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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 (1994)

Chapter: 10. Standard Reference Diets for Chicks

« Previous: 9. Composition of Feedstuffs Used in Poultry Diets
Suggested Citation:"10. Standard Reference Diets for Chicks." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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10
Standard Reference Diets for Chicks

Many laboratories that use Leghorn- or meat-type chicks for studies in animal behavior, biochemistry, microbiology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, and toxicology need nutritionally complete standard reference diets. The use of standard reference diets that are well defined facilitates more valid comparison of information obtained from experiments conducted within and among laboratories. The diets shown in Table 10-1 have been used successfully in various laboratories and are presented as guides to those requiring such formulations. The isolated soybean protein, casein, and chemically defined diets contain some mineral and vitamin supplements not normally needed in practical diets.

Dextrose (glucose·H2O) rather than starch should be used in diets consisting primarily of purified intact proteins (such as isolated soy protein and casein) to obtain improved performance. Diets containing substantial quantities of dextrose and crystalline amino acids should be stored under refrigeration to minimize Maillard or Browning reactions. These chemically defined diets are intended for short-term use (1 to 3 weeks) and will not support maximum growth over an extended period of time.

Suggested Citation:"10. Standard Reference Diets for Chicks." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE 10-1 Formulas for Reference Diets for Chicks

Ingredient

Practical Dieta

Soy Isolate Dietb

Chemically Casein Dietc

Chemically Defined Diet Id

Defined Diet IIe

Ground yellow corn (8.8% protein)(g/kg)

580

Soybean meal (48.5% protein)(g/kg)

350

Isolated soybean protein (g/kg)

250

Casein (g/kg)

200

DL-Methionine (g/kg)

2.5

6

5

L-Arginine (g/kg)

10

Glycine (g/kg)

4

20

Crystalline amino acids (g/kg)

204.8f

286g

Corn oil (g/kg)

30

40

30

50–150

150

Starch (g/kg)

6.5–1 kg

558–1 kg

205

Dextrose (g/kg)

6.08–1 kg

678–1 kg

Sucrose (g/kg)

154

 

Cellulose (g/kg)

30

30

30

Sawdust (g/kg)

100

Choline chloride (100%) (g/kg)

0.75

2

2

2

1.625

Thiamin HCl (mg/kg)

1.8

15

20

20

1.6

Riboflavin (mg/kg)

3.6

15

10

10

5

Calcium pantothenate (mg/kg)

10

20

30

30

15

Niacin (mg/kg)

25

50

50

50

35

Pyridoxine HCl (mg/kg)

3

7.8

6

6

6

Folacin (mg/kg)

0.55

6

4

4

1.5

Biotin (mg/kg)

0.15

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.1

Vitamin B12 (mg/kg)

0.0

0.02

0.04

0.04

0.03

Inositol (mg/kg)

100

100

100

Para-aminobenzoic acid (mg/kg)

2

2

2

Ascorbic acid (mg/kg)

250

250

Vitamin A (IU/kg)

1,500

4,500

5,200

5,200

1,880

Vitamin D3 (ICU/kg)

400

450

600

600

375

Vitamin E (IU/kg)

10

50

20

20

31.3

Vitamin K (mg/kg)

0.55

1.5

2

2

1.3

Antioxidant (mg/kg)h

125

100

12-5

Iodized salt (g/kg)

5

NaCl (g/kg)

6

8.8

8.8

2.75

CaCO3 (g/kg)

10

14.8

3

3

15

CaHPO4·2H2O (g/kg)

20

20.7

30

Ca3(PO4)2 (g/kg)

28

28

MgSO4·7H2O (g/kg)

6

3.5

3.5

MgCO3 (g/kg)

2.38

KH2 PO4 (g/kg)

10

9

9

K2CO3 (g/kg)

5.25

NaHCO3 (g/kg)

5

Al(OH)3 (g/kg)

5

KCl (g/kg)

1

MnSO4·H2O (mg/kg)

170

350

650

650

MnCO3 (mg/kg)

91.5

ZnSO4·H2O (mg/kg)

110

ZnCO3 (mg/kg)

150

100

100

ZnO (mg/kg)

25

Fe2(SO4)3·7H2O

500

250

Ferric citrate (mg/kg)

500

500

500

CuSO4·5H2O (mg/kg)

16

30

20

20

15.5

Na2SeO3 (mg/kg)

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.23

KI (mg/kg)

40

40

KIO3 (mg/kg)

2

0.6

CoCl2 (mg/kg)

1.7

CoSO4·7H2O (mg/kg)

1

1

1

H3BO3 (mg/kg)

9

9

9

Na2MoO4·2H2O (mg/kg)

8.3

9

9

2.5

NOTE: Dash indicates a zero value for the ingredient.

a National Research Council (1977).

b Scott et al., 1982.

c Halpin and Baker, 1986.

d Baker et al., 1979. The vitamin mix shown in the table differs slightly from the one in the cited reference because of modification in recent years.

e Blair et al., 1977.

f 11.5 g L-arginine · HCl, 4.5 g L-histidine HCl · H2O, 11.4 g L-lysine HC1, 4.5 g L-tyrosine, 1.5 g L-tryptophan, 5 g L-phenylalanine, 3.5 g DL-methionine, 3.5 g L-cystine, 6.5 g L-threonine, 10 g L-leucine, 6 g L-isoleucine, 6.9 g L-valine, 6 g glycine, 4 g L-proline, 120 g L-glutamic acid.

g 16.9 g L-arginine, 14.1 g glycine, 5.6 g L-histidine, 11.3 g L-isoleucine, 19.7 g L-leucine, 17.6 g L-lysine · HCl, 7.8 g DL-methionine, 2.0 g L-cystine, 9.9 g L-phenylalanine, 9.9 g L-tyrosine, 2.8 g L-tryptophan, 9.9 g L-threonine, 12.1 g L-valine, 36.2 g L-aspartic acid, 100 g L-glutamic acid, 9.9 g L-proline.

h Ethoxyquin or butylated hydroxy toluene.

Suggested Citation:"10. Standard Reference Diets for Chicks." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

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Suggested Citation:"10. Standard Reference Diets for Chicks." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"10. Standard Reference Diets for Chicks." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"10. Standard Reference Diets for Chicks." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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This classic reference for poultry nutrition has been updated for the first time since 1984. The chapter on general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predicting the energy value of individual feed ingredients from their proximate composition.

This volume includes the latest information on the nutrient requirements of meat- and egg-type chickens, incorporating data on brown-egg strains, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail.

This publication also contains new appendix tables that document in detail the scientific information used to derive the nutrient requirements appearing in the summary tables for each species of bird.

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