

1.3

29

16.0

6.0

2.9

4.5

2

59

170

0.30

43

0.02

0.44

15

0.10

55

0.32

2,731

1.3

22

15.0

5.0

2.9

3.2

3

60

140

0.68

34

0.2

0.30

35

100

3,791

264

29.9

11.1

3.0

3.0

61

30

0.75

23

0.2

4

98

1.45

2,894

220

24.0

16.0

4.7

3.1

62

44

43

0.15

8

32

462

0.4

63

170

0.52

113

0.05

0.22

14

0.85

100

0.48

1,232

1.2

186

31.0

7.0

4.6

8.0

14

64

46

0.16

55

0.04

0.24

6

0.30

65

0.11

1,534

0.8

42

13.3

4.6

2.2

22.8

33

65

50

0.16

118

0.12

0.26

18

0.80

100

0.37

1,439

0.8

98

13.0

9.0

2.2

16.5

40

66

73

0.25

117

0.02

0.20

12

0.43

109

1,813

1.7

107

22.3

7.2

4.2

19.1

54

67

60

0.17

32

0.04

0.12

6

0.20

34

0.11

1,090

0.4

48

9.9

3.4

1.4

4.5

13

68

40

0.10

24

0.06

0.12

7

0.06

28

0.11

1,002

0.4

57

11.0

4.0

1.2

4.3

13

69

130

0.13

6

1.3

1.04

46

0.08

3

0.34

1,369

0.08

10

44.0

4.0

27.1

4.1

23

0.2

70

238

0.25

8

1.50

1.05

7

0.10

7

0.64

4,392

1.4

19

69.0

4.0

45.8

5.7

23

71

120

0.23

5

0.07

0.38

33

1.00

39

1.05

3,984

9.9

448

109.0

42.8

37.0

91.8

1

2

72

90

0.13

13

0.07

0.34

14

1.00

99

1.39

2,881

22.4

500

73.0

36.3

47.7

6.2

4



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-2 Amino Acid Composition of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)

Entry Number

Feed Name Description

International Feed Numbera

Dry Matter (%)

Protein (%)

Arginine (%)

Glycine (%)

Serine (%)

Histidine (%)

Isoleucine (%)

Leucine (%)

Lysine (%)

Methionine (%)

Cystine (%)

Phenylalanine (%)

Tyrosine (%)

Threonine (%)

Tryptophan (%)

Valine (%)

Alfalfa Medicago sativa

01

meal dehydrated, 17% protein

1-00-023

88.0

17.0

0.69

0.82

0.72

0.57

0.67

1.19

0.73

0.24

0.19

0.81

0.81

0.69

0.23

0.84

02

meal dehydrated, 20% protein

1-00-024

92.0

20.0

0.92

0.97

0.89

0.34

0.88

1.30

0.87

0.31

0.25

0.85

0.59

0.76

0.33

0.97

 

Bakery

03

waste dehydrated (dried bakery product)

4-00-466

92.0

9.8

0.47

0.82

0.65

0.13

0.45

0.73

0.31

0.17

0.17

0.40

0.41

0.49

0.10

0.42

 

Barley Hordeum vulgare

04

grain

4-00-549

89.0

11.0

0.52

0.44

0.46

0.27

0.37

0.76

0.40

0.18

0.24

0.56

0.35

0.37

0.14

0.52

05

grain, Pacific coast

4-07-939

89.0

9.0

0.48

0.36

0.32

0.21

0.40

0.60

0.29

0.13

0.18

0.48

0.31

0.30

0.12

0.46

 

Broadbean Vicia faba

06

seeds

5-09-262

87.0

23.6

2.12

1.02

1.15

0.82

0.95

1.76

1.50

0.18

.28

1.00

0.80

0.85

0.20

1.07

 

Blood

07

meal, vat dried

5-00-380

94.0

81.1

3.63

4.59

3.14

3.52

0.95

10.53

7.05

0.55

0.52

5.66

2.07

3.15

1.29

7.28

08

meal, spray or ring dried

5-00-381

93.0

88.9

3.62

3.95

4.25

5.33

0.98

11.32

7.88

1.09

1.03

5.85

2.63

3.92

1.35

7.53

 

Brewer's Grains

09

dehydrated

5-02-141

92.0

25.3

1.28

1.09

0.80

0.57

1.44

2.48

0.90

0.57

0.39

1.45

1.19

0.98

0.34

1.66

 

Buckwheat, Common Fagopyrum sagittatum

10

grain

4-00-994

88.0

10.8

1.02

0.71

0.41

0.26

0.37

0.56

0.61

0.20

0.20

0.44

0.21

0.46

0.19

0.54

 

Canola Brassica napus Brassica Campestris

11

seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, low erucic acid, low gluco- sinolates

5-06-145

88.0

34.8

2.08

1.82

1.53

0.93

1.37

2.47

1.94

0.71

0.87

1.44

1.09

1.53

0.44

1.76

 

Casein

12

dehydrated

5-01-162

93.0

87.2

3.61

1.79

5.81

2.78

4.82

9.00

7.99

2.65

0.21

4.96

5.37

4.29

1.05

6.46

13

precipitated dehydrated

5-20-837

92.0

85.0

3.42

1.81

5.52

2.52

4.77

8.62

7.31

2.80

0.15

4.81

5.17

4.00

0.98

5.82

 

Cattle

14

skim milk, dehydrated

5-01-175

93.0

36.1

1.21

0.73

2.05

1.03

1.83

3.59

2.80

0.90

0.29

1.75

1.83

1.59

0.50

2.28

 

Coconut Cocos nucifena

15

kernels with coats, meal solvent extracted (copra meal)

5-01-573

92.6

19.2

1.97

0.82

0.79

0.36

0.63

1.18

0.50

0.28

0.28

0.88

0.44

0.58

0.12

0.91

 

Corn, Dent Yellow Zea mays indentata

16

distillers' grains, dehydrated

5-28-235

94.0

27.9

0.97

0.49

0.70

0.62

0.99

3.01

0.78

0.40

0.24

0.94

0.84

0.49

0.20

1.18

17

distillers' grains with solubles, dehydrated

5-28-236

93.0

27.2

0.98

0.57

1.61

0.66

1.00

2.20

0.75

0.60

0.40

1.20

0.74

0.92

0.19

1.30

18

distillers' solubles, dehydrated

5-28-237

92.0

28.5

1.05

1.10

1.30

0.70

1.25

2.11

0.90

0.50

0.40

1.30

0.95

1.00

0.30

1.39

19

gluten, meal, 60% protein

5-28-242

88.0

60.2

1.82

1.67

2.96

1.20

2.45

10.04

1.03

1.49

1.10

3.56

3.07

2.00

0.36

2.78

20

gluten with bran (corn gluten feed)

5-28-243

90.0

22.0

1.01

0.99

0.80

0.71

0.65

1.89

0.63

0.45

0.51

0.77

0.58

0.89

0.10

0.05

21

grain

4-02-935

88.0

8.5

0.38

0.33

0.37

0.23

0.29

1.00

0.26

0.18

0.18

0.38

0.30

0.29

0.06

0.40

22

grits byproduct (hominy feed)

4-03-011

90.0

10.0

0.47

0.40

0.50

0.20

0.40

0.84

0.40

0.13

0.13

0.35

0.49

0.40

0.10

0.49

 

Cotton Gossypium spp.

23

seeds, meal mechan ically extracted, 41% protein (expeller)

5-01-617

91.4

41.0

4.35

1.69

1.68

1.07

1.31

2.23

1.59

0.55

0.59

2.20

1.09

1.30

0.50

1.84

24

seeds, meal direct solvent extracted, 41% protein

5-07-872

90.4

41.4

4.66

1.69

1.78

1.10

1.33

2.41

1.76

0.51

0.62

2.23

1.14

1.34

0.52

1.82

25

seeds, meal prepressed solvent extracted, 41% protein

5-07-873

89.9

41.4

4.59

1.70

1.74

1.10

1.33

2.43

1.71

0.52

0.62

2.22

1.13

1.32

0.47

1.88

 

Fish

26

solubles, condensed

5-01-969

51.0

31.5

1.61

3.41

0.83

1.56

1.06

1.86

1.73

0.50

0.30

0.93

0.40

0.86

0.31

1.16

27

solubles, dehydrated

5-01-971

92.0

63.6

2.78

5.89

2.02

2.18

1.95

3.16

3.28

1.00

0.66

1.48

0.78

1.35

0.51

2.22

 

Fish, Anchovy Engraulis ringen



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Entry Number

Feed Name Description

International Feed Numbera

Dry Matter (%)

Protein (%)

Arginine (%)

Glycine (%)

Serine (%)

Histidine (%)

Isoleucine (%)

Leucine (%)

Lysine (%)

Methionine (%)

Cystine (%)

Phenylalanine (%)

Tyrosine (%)

Threonine (%)

Tryptophan (%)

Valine (%)

28

meal mechanically extracted

5-01-985

90.0

65.0

3.81

3.68

2.51

1.59

3.06

4.98

5.07

1.95

0.65

2.75

2.22

2.82

0.78

3.46

 

Fish, Herring Clupea harengus

29

meal mechanically extracted

5-02-000

92.0

72.0

4.21

4.30

2.75

1.74

3.23

5.46

5.47

2.16

0.72

2.82

2.25

3.07

0.83

3.90

 

Fish, Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus

30

meal mechanically extracted

5-02-009

92.1

61.3

3.68

4.46

2.37

1.42

2.28

4.16

4.51

1.63

0.57

2.21

1.80

2.46

0.49

2.77

 

Fish, White Gadidae (family)-Lophiidae (family)-Rajidae (family)

31

meal mechanically extracted

5-02-025

91.0

62.2

4.02

4.42

3.06

1.34

2.72

4.36

4.53

1.68

0.75

2.28

1.83

2.57

0.67

3.02

 

Gelatin

32

process residue (gelatin byproducts)

5-14-503

91.0

88.0

7.40

20.00

2.80

0.85

1.40

3.10

3.70

0.68

0.09

1.70

0.26

1.30

0.09

1.80

 

Hominy Feed—see Corn Livers

33

meal

5-00-389

92.0

65.6

4.14

5.57

2.49

1.47

3.09

5.28

4.80

1.22

0.89

2.89

1.69

2.48

0.59

4.13

 

Meat

34

meal rendered

5-00-385

92.0

54.4

3.73

6.30

1.60

1.30

1.60

3.32

3.00

0.75

0.66

1.70

0.84

1.74

0.36

2.30

35

with bone, meal rendered

5-00-388

93.4

51.6

3.28

6.65

2.20

0.96

1.54

3.28

2.61

0.69

0.69

1.81

1.20

1.74

0.27

2.36

 

Millet, Pearl Peninstum glaucum

36

grain

4-03-118

90.0

15.7

0.74

0.47

0.74

0.31

0.37

1.14

0.45

0.25

0.24

0.56

0.35

0.48

0.08

0.49

 

Millet, Proso Panicum miliaceum

37

grain

4-03-120

87.5

9.1

0.35

0.31

0.40

0.22

0.35

1.14

0.21

0.16

0.17

0.47

0.34

0.29

0.08

0.44

 

Oats Avena sativa

38

grain

4-03-309

89.0

11.4

0.79

0.50

0.40

0.24

0.52

0.89

0.50

0.18

0.22

0.59

0.53

0.43

0.16

0.68

39

grain, Pacific coast

4-07-999

91.0

9.0

0.60

0.40

0.30

0.10

0.40

0.30

0.40

0.13

0.17

0.44

0.20

0.20

0.12

0.51

40

hulls

1-03-281

92.0

4.6

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.07

0.14

0.25

0.14

0.07

0.06

0.13

0.14

0.13

0.07

0.20

 

Pea Pisum spp.

41

seeds

5-03-600

88.8

23.8

2.23

1.00

1.08

0.59

0.97

1.65

1.68

0.24

0.33

1.10

0.73

0.84

0.18

1.10

 

Peanut Arachis hypogaea

42

kernels, meal mechanically extracted (peanut meal) (expeller)

5-03-649

90.0

40.0

4.35

2.18

1.83

.87

1.27

2.42

1.26

0.45

0.52

1.97

1.47

1.01

0.39

1.53

43

kernels, meal solvent extracted (peanut meal)

5-03-650

91.9

49.0

5.33

2.67

2.25

1.07

1.55

2.97

1.54

0.54

0.64

2.41

1.80

1.24

0.48

1.87

 

Poultry

44

by-product, meal rendered (viscera with feet and heads)

5-03-798

94.2

59.5

3.94

6.17

2.71

1.07

2.16

3.99

3.10

0.99

0.98

2.29

1.68

2.17

0.37

2.87

45

feathers, meal hydrolyzed

5-03-795

91.0

82.9

5.57

6.13

8.52

0.95

3.91

6.94

2.28

0.57

4.34

3.94

2.48

3.81

0.55

5.93

 

Rice Oryza sativa

46

bran with germ (rice bran)

4-03-928

89.1

13.7

0.96

0.70

0.59

0.35

0.45

0.91

0.59

0.26

0.27

0.60

0.42

0.48

0.12

0.68

47

grain, polished and broken (brewer's rice)

4-03-932

89.2

10.0

0.74

0.50

0.44

0.26

0.37

0.74

0.43

0.22

0.21

0.48

0.33

0.36

0.10

0.54

48

polishings

4-03-943

90.0

12.2

0.78

0.71

1.36

0.24

0.41

0.80

0.57

0.22

0.10

0.46

0.63

0.40

0.13

0.76

 

Rye Secale cereale

49

grain

4-04-047

88.0

12.1

0.53

0.49

0.52

0.26

0.47

0.70

0.42

0.17

0.19

0.56

0.26

0.36

0.11

0.56

 

Safflower Carthamus tinctorius

50

seeds, meal solvent extracted

5-04-110

92.0

27.0

2.21

1.53

0.99

0.61

1.02

1.74

0.90

0.42

0.45

1.10

0.71

0.85

0.37

1.42

51

seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted

5-07-959

92.0

43.0

3.65

2.32

1.07

1.56

2.46

1.27

0.68

0.70

1.75

1.07

1.30

0.59

2.33

 

Sesame Sesamum indicum



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Entry Num- ber

Feed Name Description

Interna- tional Feed Numbera

Dry Matter (%)

Protein (%)

Argi- nine (%)

Glycine (%)

Serine (%)

Histidine (%)

Isoleucine (%)

Leucine (%)

Lysine (%)

Methio- nine (%)

Cystine (%)

Pheny- lalanine (%)

Tyro- sine (%)

Threo- nine (%)

Trypto- phan (%)

Valine (%)

52

seeds, meal mecha- nically extracted

5-04-220

90.0

41.0

4.68

2.04

1.72

0.99

1.51

2.68

0.91

1.22

0.72

1.93

1.48

1.40

0.62

1.91

 

Sorghum Sorghum bicolor

53

grain, 8-10% protein

4-20-893

87.5

9.1

0.35

0.31

0.40

0.22

0.35

1.14

0.21

0.16

0.17

0.47

0.34

0.29

0.08

0.44

54

grain, more than 10% protein

4-20-894

88.0

10.0

0.35

0.32

0.45

0.23

0.43

1.37

0.22

0.15

0.11

0.52

0.17

0.33

0.09

0.54

 

Soybean Glycine max

55

flour by- product (Soybean mill feed)

4-04-594

89.0

13.3

0.94

0.40

0.18

0.40

0.57

0.48

0.10

0.21

0.37

0.23

0.30

0.10

0.37

56

protein con- centrate, more than 70% protein

5-08-038

93.0

84.1

6.70

3.30

5.30

2.10

4.60

6.60

5.50

0.81

0.49

4.30

3.10

3.30

0.81

4.40

57

seeds, heat pro- cessed

5-04-597

88.0

35.5

2.59

1.55

1.87

0.99

1.56

2.75

2.25

0.53

0.54

1.78

1.34

1.41

0.51

1.65

58

seeds, meal solvent extracted

5-04-604

88.2

44.0

3.14

1.90

2.29

1.17

1.96

3.39

2.69

0.62

0.66

2.16

1.91

1.72

0.74

2.07

59

seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted

5-04-612

88.4

47.5

3.48

2.05

2.48

1.28

2.12

3.74

2.96

0.67

0.72

2.34

1.95

1.87

0.74

2.22

 

Sunflower, common Helianthus annuus

60

seeds, meal solvent extracted

5-09-340

90.0

23.3

2.30

1.00

0.55

1.00

1.60

1.00

0.50

0.50

1.15

1.05

0.45

1.60

61

seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted

5-04-739

89.8

36.8

2.85

2.03

1.49

0.87

1.43

2.22

1.24

0.80

0.64

1.66

0.91

1.29

0.41

1.74

 

Triticale Triticale hexaploide

62

grain

4-20-362

88.0

11.8

0.57

0.48

0.52

0.26

0.39

0.76

0.39

0.26

0.26

0.49

0.32

0.36

0.14

0.51

 

Wheat Triticum aestivum

63

bran

4-05-190

88.0

15.4

1.02

0.81

0.67

0.46

0.47

0.96

0.61

0.23

0.32

0.61

0.46

0.50

0.23

0.70

64

flour by- product, less than 4% fiber (wheat red dog)

4-05-203

88.0

15.3

0.96

0.74

0.75

0.41

0.55

1.06

0.59

0.23

0.37

0.66

0.46

0.50

0.10

0.72

65

flour by- product, less than 9.5% fiber (wheat mid- dlings)

4-05-205

88.0

16.0

1.15

0.63

0.75

0.37

0.58

1.07

0.69

0.21

0.32

0.64

0.45

0.49

0.20

0.71

66

flour by- product, less than 7% fiber (wheat shorts)

4-05-201

88.0

16.5

1.18

0.96

0.77

0.45

0.58

1.09

0.79

0.27

0.36

0.67

0.47

0.60

0.21

0.83

67

grain, hard red winter

4-05-268

88.1

13.3

0.60

0.59

0.59

0.31

0.44

0.89

0.37

0.21

0.30

0.60

0.43

0.39

0.16

0.57

68

grain, soft white winter

4-05-337

89.0

10.2

0.40

0.49

0.55

0.20

0.42

0.59

0.31

0.15

0.22

0.45

0.39

0.32

0.12

0.44

 

Whey Bos taurus

69

dehyd- rated

4-01-182

93.0

12.0

0.34

0.30

0.32

0.18

0.82

1.19

0.97

0.19

0.30

0.33

0.25

0.89

0.19

0.68

70

low lactose, dehy- drated (dried whey product)

4-01-186

91.0

15.5

0.67

1.04

0.76

0.25

0.90

1.35

1.47

0.57

0.57

0.50

0.35

0.85

0.23

0.83

 

Yeast, Brewer's Saccharomyces cerevisiae

71

dehy- drated

7-05-527

93.0

44.4

2.19

2.09

1.07

2.14

3.19

3.23

0.70

0.50

1.81

1.49

2.06

0.49

2.32

 

Yeast, Torula Torulopsis utilis

72

dehy- drated

7-05-534

93.0

47.2

2.60

2.60

2.76

1.40

2.90

3.50

3.80

0.80

0.60

3.00

2.10

2.60

0.50

2.90

NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were available.

a First digit is class of feed: 1, dry forages and roughages; 2, pasture, range plants, and forages fed green; 3, silages; 4, energy feeds; 5, protein supplements; 6, minerals; 7, vitamins; 8, additives; the other five digits are the International Feed Number.

TABLE 9-3 Ranges in Weights per Unit of Volume for Selected Feedstuffs at Standard Moisture

Feedstuffs

Pounds per Bushel

Kilograms per Hectoliter

Moisture (%)

Barley

36–48

45–62

16.0

Corn

46–56

59–72

15.5

Oats

22–40

28–52

16.0

Sorghum (milo)

51–57

66–74

15.5

Soybeans

49–56

63–72

13.0

Wheat

45–63

58–81

15.5

influenced by the tannin content of the grain. Development of high-tannin or ''bird-resistant" varieties has allowed increased production of sorghum in areas where bird predation had previously limited yields; however, the presence of tannins in these cultivars may reduce their nutritional value. Tannins cause a binding and precipitation of dietary proteins and digestive enzymes (Butler et al., 1984) and may reduce both the amino acid (Armstrong et al., 1974) and the energy digestibility

Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

(Gous et al., 1982) of the diet. The ME of grain sorghums can be predicted from their tannin content by the following equation (Gous et al., 1982):

Although wheat was once considered too expensive for use in animal feeds, increased production in recent years has resulted in more extensive use in poultry diets. In general, wheat has about 90 percent of the ME value of corn. The protein and amino acid composition varies widely and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Most wheat varieties have been developed for various baking properties, although some breeders have developed varieties designed primarily for animal feeds (Bowyer and Waldroup, 1987). The nutrient sources in wheat are easily digested (McNab and Shannon, 1974). Feeding trials with broilers, layers, and turkeys indicate that wheat can be effectively used to provide a major portion of the energy in these diets (Waldroup et al., 1967; Lillie and Denton, 1968; Petersen, 1969). But because wheat has no carotenoid pigments, adjustment is made when skin or yolk pigment must be maintained.

One vitamin that must be considered with wheat feeding is biotin. Although the total biotin content in wheat exceeds that in corn, the biological availability in wheat is low (Frigg, 1976). A condition known as fatty liver and kidney syndrome (FLKS) has frequently been observed in all species of poultry when wheat is used extensively. Biotin supplementation should be considered when wheat provides more than 50 percent of the cereal grain.

Notwithstanding differences in bushel weight, the protein content of grains (dry matter basis) often varies a great deal from batch to batch. This variation may be the result of genetic constitution, soil fertility, time of harvest, and other factors. The protein concentration of grains can be determined readily for feed formulation purposes. It should be recognized, however, that the amino acid composition of protein in a specific grain does not remain constant as protein concentration changes. In some instances, the concentrations of essential amino acids in protein increase, but, in other instances, they decrease. For example, there is a marked inverse relationship between the protein content of wheat or sorghum grain and the lysine concentration in the protein. As protein content increases, lysine in the protein decreases. This relationship is most prominent within cultivars of wheat and sorghum grains and is the result of a shift among the major proteins within these grains, whereby the proportion of prolamine (low in lysine) increases at the expense of other proteins high in lysine. Certain other amino acids (such as arginine, methionine, and cystine) may be affected similarly. An inverse relationship between protein content and concentration of certain essential amino acids in the protein also has been reported for cultivars of barley, corn, oats, and rice. The alterations in amino acid composition with increasing protein concentration generally are less with these grains than with wheat and milo.

Recently, much research has been focused on the selection of cultivars of grains in which the concentrations of both protein and selected amino acids within the protein may be increased. Examples include high-lysine corn and high-protein barley. The quantities of these grains available for feeding to poultry are limited at the present time.

PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS

A number of the feedstuffs used to supply supplementary protein to poultry diets may contain naturally occurring toxic or potentially toxic compounds. In many instances, the nutritive value of the protein supplement can be markedly influenced by the method used in processing the protein supplement.

Cottonseed Meal

Cottonseed meal, for example, may contain gossypol pigments. Free gossypol forms complexes with iron in the feed, intestinal tract, blood, and egg yolk, leading to possible iron deficiency or to discoloration of the yolk. Under extreme heat during processing, the gossypol may also form complexes with lysine, severely reducing the digestibility. The amount of gossypol present in cottonseed meal is variable and depends on the cultivar and the manufacturing procedures. In general, meals produced by the prepress solvent method are lowest in free gossypol, have greater lysine digestibility, and are the preferred meal for poultry (Phelps, 1966). Gossypol adversely affects the bird, with younger birds being less tolerant than older birds. Hens consuming gossypol may lay eggs with olive-discolored yolks, with the incidence related to the amount of free gossypol consumed. The discoloration may be evident in the newly laid egg, but it more often becomes apparent after storage. Addition of soluble iron salts to bind the free gossypol may enable the use of cottonseed meals, where this is economically feasible (Waldroup, 1981). The presence of cyclopropenoid fatty acids and gossypol in cottonseed meals and oil may also cause a pinkish color in the egg whites.

Rapeseed Meals

Rapeseed meals manufactured from many varieties of rapeseed contain goitrogenic, or progoitrogenic, compounds

Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

(glucosinolates) at sufficiently high concentrations to reduce growth rate and egg production when fed to poultry. Canadian plant geneticists have been successful in developing rapeseed cultivars, called canola, that contain negligible quantities of glucosinolates in the seed. Meals manufactured from these cultivars are called canola meal.

Inclusion of rapeseed meals in the diet of brown-egg layers sometimes results in the production of eggs with a "fishy" or off-flavor taint. This taint is due to the presence of excess amounts of trimethylamine (TMA) in the yolk. Deposition of TMA in yolks by certain strains of chickens is due to the presence of an autosomal semidominant gene that has variable expression depending upon various environmental factors including the inclusion rate of rapeseed meal. Although some brown-egg strains carry this trait, white-egg strains do not. This genetic defect reduces the synthesis of TMA oxidase enzyme, leading to increased quantities of TMA in the metabolic pool. Rapeseed contains variable levels of sinapine, a potent inhibitor of TMA oxidase. Low-glucosinolate cultivars have less drastic effects on egg taint but do not completely correct the situation. Therefore care should be taken in feeding rapeseed or canola meals to hens that produce brown-shelled eggs.

Soybean Meal

Soybeans contain compounds that inhibit the activity of the proteolytic enzyme trypsin (Read and Haas, 1938). They also contain other antinutrients, including hemagglutinins or lectins, which contribute to growth depression (Ham et al., 1945; Chernick et al., 1948; Coates et al., 1970; Liener, 1980). Ingestion of the antitryptic substances induces enlargement of the pancreas.

The trypsin inhibitor is inactivated by heat treatment of soybean meal. The heat treatment must be carefully controlled because overheating can result in deterioration of protein quality. On the basis of the assumption that the urease enzyme in raw soybeans is denatured at approximately the same rate as the trypsin inhibitor, and because it is easier to determine urease activity than trypsin inhibitor, urease assays (Caskey and Knapp, 1944) have generally been used by the feed industry in monitoring soybean meal quality. However, some studies indicate that there is not a direct relationship between the activities of the two enzymes (Albrecht et al., 1966) and that the rates of destruction of urease and the trypsin inhibitor are not equal under different processing conditions (McNaughton and Reece, 1980).

The feed industry in the United States has long used a maximum urease rise of 0.2 pH units as the standard for processing soybean meal for all types of livestock feeds. However, studies show that meals with a urease value up to 0.50 pH units are acceptable in poultry feeds (Glista and Scott, 1950; Wright, 1968; De Schrijver, 1977; Waldroup et al., 1985a). Damage to the protein from overheating the soybean meal is more serious when dietary lysine concentrations are marginal, and heat damage may be monitored by measuring the solubility of the protein, either by the Kjeldahl or by the dye-binding method (Dale and Araba, 1987; Kratzer et al., 1990).

High level usage of soybean meal in poultry diets has been linked to the incidence of foot pad dermatitis (Jensen et al., 1970). The exact cause of this is not known. Soybean meal contains relatively high levels of potassium, which may increase litter moisture and thus result in sticky litter. In addition, the carbohydrate fraction of soybean meal is poorly digestible (Parsons et al., 1980; Pierson et al., 1980) and may serve as a substrate for increased bacterial activity in the litter.

Animal Protein Sources

Animal protein sources—meat meals, fish meals, blood meal, and feather meal—are subject to variation as a result of manufacturing conditions and the nature of the raw material from which they are processed. Excessive and/or prolonged heating during drying will lower digestibility and cause some loss of essential amino acids. Proteins of hide, scales, hair, feathers, and bone are not easily digested and contain high concentrations of keratin and/or collagenous proteins. The latter will result in relatively low concentrations of tryptophan in the product. The use of certain lots of fish meal may result in the development of a condition known as gizzard erosion (Janssen, 1971), a disease manifested primarily by ulcerations of the lining of the gizzard. A substance known as gizzerosine has been isolated from samples of fish meal known to induce gizzard erosion and has been shown to possess the same gizzard-erosion-producing properties (Okazaki et al., 1983). To date, however, the exact level of gizzerosine necessary to induce gizzard erosion cannot be stated, since other factors (notably excess levels of copper sulfate) may precipitate or exacerbate the condition.

Fish meal may result in the development of off-flavors in poultry meat (Fry et al., 1965) or eggs (Holdas and May, 1966; Koehler and Bearse, 1975). The quantity of fish meal required to produce off-flavors is influenced primarily by the oil content of the meal, length of time fed, degree of rancidity of the oil, and holding time and temperature of the egg or carcass. Thus it is not possible to state a universal level of fish meal that will not result in the development of off-flavors.

Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

ESTIMATING THE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF FEEDSTUFFS

Many factors influence the amino acid composition of grains and protein supplements. For accurate and economical feed formulation, it is desirable to know the amino acid composition of the actual ingredient to be used in the diet. However, it is generally not feasible to analyze all samples of feed ingredients prior to their use in feeds. Therefore research has been conducted at several laboratories using regression analysis to estimate the amino acid composition of selected feed ingredients from their proximate composition (Ward, 1989). An equation for estimating the amino acid content of feedstuffs related to changes in protein content is presented in Table 9-4 and an equation for estimating amino acid content from other proximate components is shown in Table 9-5. These equations represent different approaches that provide similar answers. No attempts have been made to compare the results obtained from using both sets of equations on a common set of samples.

Knowledge of the availability of amino acids in feedstuffs is important for consistent formulation of diets that meet the birds' amino acid requirements. The amounts of amino acids that are available to the animal are often much lower than the quantity contained in feedstuffs. Many factors affect the availability of amino acids. Undenatured proteins vary markedly in their digestibility. For example, feathers and most connective

TABLE 9-4 Estimation of Amino Acids from Protein Content of Feed Ingredients

Ingredients

Percent- age Dry Matter

Percentage Crude Protein

Regression Factors

Methio- nine

Methio- nine + Cystine

Lysine

Threonine

Trypto- phan

Arginine

Alfalfa meal,

88

16.3

a

-0.079

-0.052

0.013

-0.041

0.002

-0.119

Medicago sativa

 

 

b

0.0191

0.0282

0.0410

0.0436

0.0138

0.0474

Corn,

88

8.5

a

0.015

0.073

0.057

0.014

0.041

0.091

Zea mays

 

 

b

0.0192

0.0345

0.0224

0.0336

0.0026

0.0353

Corn gluten feed

88

18.8

a

0.101

-0.281

-0.055

-0.024

 

-1.394

 

 

 

b

0.0106

0.0527

0.0302

0.0358

0.1142

Milo,

88

9.0

a

0.038

0.084

0.094

0.029

0.004

0.089

Sorghum vulgare

 

 

b

0.0135

0.0276

0.0121

0.0296

0.0103

0.0286

Canola meal,

88

34.8

a

0.177

0.140

1.133

0.250

0.081

.510

Brassica campestris

 

 

b

0.0157

0.0419

0.0231

0.0377

0.0105

0.0499

Rice bran

88

12.6

a

0.044

-0.001

0.011

0.051

0.40

 

 

 

b

0.0241

0.0423

0.0466

0.0366

0.1112

Soybean meal,

88

45.8

a

0.127

0.157

-0.252

0.203

-0.041

-0.543

Soya hispida

 

 

b

0.0111

0.0255

0.0665

0.0344

0.0144

0.0844

Sunflower meal,

88

33.0

a

-0.107

-0.048

0.259

-0.051

-0.055

-0.559

Helianthus annuus

 

 

b

0.0255

0.0419

0.0265

0.0380

0.0134

0.0965

Triticale

88

11.8

a

0.024

0.069

0.140

0.047

0.046

 

 

 

b

0.0147

0.0332

0.0209

0.0264

0.0447

Wheat,

88

12.9

a

-0.009

0.042

0.094

0.026

0.307

0.022

Triticum

 

 

b

0.0163

0.0343

0.0194

0.0264

0.0087

0.0445

Wheat bran

88

15.4

a

-0.087

-0.034

0.070

-0.206

0.020

 

 

 

b

0.0208

0.0738

0.0353

0.0340

0.0649

Field beans,

88

25.4

a

-0.074

-0.009

0.306

0.335

0.101

-1.918

Vicia faba

 

 

b

0.0106

0.0205

0.0518

0.0220

0.0045

0.1653

Cottonseed meal,

88

37.4

a

0.153

0.044

0.158

0.142

0.466

Gossypium herbaceum

 

 

b

0.0127

0.0323

0.0364

0.0291

0.1157

Fish meal

91

63.8

a

0.909

-10.059

-2.706

-10.083

-0.492

-0.456

 

 

 

b

0.0420

0.0540

0.1181

0.0588

0.0184

0.0652

Meat and bone meal

91

47.9

a

-0.416

-0.960

-0.867

-0.822

-0.405

0.773

 

 

 

b

0.0215

0.0423

0.0671

0.0483

0.0139

0.0539

Field peas,

88

21.1

a

0.157

0.371

-0.213

0.431

0.065

-1.224

Pisum arvense

 

 

b

0.0021

0.0063

0.0800

0.0171

0.0058

0.1453

Poultry by-product

91

58.4

a

-0.743

-3.221

1.158

-1.263

meal

 

 

b

0.0291

0.1057

0.0184

0.0879

Poultry by-product

91

56.7

a

0.374

-0.187

0.222

0.323

-0.175

meal, feather rich

 

 

b

0.0039

0.0549

0.0311

0.0391

0.0668

Barley,

88

10.7

a

0.024

0.051

0.109

0.072

0.015

0.033

Hordeum vulgare

 

 

b

0.0141

0.0328

0.0256

0.0266

0.0104

0.0438

Lupine seeds,

88

31.8

a

-0.064

0.176

0.411

-0.188

0.096

0.223

Lupinus spp.

 

 

b

0.0090

0.0163

0.0334

0.0398

0.0049

0.0947

NOTE: To estimate amino acid content, fit the equation y = a + bx, where x is the level of crude protein in the sample, a is the intercept, and b is the regression coefficient. Dash indicates that no coefficients were available.

Source: The Amino Acid Composition of Feedstuffs, 1990. Allendale, N.J.: DeGussa Corporation.



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-5 Estimation of Amino Acid Composition of Feed Ingredients from Proximate Components

Ingredients

Regression Factor

Methionine

Methionine + Cystine

Lysine

Threonine

Tryptophan

Arginine

Lupin beans

Intercept

0.21996

0.95037

1.4019

0.25777

0.04185

0.7692

 

Protein

a

0.018

0.02099

0.010

0.11352

 

Moisture

-0.00306

-0.01326

-0.03354

-0.01034

-0.05846

 

Fat

0.0076

0.04113

 

Fiber

-0.00219

-0.01262

-0.0142

 

Ash

-0.17185

Milo

Intercept

0.0557

0.0859

0.2753

0.0593

0.142

0.2664

 

Protein

0.0126

0.0282

0.0097

0.0238

0.014

0.0163

 

Moisture

0.0116

0.0092

 

Fat

-0.0392

-0.07

 

Fiber

0.0142

-0.0227

-0.014

-0.0238

 

Ash

-0.0237

0.0353

0.0318

-0.0637

0.0741

Meat and bone meal

Intercept

0.7048

-1.1187

4.7627

-0.0022

-1.7233

5.4562

 

Protein

0.0098

0.0458

0.0384

0.0229

 

Moisture

-0.0299

0.0372

-0.09

0.0562

-0.0916

 

Fat

0.012

0.0266

-0.0565

 

Fiber

0.0555

0.1311

 

Ash

-0.0224

-0.0629

-0.0099

-0.0246

Poultry by-product

Intercept

-9.1947

8.587

-12.066

7.8878

0.8287

0.1536

 

Protein

0.1019

-0.0311

0.149

0.0627

 

Moisture

0.1013

-0.0403

-0.0159

0.0423

 

Fat

0.1438

-0.149

0.2488

-0.2065

 

Fiber

0.244

-0.055

 

Ash

0.0801

-0.1338

0.1535

0.1618

-0.0079

Poultry by-product (crude protein = 54–62%)

Intercept

0.9628

7.3812

11.8668

1.6665

0.0981

2.4219

 

Protein

-0.0162

-0.0361

-0.0936

0.0137

0.0306

 

Moisture

-0.0675

-0.1187

-0.042

 

Fat

0.0681

-0.1102

0.0257

 

 

Fiber

0.0623

-0.0601

 

Ash

-0.0761

-0.1299

-0.0212

0.0172

 

Field peas

Intercept

0.12772

0.18461

0.1614

0.39919

0.09402

-0.91679

 

Protein

0.01941

0.04412

0.03032

-0.01403

0.12596

 

 

Moisture

-0.00895

-0.02906

0.06947

 

Fat

-0.05672

-0.11144

0.06006

 

Fiber

-0.01017

-0.01301

0.02799

0.01807

 

Ash

0.09637

0.12756

-0.10471

0.24338

-0.21985

Rice bran (full-fat)

Intercept

0.0315

0.1517

-0.1305

0.0202

0.0594

-0.0312

 

Protein

0.0135

0.0274

0.0313

0.0246

0.0042

0.0433

 

Moisture

0.0024

 

Fat

-0.0033

 

Fiber

-0.0046

0.0045

 

Ash

-0.0018

-0.0039

0.0061

0.001

0.0051

Soybean meal (crude protein =44–48%)

Intercept

0.1754

0.1902

-0.113

1.5584

-0.201

1.0221

 

Protein

0.0079

0.0179

0.0579

0.0159

0.0222

0.0678

 

Moisture

-0.0289

 

Fat

-0.0366

 

Fiber

-0.0277

 

Ash

0.0221

0.0624

0.0665

-0.0241

-0.1132

Sunflower meal

Intercept

-0.0452

0.04425

1.1555

0.31712

-0.35379

-0.52833

 

Protein

0.01905

0.03874

0.0157

0.02928

0.02035

0.09468

 

Moisture

0.01612

0.00023

0.00358

 

 

 

 

Fat

-0.04026

0.00528

 

Fiber

-0.01197

0.0001

 

Ash

-0.03554

Wheat

Intercept

0.196

0.0074

0.3902

0.0717

0.0582

0.381

 

Protein

0.0098

0.0582

0.0137

0.0336

0.0047

0.0221

 

Moisture

-0.0086

-0.0054

-0.0195

-0.0068

-0.0176

 

Fat

0.0435

0.0812

0.0545

-0.0142

0.0154

 

Fiber

-0.0412

-0.0195

0.0163

0.0628

 

Ash

-0.0032

-0.0285

-0.0144

-0.0173

-0.0016

Bakery by-product

Intercept

0.0315

0.1517

-0.1305

0.0202

0.0594

-0.0312

 

Protein

0.0315

0.0274

0.0313

0.0246

0.0042

0.0433

 

Moisture

0.0024

 

Fat

-0.0033

 

Fiber

-0.0046

0.0045

 

Ash

-0.0018

-0.0039

0.0061

0.001

0.0051



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Ingredients

Regression Factor

Methionine

Methionine + Cystine

Lysine

Threonine

Tryptophan

Arginine

Barley

Intercept

0.03751

-0.0319

0.05149

0.05491

0.00596

-0.019

 

Protein

0.01311

0.02881

0.01975

0.02713

0.01053

0.0339

 

Moisture

0.01235

0.01762

 

Fat

0.02886

 

Fiber

0.01549

 

Ash

Corn

Intercept

0.11324

0.05313

-0.10041

-0.05593

0.26305

-0.03611

 

Protein

0.01123

0.02982

0.04573

0.02275

0.05484

 

Moisture

0.00678

-0.01334

 

Fat

0.01593

 

Fiber

0.00963

 

Ash

Corn gluten meal

Intercept

0.47972

-0.05128

-1.68796

-1.42473

-3.55835

-1.03918

 

Protein

0.02256

0.05079

0.04201

0.05376

0.06078

0.04928

 

Moisture

-0.01619

-0.02883

0.01719

0.00518

 

Fat

-0.00898

-0.00663

-0.00561

0.00337

-0.00604

-0.00384

Fiber

-0.05844

0.12073

0.12052

0.22955

0.04866

 

Ash

0.00788

0.00546

-0.00359

0.01117

-0.0058

Fish meal

Intercept

8.8912

5.0029

2.2017

4.4545

-0.3998

3.6336

 

Protein

0.02597

0.055

0.0124

0.02564

 

Moisture

-0.0651

0.06728

-0.0358

-0.0331

 

Fat

-0.0702

-0.03662

0.0241

 

Fiber

-0.3727

-0.7517

-0.182

-0.1369

-0.2596

 

Ash

-0.0272

-0.0754

-0.0566

-0.0612

0.009

-0.0482

NOTE: To estimate amino acid, insert values shown for specific amino acid into the following equation: y = intercept + b1(% protein) + b2(% moisture) + b3(% fat) + b4(% fiber) + b5(% ash), where the b, etc., represent the regression coefficients listed in each column. Dash indicates that no coefficients were available.

Sources: This information is drawn from three reports published in 1986 by Monsanto: Amino Acids in Feed Ingredients and Their Predictability. Monsanto Nutrition Update, vols. 4:2, 4:3, and 4:4. St. Louis, Mo.: Monsanto Company.

tissues contain high concentrations of cystine and disulfide bonding, which increase the stability of the protein and resistance to digestive enzymes. Antinutritional factors such as tannins in sorghum and trypsin inhibitors in soybeans reduce the availability of amino acids. Much of the latter adverse effect is due to increases in endogenous amino acid losses. The negative effects of undenatured protein structure and antinutritional factors can usually be reduced or totally eliminated by heat processing. Although some processing is needed to increase the availability of amino acids in many feedstuffs, adverse processing conditions such as excessive pressure and heat can reduce availability. These factors are particularly critical for animal protein meals since substantial processing or cooking is required during manufacturing. Lysine and cystine are two of the amino acids most affected by processing conditions.

True digestibility coefficients for amino acids in 30 feedstuffs are shown in Table 9-6. The values were determined by the precision-fed cockerel assay described by Sibbald (1986) or a modification thereof. The three primary sources of the digestibility values used to compile the data of Table 9-6 were Sibbald (1986), Green (1987), and Parsons (1990a), with data from other published reports also included. The assay was originally developed for determination of true ME (Sibbald, 1976) and later extended to determination of amino acid digestibility (Likuski and Dorrell, 1978; Sibbald, 1979). The basic procedure consists of subjecting adult male birds to fasting for 24 to 48 hours, followed by crop-intubation of 30 to 50 g of the test feedstuff and quantitative collection of excreta for 48 hours. Additional cockerels are either subjected to fasting or given a nitrogen-free diet during the assay period to estimate endogenous amino acid excretion. A large number of data have been generated by using this assay during the last 10 years, and the results seem to be reasonably consistent among different laboratories.

A large portion of the data used to derive the coefficients in Table 9-6 were determined with cecectomized birds; however, data from studies with conventional birds were also included. Cecectomy removes the majority of the hindgut area in poultry and eliminates most of the potentially confounding effects of the hindgut microflora on amino acid excretion. The surgical procedure is simple, and several laboratories are currently using the technique. Digestibility coefficients determined with cecectomized birds are often lower than those determined with conventional birds.

Determination of amino acid digestibility by analysis of the ideal contents has also been used to a limited extent. The two primary approaches used in these studies

Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-6 True Digestibility Coefficients (percent) for Selected Amino Acids in Poultry Feedstuffs

 

 

Lysine

Methionine

Cystine

Arginine

Threonine

Valine

Isoleucine

Leucine

Histidine

Phenylalanine

Feedstuff (protein)

n

X

SD

X

SD

X

SD

X

SD

X

SD

X

SD

X

SD

X

SD

X

SD

X

SD

Alfalfa, dehydrated (17%)a

8

59

9

73

7

40

11

82

7

71

8

75

6

77

6

80

6

74

7

78

5

Bakery waste (10%)

11

64

19

85

8

80

14

84

13

72

18

81

13

84

10

86

9

82

10

86

8

Barley, grain (10%)

24

78

5

79

11

81

9

85

4

77

5

81

4

82

5

86

3

87

4

88

3

Beans, field (23%)

2

88

2

78

9

70

11

92

3

85

9

82

1

88

4

90

5

82

4

89

3

Blood meal (81-89%)

30

86

11

91

9

76

11

87

9

87

10

87

12

78

10

89

11

84

11

88

11

Canola meal (38%)

45

80

6

90

4

75

9

90

3

78

5

82

4

83

4

87

3

85

5

87

3

Casein (85%)

1

97

99

84

97

98

98

98

99

96

99

Coconut meal (25%)

2

58

31

83

8

48

6

85

3

58

11

78

8

78

7

80

1

69

8

84

4

Corn, distiller's grains (27%) with solubles

3

65

6

84

5

77

11

63

15

72

11

81

9

84

8

89

4

75

5

88

6

Corn gluten meal (60%)

14

88

4

97

1

86

3

96

2

92

2

95

1

95

1

98

1

94

1

97

1

Corn gluten feed with bran (22%)

15

72

6

84

4

65

7

87

4

75

6

83

5

81

6

89

3

82

5

87

4

Corn, grain (8.8%)

24

81

6

91

5

85

9

89

7

84

9

88

6

88

7

93

5

94

7

91

7

Cottonseed meal (41%)

5

67

5

73

2

73

4

87

3

71

7

78

5

75

6

77

4

69

10

86

3

Feather meal (86%)

31

66

8

76

8

59

10

83

5

73

6

82

5

85

5

82

5

72

12

85

4

Fish meal (60-63%)

38

88

5

92

3

73

11

92

3

89

6

91

5

92

5

92

4

89

4

91

5

Gelatin (88%)

1

94

93

68

96

95

97

95

97

95

97

Lupinseed meal (33%)

2

92

1

86

10

88

8

96

3

91

6

91

6

95

3

95

3

91

2

95

2

Meat meal (50-54%)

59

79

8

85

6

58

14

85

6

79

7

82

8

83

6

84

7

80

9

84

7

Oats, grain (11%)

11

87

4

86

5

84

10

94

4

85

5

88

4

89

4

92

3

93

5

94

3

Oat groats (16%)

4

80

4

90

2

84

11

92

2

83

6

88

3

88

3

88

3

91

3

92

2

Peanut meal (46%)

1

83

88

78

84

82

88

91

92

83

94

Poultry by-product meal (58%)

53

80

6

86

6

61

10

88

3

80

5

83

4

85

4

85

4

78

8

84

7

Rice, bran (13%)

7

75

7

78

4

68

12

87

3

70

7

77

6

77

5

75

7

82

6

77

6

Soybean meal, dehulled (48%)

71

91

3

92

3

82

6

92

5

88

3

91

3

93

2

92

2

88

7

92

4

Sesame meal (44%)

2

88

5

94

3

82

5

92

3

87

3

91

3

92

3

91

2

89

3

93

3

Sorghum, grain (8.8%)

19

78

8

89

5

83

10

74

11

82

7

87

6

88

5

94

3

87

6

91

4

Sunflower meal, dehulled (45%)

10

84

8

93

2

78

10

93

5

85

5

86

5

90

2

91

2

87

7

93

2

Wheat, bran (16%)

1

72

82

72

79

72

76

79

79

80

84

Wheat, grain (11-17%)

24

81

7

87

4

87

7

88

4

83

5

86

4

88

4

91

3

91

4

92

3

Wheat, shorts (17%)

15

81

6

80

3

69

8

86

4

79

4

82

4

82

4

84

3

84

4

85

3

NOTE: Values represent the percentage of the total amino acid contained in the feedstuff that does not appear in the feces and urine. Values are corrected for amino acids of endogenous origin. The data are derived primarily from Sibbald (1986), Green (1987), and Parsons (1990a). Dash indicates that no standard deviation could be calculated because only one determination of a digestibility was made.

a Approximate average protein content of the feed ingredient samples tested.

have been (1) removal of the ideal contents immediately following slaughter (Summers and Robblee, 1985) and (2) collection of intestinal digesta via a cannula placed in the terminal ileum (Thomas and Crissey, 1983; Raharjo and Farrell, 1984).

It is generally accepted that digestible amino acid values are more indicative of relative nutritional value among feedstuffs than are total amino acid concentration values. However, the application of digestibility values in practical feed formulation is sometimes confusing because the amino acid requirements listed in the tables herein are expressed as total amino acid concentration in the diet. There is little or no published research on the digestible amino acid requirements of poultry species. Therefore a review of 28 published studies on the lysine and methionine plus cystine requirements of broilers, turkeys, and laying hens was recently conducted to calculate digestible amino acid requirements indirectly (Parsons, 1990b). First, the amino acid digestibility coefficients in Table 9-6 were used to calculate the digestible amino acid content of the basal diet feed ingredients used in the requirement studies. The digestible amino acid content of the basal diet was then added to the amount of supplemental crystalline amino acid (100 percent available) needed to meet the requirement; this sum was considered to be the digestible amino acid requirement. The results of these calculations for the 28 studies were consistent and indicated that the calculated digestible amino acid requirements were 8 to 10 percent lower than the determined total amino acid requirements.

Amino Acid Supplements

Individual amino acids are frequently included as ingredients in diets of poultry. DL-methionine and L-lysine are most commonly used in commercial diets and other amino acids may be used in semipurified and purified diets. The protein equivalents and estimated MEns of 20 amino acids are presented in Table 9-7. This information should be useful in formulating poultry diets.

Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-7 Nitrogen Concentration, Crude Protein Equivalents, and Nitrogen-Corrected Metabolizable Energy Values for Amino Acids

Amino Acid

Nitrogen (%)

Crude Protein Equivalent (g/100 g) of Amino Acid

Metabolizable Energy (kcal/kg)a

Alanine

15.72

98.25

3,060

Arginine

32.16

201.00

2,940

Asparagine

21.20

132.50

1,760

Aspartic acid

10.52

65.75

2,020

Cystine

11.66

72.88

2,060

Glutamic acid

9.52

59.50

2,880

Glutamine

19.17

119.81

2,630

Glycine

18.66

116.62

1,570

Histidine

27.08

169.25

2,410

Isoleucine

10.68

66.75

5,650

Leucine

10.67

66.69

5,640

Lysine

19.16

119.75

4,600

Methionine

9.39

58.69

3,680

Phenylalanine

8.48

53.00

6,030

Proline

12.17

76.06

3,980

Serine

13.33

83.31

2,210

Threonine

11.76

73.50

3,150

Tryptophan

13.72

85.75

5,460

Tyrosine

7.73

48.31

5,240

Valine

11.96

74.75

4,990

a Assuming 100 percent digestibility and conversion of nitrogen to uric acid (including urea in the case of arginine).

TABLE 9-8 Average Fatty Acid Composition of Some Feeds Commonly Used for Poultry (data on as-fed basis)

Entry Number

Feed Name Description

International Feed Number

Dry Matter (%)

Ether Extract (%)

Selected Fatty Acids, Percentage of Feed

 

 

 

 

 

C12:0

C14:0

C16:0

C16:1

C18:0

C18:1

C18:2

C18:3

01

Alfalfa, meal dehydrated, 17% protein

1-00-023

92

2.0

0.01

0.01

0.57

0.05

0.08

0.13

0.37

0.78

02

Barley, grain

5-00-549

89

1.08

0.01

0.49

0.02

0.03

0.37

0.78

0.08

03

Corn, dent yellow, distillers' solubles, dehydrated

5-28-237

92

9.0

1.80

0.07

0.09

2.25

4.77

0.02

04

Corn, dent yellow, grain

4-02-935

89

3.8

0.62

0.10

1.17

1.82

0.09

05

Corn, dent yellow, grits by-product (hominy feed)

4-03-011

90

6.9

0.97

0.14

1.94

3.75

0.10

06

Corn, dent yellow, gluten, meal

5-28-241

90

2.5

0.50

0.06

0.61

1.16

07

Cotton, seeds, meal solvent extracted, 41% protein

5-01-621

93

3.9

0.02

1.22

0.02

0.53

2.46

0.03

08

Fish, menhaden, meal mechanically extracted

5-02-009

92

9.4

0.01

1.15

3.61

1.58

0.57

1.96

0.14

0.08

09

Meat with bone, meal rendered

5-00-388

93

8.6

0.22

2.36

0.44

1.42

3.74

0.31

10

Oats, grain

4-03-309

89

4.2

0.05

0.93

0,04

0.05

1.60

1.47

0.09

11

Peanut, kernels, meal mechanically extracted (expeller)

5-03-649

90

7.3

1.52

0.08

0.23

3.32

1.43

12

Poultry, feathers, meal hydrolyzed

5-03-795

93

3.3

0.01

0.06

0.99

0.19

0.48

0.98

0.43

13

Sorghum, milo, grain

4-04-444

89

2.8

0.56

0.15

0.03

0.89

1.13

0.06

14

Soybean, seeds without hulls, meal solvent extracted

5-04-612

90

1.0

0.24

0.01

0.05

0.16

0.47

0.07

15

Wheat, grain

5-05-211

87

1.9

0.46

0.08

0.03

0.44

0.81

0.11

16

Wheat, middlings

4-05-205

88

3.0

0.61

0.58

1.70

0.12

NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were available for these values.

SOURCE: Fatty acid composition data obtained from Edwards (1964).

CHARACTERISTICS OF DIETARY FATS

As discussed in Chapter 1, dietary fats vary appreciably in composition and in their contributions to nutrition of poultry. The fatty acid composition of some ingredients commonly used in poultry diets is presented in Table 9-8. Selected characteristics of supplemental fats (including combined moisture, insolubles, and unsaponifiables content), fatty acid composition, and experimentally determined MEn values are shown in Table 9-9. This information provides an overview of the different fats that have been evaluated experimentally and some of the conditions under which they were evaluated. For comparative purposes, MEn values of specific carbohydrates are also listed in Table 9-9.

MACROMINERAL SUPPLEMENTS

Concentrated sources of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and magnesium are often used to achieve desired dietary concentrations of specific macrominerals. These mineral sources contain other elements of potential nutritional importance, including chlorine, fluorine, sulfur,

Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-9 Characteristics and Metabolizable Energy of Various Sources of Fats and Selected Carbohydrates Occurring in Feed

 

 

Selected Fatty Acids, Percentage of Total Fatty Acids

 

Energy Content "As-Fed"

 

MIUa (%)

Fatty Acids (% free)

16:0

16:1

18:0

18:1

18:2

18:3

Nature of Sample

kcal ME/kg

Methodologyb

Data Reference

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animal Tallows

 

 

 

2.2

4.8

26.9

3.3

17.4

41.5

7.5

0.1

Commercial

6,020-7,690

MEn chicks 10-20%

Sibbald et al., 1961

35.4

2.7

36.5

24.5

0.9

Beef

7,268-7,780

MEn poults 10%

Whitehead and Fisher, 1975

22.9

2.8

24.2

40.9

0.6

1.1

Commercial

7,601

MEn chicks 3-10%

Guirguis, 1976

25.7

4.2

22.7

37.0

2.5

0.3

Beef

7,920

TME 15%

Sibbald, 1978b

 

26.2

2.4

25.1

39.6

3.2

0.5

Commercial

8,460-10,640

MEn-TME regression

Muztar et al., 1981

1.7

9.6

25.2

4.4

19.7

39.3

8.9

Commercial

8,083-8,387

MEn-TME chick, 7%

Lessire et al., 1982

0.3

4.3

26.1

5.1

25.2

37.4

1.9

Beef

6,683-6,916

 

 

0.5

2.4

25.8

3.7

18.1

42.1

4.6

Commercial

6,808-8,551

MEn poults 2-8 weeks

Sell et al., 1986b

2.9

19.1

25.5

4.0

19.3

40.0

4.9

<0.1

Commercial

6,633-9,353

MEn chicks 2-6%

Wiseman et al., 1986

4.0

15.5

22.0

3.6

13.1

49.6

8.4

1.7

Commercial A

6,258

MEn chicks 9%

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

3.6

16.5

22.5

3.0

16.0

47.9

7.0

1.6

B

6,709

 

 

4.1

6.0

19.9

1.5

14.0

47.2

12.7

1.7

C

6,060

 

 

3.5

1.6

22.0

2.7

15.8

47.6

8.7

1.9

D

7,628

 

 

3.0

10.2

21.2

5.9

15.5

45.4

9.6

1.2

E

7,148

 

 

5.9

65.1

36.2

0.9

9.6

44.1

8.2

Soap stocks

4,900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animal-Vegetable Blends

 

 

 

0.9

2.6

19.0

1.7

10.7

34.3

27.8

3.8

Tallow-crude soy

8,110-8,820

MEn chicks 10%

Sibbald et al., 1961

0.8

13.6

19.8

1.6

10.3

34.4

29.9

6.3

Tallow-crude soy

7,660

MEn chicks 10%

Sibbald et al., 1962

0.7

13.8

19.4

1.5

10.3

34.8

29.5

6.4

Tallow-refined soy

7,830

 

 

1.5

49.2

24.7

2.3

9.6

34.6

21.9

0.5

Tallow-soap stocks

8,490

 

 

25.9

4.1

13.4

42.7

8.4

0.5

Commercial-feed grade

9,340

TME 15%

Sibbald and Kramer, 1977

21.1

2.1

16.2

41.3

10.3

0.6

Commercial-edible

9,360

 

 

16.8

2.2

10.3

47.6

12.1

4.6

Tallow-crude canola

8,710

 

 

20.8

2.1

11.1

31.7

27.8

3.3

Tallow-crude soy

9,700

 

 

20.9

2.1

10.4

32.2

30.5

0.4

Tallow-refined corn

9,570

 

 

29.5

2.1

13.7

37.3

10.6

1.1

Tallow-soap stocks

8,850

 

 

17.2

1.3

9.5

51.1

13.7

3.2

Lard-crude canola

10,000

 

 

15.9

1.6

13.5

50.2

9.9

3.2

Tallow-crude canola

9,140

 

 

3.6

61.0

21.0

1.4

6.0

25.4

38.6

4.2

Commercial

7,114-8,924

MEn poults 2-8 weeks

Sell et al., 1986b

0.9

36.3

17.7

1.0

12.5

34.5

31.2

3.9

Beef A-crude soy

7,571

MEn chicks 9%

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

0.8

36.2

16.0

3.1

12.2

32.4

31.0

3.9

Beef B-crude soy

7,788

 

 

1.7

68.7

23.9

0.5

6.9

34.1

32.6

 

Animal soap stock-soy; soap stock

5,834

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canola Oil

 

 

 

4.9

0.4

1.9

61.0

18.8

7.7

Crude oil

9,210

TME 15%

Sibbald and Kramer, 1977

9.9

0.4

4.8

52.4

22.4

7.5

Soap stock

7,780-8,930

MEn-TME regression

Muztar et al., 1981

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coconut Oil

 

 

 

8.2

0.4

3.0

5.7

1.8

24 oils, MCFA = 57%

Weihrauch et al., 1977

12.8

2.9

13.7

23.1

Undefined, MCFAc = 34%

8,812

MEn chicks 9%

Veen et al., 1974

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corn Oil

 

 

 

12.2

0.5

0.7

24.7

60.5

1.4

Refined

9,639-10,811

MEn poults 10%

Whitehead and Fisher, 1975

8-19

<0.5

0.5-4.0

19-50

34-62

<2.0

Commercial range

Spencer et al., 1976

12.4

0.1

1.9

26.9

57.0

0.7

Refined

9,870

TME 15%

Sibbald and Kramer, 1977

Refined

9,660-9,210

TME 15%

Dale and Fuller, 1981

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cottonseed Oil

 

 

 

8.2

78

30.1

0.2

4.1

29.8

29.5

3.0

Soap stock A

Waldroup and Tollett, 1972

6.5

67

25.8

0.4

2.2

19.8

47.1

3.0

B

 

9.0

70

25.4

0.4

2.9

19.3

47.8

3.3

C

 

14.1

83

23.4

0.3

1.8

21.3

47.3

5.1

D

 

32.1

21

23.7

0.3

2.6

20.3

49.1

3.0

E

 

17-29

0.5-1.5

1.0-4.0

13-44

33-58

0.1-2.1

Commercial range

Spencer et al., 1976

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fish Oil

 

 

 

Menhaden

8,450

MEn chicks 4-12%

Cuppett and Soares, 1972

18.6

5.8

4.8

18.5

24.1

1.3

Hydrogenated

6,800

MEn chicks 9%

Veen et al., 1974

19-24

11-18

2-3

10-23

0.9-1.7

0.4-1.7

Menhaden range

Stansby, 1981

10-19

6-12

0.7-2.1

9-26

0.1-2.9

0-1.1

Herring range



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

 

 

Selected Fatty Acids, Percentage of Total Fatty Acids

 

Energy Content "As-Fed"

 

MIUa (%)

Fatty Acids (% free)

16:0

16:1

18:0

18:1

18:2

18:3

Nature of Sample

kcal ME/kg

Methodologyb

Data Reference

17

13

3

10

1

Raw anchovy

De Koning et al. 1986

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lard

 

 

 

28.7

2.1

19.6

40.9

8.7

Edible

9,114-9,854

MEn poults 10%

Whitehead and Fisher, 1975

24.4

3.4

14.2

40.2

0.4

Edible

9,060

TME 15%

Sibbald, 1978

20-32

1.7-5.0

5-24

35-62

3-16

<1.5

Commercial range

Spencer et al., 1976

28.9

2.2

16.9

38.0

9.7

0.2

Edible

9,390

TME 15%

Sibbald and Kramer, 1977

0.2

0.1

26.6

3.1

15.8

42.4

9.1

<0.1

Edible

9,926-10,236

MEn chicks 2-6%

Wiseman et al., 1986

1.1

0.2

22.4

2.1

17.7

46.1

8.0

2.1

Edible A

7,337

MEn chicks 9%

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

0.7

0.1

21.2

5.3

17.0

44.8

9.3

1.1

B

7,356

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Palm Oil

 

 

 

27.3

0.5

6.1

58.5

11.4

1.3

E. guineenis

Clegg, 1973

100

46.4

0.2

5.0

38.7

6.9

0.1

Fatty acid composite

7,710

TME 15%

Sibbald and Kramer, 1977

1.8

0.2

40.7

0.3

5.2

41.6

11.4

Refined oil

5,800

MEn chicks 9%

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

1.8

1.0

38.0

1.5

5.5

44.3

9.0

Used in cooking

5,302

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peanut Oil

 

 

 

6-16

<1.0

1.3-6.5

36-72

13-45

<1.0

Commercial range

Spencer et al. 1976

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poultry Fat

 

 

 

5.2

18.0

Commercial

10,186

MEn chicks 14%

Cullen et al., 1962

0.7

0.7

21.6

4.8

7.2

42.3

23.0

Commercial A

8,625-8,916

MEn-TME chick 7%

Lessire et al., 1982

3.9

0.5

18.1

5.9

4.6

46.2

23.3

1.1

B

9,360

TME 7%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunfflower Oil

 

 

 

2-10

<0.5

1-10

7-42

55-81

<1.0

Commercial range

Spencer et al., 1976

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soybean Oil

 

 

 

1.4

0.6

11.3

0.3

3.9

27.2

49.8

7.5

Crude

8,650-8,020

MEn chicks 10-20%

Sibbald et al., 1961

0.3

0.7

11.3

0.1

4.9

28.2

50.2

5.6

Crude

8,370

MEn chicks 20%

Sibbald et al., 1962

1.3

12.2

21.0

0.3

4.5

17.1

45.9

1.8

Dried gums

6,440

 

 

0.8

13.5

20.1

0.8

4.4

17.0

40.6

0.9

Lecithins

 

7-12

<0.5

2.0-5.5

19-30

48-58

4-10

Commercial range

Spencer et al., 1976

12.2

0.1

3.2

26.0

51.6

6.3

Crude

9,510

TME 15%

Sibbald and Kramer, 1977

2.0

1.3

10.6

<0.1

3.9

25.1

52.1

7.0

Refined

9,687-10,212

MEn chicks 2-6%

Wiseman et al., 1986

1.8

0.1

11.6

3.9

19.8

57.9

6.8

Refined

8,375

MEn chick 9%

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

3.6

1.5

9.8

3.7

24.3

55.0

7.2

Crude

8,795

 

4.2

72.3

7.9

4.1

24.0

56.9

7.1

Soap stocks

6,111

 

4.0

1.1

28.5

5.0

35.8

28.0

2.7

Used in cooking

6,309

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunflower Oil

 

 

 

3-10

<1.0

1-10

14-65

20-75

<0.7

Commercial range

Spencer et al., 1976

6.7

0.1

4.3

27.4

57.1

3.7

Refined

9,659

MEn, chick 2-8%

Guirguis, 1976

2-4

3-5

80-87

4-9

High 18:1 cultivars

Purdy, 1986

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carbohydrates

 

 

 

Starch

4,070

MEn

Naber and Touchburn, 1969

Sucrose

3,900

?

Janssen et al., 1972

Glucose

3,730

TME

Sibbald, 1977

Glucose

2,831-3,327

MEn hen 0-9% fat

Mateos and Sell, 1980

Fructose

2,809-3,305

 

 

Glucose:fructose (50:50)

2,798-3,209

 

Maltose

2,868-3,326

 

Starch

2,918-3,396

 

Sucrose

2,512-3,063

 

NOTE: Dash indicates that no data were available.

a Moisture, ether insolubles, and unsaponifiable matter contents as a percentage of the fat.

b MEn is apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention; TME is true metabolizable energy using the rooster unless otherwise stated, and level(s) of fat used in the test diet. Some ME values are not corrected for nitrogen retention, particularly those prior to 1970.

c Medium-chain fatty acid contributions (8:0 + 10:0 + 12:0).



Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 9-10 Element Concentrations in Common Mineral Sources (data on as-fed basis)

Entry Number

Feed Name Description

International Feed No.

Calcium (%)

Phosphorus (%)

Sodium (%)

Potassium (%)

Magnesium (%)

Chlorine (%)

Fluorine (%)

Sulfur (%)

Iron (mg/kg)

Copper (mg/kg)

Manganese (mg/kg)

Zinc (mg/kg)

01

Bone meal, steamed

6-00-400

29.8

12.5

0.04

0.2

0.3

2.4

16

30

100

02

Calcium carbonate, CaCO3

6-01-069

38.0

0.0

0.02

0.06

0.05

0.00

300

24

300

2

03

Calcium phosphate, dibasic from defluorinated phosphoric acid

6-01-080

22.0

18.7

0.06

0.1

0.6

0.013

0.18

1.11

10,000

10

300

100

04

Calcium phosphate, mono-dibasic

6-26-137

16.0

21.0

0.06

0.07

0.6

0.15

1.2

9,000

15

300

200

05

Calcium sulfate, dihydrate, CaSO4·2H2O

6-01-090

22.6

18.1

06

Limestone, ground

6-02-632

38.0

0.05

0.1

2.1

0.03

<0.0025

2,000

07

Magnesium oxide, MgO

6-02-756

3.0

0.03

0.015

0.02

55.0

0.02

0.02

0.04

6,000

10

10

08

Meat with bone, meal rendered

5-00-388

10.3

5.1

0.7

1.3

1.1

0.7

0.5

490

2

14

93

09

Oyster, shells, ground

6-03-481

38.0

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.01

500

400

11

Phosphate, defluorinated

6-01-780

32.0

18.0

4.9

0.1

0.4

0.18

8,000

20

250

60

10

Phosphate, rock curacao, ground

6-05-586

34.0

14.0

0.2

0.8

0.53

3,500

12

Phosphate, rock, soft

6-03-947

17.0

9.0

0.10

0.30

0.35

0.007

1.25

0.31

15,000

64

39

90

13

Potassium chloride, KCl

6-03-755

0.05

1.0

50.5

0.34

47.3

0.45

600

7

7

9

14

Potassium and magnesium sulfate

6-06-177

0.06

0.76

18.5

11.6

1.25

0.001

22.3

100

2

20

9

15

Potassium sulfate, K2SO4

6-08-098

0.15

0.09

41.0

0.6

1.5

17.9

700

10

16

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3

6-12-316

43.39

17

Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3

6-04-272

27.0

18

Sodium chloride, NaCl (common salt)

6-04-152

0.3

39.0

0.005

60.0

0.2

50

19

Sodium phosphate, dibasic, from furnaced phosphoric acid, Na2HPO4

6-04-286

20.8

31.0

20

Sodium phosphate, monobasic, NaH2PO4·H2O

6-04-288

21.8

16.2

21

Sodium sulfate, decahydrate, Na2SOB·10H2O

6-04-291

13.8

9.7

22

Phosphoric acid, H3PO4

6-03-707

0.08

23.7

0.05

0.02

0.45

0.19

1.1

12,000

10

400

100

NOTE: The mineral supplements used as feed supplements are not chemically pure compounds, and the composition may vary substantially among sources. The supplier's analysis should be used if it is available. Dashes indicate that no data were available.

iron, copper, manganese, and zinc. The concentration of these elements contained in selected macromineral supplements is shown in Table 9-10.

MYCOTOXINS

Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungi. Most mycotoxins cause health problems for animals by entry through the feed, although they may also be water- or air-borne. Given the appropriate conditions, fungi will grow on grain and oilseeds prior to harvest. Wet conditions and warm temperatures favor the growth of fungi (Diener et el., 1987). Stresses such as drought, insect infestation, and plant disease often make the crop susceptible to fungal growth. Some fungi will then produce mycotoxins, which remain with the grain and oilseeds after harvest.

Mycotoxins in feed ingredients are difficult to economically remove or destroy. One method for detoxification of one class of mycotoxins—aflatoxins—is ammoniation of ingredients. Ammoniation was effective in destroying aflatoxin in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (Gardner et al., 1971) and in corn (Hughes et al., 1979). A second procedure for reducing the effect of aflatoxins is the use of dietary adsorbents. Including sodium calcium aluminosilicate in the diet at a level of 0.5 percent is effective in reducing the effect of aflatoxins on the growth of chickens (Kubena et al., 1990).

Conditions that are favorable for fungal growth and mycotoxin production may also occur while ingredients are in storage. The best way to prevent this problem is to keep the moisture level of ingredients low enough to inhibit fungal growth. In some instances, antifungal additives may be used to prevent fungal growth in feed or ingredients.

Several classes of mycotoxins are known to cause economic losses in poultry. The first to be identified was aflatoxins. These are produced by some strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. paraciticus , and A. nomius. Aflatoxins have been labeled B1, B2, G1, and G2. Conditions appropriate for the production of aflatoxin are more commonly encountered in the southeastern or central part of the United States or where the leaf canopy maintains high moisture content at the plant level.

Aflatoxins can produce a variety of effects. Broilers show decreased growth and increased kilogram feed:gain ratios when fed 2.5 mg of aflatoxin per kilogram but not when fed 1.25 mg/kg (Smith and

Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Hamilton, 1970). When hens were fed diets with approximately 90 mg of aflatoxin per kilogram, egg production decreased quickly and a high rate of mortality ensued (Hamilton, 1971). At a level of 1.5 mg/kg feed, aflatoxins caused fatty livers, necrosis, and bile duct hyperplasia (Carnaghan et al., 1966). Hematological responses such as lowered serum protein, reduced hemoglobin, and lower levels of serum triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol result from moderate aflatoxin doses (Tung et al., 1972).

Fusarium moniliforme is a fungus that may grow on grains. It is found to produce a thiaminase causing thiamin deficiency in chicks (Fritz et al., 1973). Mortality is increased if additional thiamin is not supplied in contaminated diets. Corn shown to contain F. moniliforme causes substantial mortality when fed to ducklings (Jeschke et al., 1987).

Tricothecenes constitute another group of fungal compounds that may decrease the performance of poultry. These compounds may be produced by several genera of fungi but are most commonly metabolites of Fusarium . Laboratory studies have shown that T-2 toxin at levels up to 20 mg/kg of diet may decrease weight gain and egg production (Wyatt et al., 1973b, 1975). Oral lesions and digestive disturbances are caused by toxic concentrations of T-2.

Other tricothecenes produced by Fusarium are deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, and diacetylnivalenol. These toxins appear to be more toxic to swine, in which they may cause vomiting and feed refusal (Morehouse, 1985), than to poultry. Adverse effects of Fusarium toxins on turkey reproduction have been reported (Allen et al., 1983).

Mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A and zearalenone have also been identified and may cause deleterious effects on poultry. A review of their effects was done by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (1989).

Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 61
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 62
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 70
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 79
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This classic reference for poultry nutrition has been updated for the first time since 1984. The chapter on general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predicting the energy value of individual feed ingredients from their proximate composition.

This volume includes the latest information on the nutrient requirements of meat- and egg-type chickens, incorporating data on brown-egg strains, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail.

This publication also contains new appendix tables that document in detail the scientific information used to derive the nutrient requirements appearing in the summary tables for each species of bird.

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