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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 (1994)

Chapter: Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Appendixes

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A–1 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Starting and Growing Leghorn—Type Chickens

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Protein, %

20

0–14

Growth

White Leghorn

Grau and Kamei, 1950

21.1

0–42

Growth

White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red

Edwards et al., 1956

14–20

84–140

Growth

White Leghorn

McNaughton et al., 1977b

15–18

0–42

Growth

White Leghorn

McNaughton et al., 1977b

12

0–56

Growth

White Leghorn

Leeson and Summers, 1979

16

56–84

Growth

White Leghorn

Leeson and Summers, 1979

19

84–104

Growth

White Leghorn

Leeson and Summers, 1979

14 and 21

56–140

Growth

White Leghorn

Douglas and Harms, 1982

12 or 13.6

0–42

Growth

Commercial brown-egg layers

Maurice et al., 1982

16 or 13.6

42–140

Growth

Commercial brown-egg layers

Maurice et al., 1982

18

0–28

Growth of muscle fiber

White Leghorn

Timson et al., 1983

18

0–42

Growth

White Leghorn

Keshavarz, 1984

12

42–140

Growth

White Leghorn

Keshavarz, 1984

16.5

140–504

Laying

White Leghorn

Keshavarz, 1984

22

0–28

Growth

White Leghorn

Leeson and Summers, 1984

18

0–140

Growth

White Leghorn

Chi, 1985

Isoleucine, %

0.5

8–18

Growth

White Leghorn

Mori and Okumura, 1984

Leucine, %

1.2

8–18

Growth

White Leghorn

Mori and Okumura, 1984

Lysine, %

0.9–1.1

0–42

Growth

White Leghorn

Edwards et al., 1956

0.94

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

White Leghorn

Chung et al., 1973

0.70

35–49

Growth, feed efficiency

White Leghorn

Chung et al., 1973

<0.5

56–98

Growth

White Leghorn

Berg, 1976

<0.45

98–147

Growth

White Leghorn

Berg, 1976

0.68

0–504

Growth, egg production

White Leghorn

Keshavarz, 1984

Methionine, %

0.8

0–14

Growth

White Leghorn

Grau and Kamei, 1950

Methionine and cystine, %

0.8

0–14

Growth

White Leghorn

Grau and Kamei, 1950

0.59

0–504

Growth, laying

White Leghorn

Keshavarz, 1984

0.45

0–42

Growth

White Leghorn

Chi, 1985

Threonine, %

0.72

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

White Leghorn

Davis and Austic, 1982

Valine, %

0.8

8–18

Growth

White Leghorn

Mori and Okumura, 1984

Requirements for essential amino acids described in review papers

Various

Growth

Primarily White Leghorn

Almquist, 1952

Requirements for essential amino acids described in review papers

Various

Growth

White Leghorn

Waldroup et al., 1980

Requirements for essential amino acids described in review papers

Various

Growth, egg production

White Leghorn

Harms, 1984

Calcium

0.78

0–153

Growth

White Leghorn

Hamilton and Cipera, 1981

3.19

154–439

Egg production

White Leghorn

Hamilton and Cipera, 1981

0.89

35–126

Growth

White Leghorn

Classen and Scott, 1982

2.08

12–154

Growth, subsequent egg production

White Leghorn

Classen and Scott, 1982

3.50

177–225

Egg production

White Leghorn

Classen and Scott, 1982

2.0–3.5

At 133 to 4th egg

Growth, bone development

White Leghorn

Leeson et al., 1986

0.8

98–140

Growth, subsequent egg production

White Leghorn

Keshavarz, 1987

3.5

98–140

Egg production

White Leghorn

Keshavarz, 1987

3.55

140–420

Egg production

White Leghorn

Keshavarz, 1987

4.0

>112

Egg production

White Leghorn

Leeson and Summers, 1987b

Nonphytate phosphorus, %

0.4–0.6

7–28

Growth

White Leghorn

Gillis et al., 1949

0.25–0.30

0–140

Growth

Brown-egg layers

Carew and Foss, 1980

0.31

112–140

Growth

White Leghorn

Douglas and Harms, 1986

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Potassium, %

0.20–0.24

0–28

Growth, bone calcification

White Leghorn

Gillis, 1948

Sodium, %

0.10–0.30

0–28

Growth

White Leghorn

Burns et al., 1953

0.13

0–21

Growth

White Rock

Hurwitz et al., 1973

0.15

0–140

Growth

White Leghorn

Manning and McGinnis, 1980

Chlorine, %

0.13

0–14

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler Strain

Nam and McGinnis, 1981

Sodium chloride, %

0.25

0–140

Growth, sexual maturity

White Leghorn

Leeson and Summers, 1980

Magnesium, mg/kg

300

0–28

Deficiency, neuropathy

White Leghorn

Bird, 1949

250

0–28

Growth

Broiler strain

Gardiner et al., 1960

594

0–21

Growth

White Rock

Nugara and Edwards, 1963

Manganese, mg/kg

50

0–140

Growth, perosis

New Hampshire

Gallup and Norris, 1939a

20

0–28

Growth

White Leghorn

Watson et al., 1971

Zinc, mg/kg

35

0–42

Growth, feathering, bone development

White Rock

O'Dell et al., 1958

20

0–42

Growth

White Rock

Edwards et al., 1959

20

To 1st egg

Growth, feed efficiency

White Leghorn

Rahman et al., 1961

78

0–7

Growth, feathering

White Leghorn

Sunde, 1972

52

7–21

Growth, feathering

White Leghorn

Sunde, 1972

Iron, mg/kg

40

0–56

Growth

Rhode Island Red

Hill and Matrone, 1961

4

0–56

Growth

Rhode Island Red

Hill and Matrone, 1961

56

0–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Waddell and Sell, 1964

75–80

0–28

Growth

New Hampshire

Davis et al., 1968

Copper, mg/kg

4

0–56

Growth

Rhode Island Red

Hill and Matrone, 1961

Iodine, mg/kg

0.300

0–56

Growth, thyoid histology

White Leghorn and Broiler strains

Creek et al., 1957

0.400

0–56

Growth, thyoid histology

White Leghorn and Broiler strains

Creek et al., 1957

0.075

0–35

Growth

Broiler strain

Rogler and Parker, 1978

Selenium, mg/kg

0.01 to 0.05, depending on dietary concentration of Vitamin E

0–24

Growth

Plymouth Rock

Thompson and Scott, 1969

0.01 to 0.05, depending on dietary concentration of Vitamin E

0–14

Growth

Plymouth Rock

Gries and Scott, 1972c

Vitamin A, IU/kg

800–1600

0–56

Growth, absence of deficiency signs

White Leghorn

Record et al., 1937

1,200–2,000

70–84

Curative feeding

White Leghorn

Record et al., 1937

2,650

0–189

Growth

White Leghorn

Taylor and Russell, 1947

1,760–7,000

0–56

Growth

White Leghorn

Thornton and Whittet, 1962

4,400

0–113

Growth, E. acervulina resistance

White Leghorn

Coles et al., 1970

Vitamin D3 IU/kg

180

0–84

Growth, bone development

Brown-egg layers

Baird and Greene, 1935

132

0–21

Growth, bone development

Broiler strain

McNaughton et al., 1977a

198

0–21

Growth, bone development

Broiler strain

McNaughton et al., 1977a

500

Adults

Egg production, shell quality

Various strains

Ameenuddin et al., 1985

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Vitamin E, IU/kg

60

Various

To prevent exudative diathesis, encephalomalacia, muscular degeneration

Various strains

Machlin and Gordon, 1962

30–50

0–35

Growth

White Rock

Combs and Scott, 1974

Vitamin K, mg/kg

0.524–0.528

0–28

Growth

White Rock

Nelson and Norris, 1960

0.515

0–84

Growth

White Rock

Nelson and Norris, 1961a

0.524–0.528

0–28

Growth

White Rock

Nelson and Norris, 1961b

Riboflavin, mg/kg

3.5 decreasing to 1.0

0–7

Growth

White Leghorn

Heuser et al., 1938

3.5 decreasing to 1.0

49–56

Growth

White Leghorn

Heuser et al., 1938

3

0–56

Growth, prevention of curled toe paralysis

White Leghorn

Bethke and Record, 1942

2.3

0–42

Growth, prevention of curled toe paralysis

White Leghorn

Bootwalla and Harms, 1990

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

6

0–42

Growth

White Leghorn

Bauernfeind et al., 1942

6.6

0–150

Growth, egg quality, hatchability

New Hampshire

Balloun and Phillips, 1957b

4.8

0–42

Growth

White Leghorn

Bootwalla and Harms, 1991

Niacin, mg/kg

28

0–56

Growth

Barred Plymouth Rock

Childs et al., 1952

1.8

42–77

Growth

White Leghorn

Sunde, 1955

17.5–20

0–28

Growth

White Leghorn

Patterson et al., 1956

Vitamin B12, mg/kg

4.4

0–77

Growth

White Leghorn

Davis and Briggs, 1951

27

0–23

Growth

White Leghorn

Ott, 1951

2.5

0–42

Growth

White Leghorn

Miller et al., 1956

10

0–21

Growth

White Leghorn

Patel and McGinnis, 1980

Choline, mg/kg

2,000

0–147

Growth, egg production

White Leghorn

Nesheim et al., 1971

1,000

0–126

Growth

White Leghorn

Tsiagbe et al., 1982

Biotin, µg/kg

260

0–18

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Anderson and Warnick, 1970

Folic Acid, mg/kg

0.80

0–35

Growth, feed efficiency

White Leghorn

March and Biely, 1955

0.30

0–28

Growth

Broiler strain

Young et al., 1955

0.33 to 1.45, depending on protein level

0–35

Growth

New Hampshire

March and Biely, 1956

0.30

0–18

Growth

Broiler strain

Creek and Vasaitis, 1963

Thiamine, mg/kg

0.6–0.8

0–35

Growth

White Leghorn

Arnold and Elvehjem, 1938

0.88

0–28

Growth

White Leghorn

Thornton, 1960

0.88

0–28

Gain, feed efficiency

White Leghorn

Thornton and Shutze, 1960

Pyridoxine, mg/kg

2.8–3.0

0–28

Growth

White Leghorn

Briggs et al., 1942

5.7

0–56

Growth

White Plymouth Rock

Fuller and Kifer, 1959

5

0–21

Growth

Broiler strain

Kazemi and Kratzer, 1980

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A–2 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Leghorn—Type Chickens in Egg Production

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Weeks)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Protein, g/bird daily

14.9

24–60

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Balloun and Speers, 1969

14

24–72

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Thayer et al., 1974

15

20–72

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Proudfoot et al., 1988

Arginine, mg/bird daily

400

Not specified

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Adkins et al., 1962

Isoleucine, mg/bird daily

475

Not specified

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Bray, 1969

650

Not specified

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Gous et al., 1987

Lysine, mg/bird daily

690

22–42

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Nathanael and Sell, 1980

650

24–72

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Latshaw, 1981

620

20–72

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Proudfoot et al., 1988

Methionine + cystine, mg/bird daily

500

20 from onset of lay

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Reid and Weber, 1973

530

24–72

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Latshaw, 1981

Threonine, mg/bird daily

400

Not specified

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Adkins et al., 1958

Tryptophan, mg/bird daily

165

20–76

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Wethli and Morris, 1978

239

20–76

Egg yield

Rhode Island Red

Ohtani et al., 1989

Valine, %

0.64

Not specified

Egg yield

Crossbreds

Hurwitz and Bornstein, 1978

Linoleic acid, %

2.0

22–54

Egg production

White Leghorn

Menge, 1970

1.0

22–54

Egg weight

White Leghorn

Menge, 1970

1.0

22–54

Hatch

White Leghorn

Menge, 1970

0.9

20–72

Egg weight

White Leghorn

Whitehead, 1981

Calcium, g/bird daily

3.12

48–55

Egg production, shell strength

White Leghorn

Atteh and Leeson, 1983

3.15

24–72

Egg production

White Leghorn

Scheideler and Sell, 1986

>2.8

54–58

Egg production, shell strength

White Leghorn

Austic and Keshavarz, 1988

Nonphytate Phosphorus, mg/bird daily

215

28–36

Egg production

White Leghorn

Miles et al., 1983

250

21–32

Egg production

White Leghorn

Said and Sullivan, 1985

250

35–51

Egg production

White Leghorn

Sell et al., 1987

>150

52–72

Egg production

White Leghorn

Sell et al., 1987

Potassium, %

0.10

12

Egg production, egg weight, shell thickness

White Leghorn

Leach, 1974

Sodium, mg/bird daily

140–150

20–48

Egg production, feed conversion

White Leghorn

Reid, 1977

130

21–45

Egg yield

Medium weight brown-egg layers

Sauveur and Mongin, 1978

Chlorine, mg/bird daily

132

Not specified

Egg production

White Leghorn

Vogt, 1977

Magnesium, mg/kg

350

25–31

Egg production, egg weight

White Leghorn

Cox and Sell, 1967

900

Not specified

Egg production

White Leghorn

Edwards and Nugara, 1968

355

30–38

Egg production, hatchability

White Leghorn

Hajj and Sell, 1969

Managenese, mg/kg

>13

21–33

Egg production, hatchability

New Hampshire

Gallup and Norris, 1939b

20

22

Egg production, egg weight, shell quality

White Leghorn

Cox and Balloun, 1969

>7

17–23

Shell quality

White Leghorn

Longstaff and Hill, 1971

Zinc, mg/kg

28

22–72

Egg yield, hatchability

White Leghorn

Stahl et al., 1986

54

Not specified

Feather condition of progeny

White Leghorn

Stahl et al., 1986

Iron, mg/kg

45

Not specified

Hematocrit

White Leghorn

Morck and Austic, 1981

55

Not specified

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Morck and Austic, 1981

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Weeks)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Copper, mg/kg

>1

44–48

Shell quality

White Leghorn

Baumgartner et al., 1978

<2.5

44–48

Shell quality

White Leghorn

Baumgartner et al., 1978

Iodine, µg/kg

35

4–45

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Rogler et al., 1959a

>75

4–45

Embryonic thyroid

White Leghorn

Rogler et al., 1959b

Selenium, mg/kg

0.05

32–56

Egg production

White Leghorn

Latshaw et al., 1977

0.05

32–57

Egg production, hatchability

White Leghorn

Combs and Scott, 1979

Vitamin A, IU/kg

3,520

26–70

Egg production, blood spots, hatchability

White Leghorn

Hill et al., 1961

2,750

20–64

Egg production, fertility, hatchability

White Leghorn

Reid et al., 1965

Vitamin D3, IU/kg

150

21–34

Egg production, shell quality, fertility, hatchability

White Leghorn

Abdurahim et al., 1979

250

30–46

Egg production, shell quality

White Leghorn

Shen et al., 1981

Vitamin E, IU/kg

12

Not specified

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Jensen and McGinnis, 1960

41 in presence of oxidized fat

Not specified

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Olson et al., 1962

Vitamin K, mg/kg

>1.0

Not specified

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Griminger, 1964

Riboflavin, mg/kg

2.5

30–45

Egg production

White Leghorn

Petersen et al., 1947a

3.6

30–45

Hatchability, chick quality

White Leghorn

Petersen et al., 1947b

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

6.5

Not specified

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Gillis et al., 1948

7

Not specified

Hatchability

New Hampshire

Balloun and Phillips, 1957a

1.9

28–53

Egg production

White Leghorn

Beer et al., 1963

4.9

28–53

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Beer et al., 1963

8.9

28–53

Viability of progeny

White Leghorn

Beer et al., 1963

Niacin, mg/kg

9

Not specified

Egg production, hatchability

White Leghorn

Ringrose et al., 1965

11

Not specified

Egg production, hatchability

White Leghorn

Ringrose et al., 1965

<21

41–57

Egg yield, hatchability

White Leghorn

Ouart et al., 1987

Vitamin B12, µg/kg

1.0

22–35

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Mariakulandai and McGinnis, 1953

1–2

Not specified

Hatchability

New Hampshire

Johnson, 1954

0.5–1.0

Not specified

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Chin et al., 1958

Choline, mg/kg

1,050

50–66

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Miles et al., 1986

<1,480

45–57

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Parsons and Leeper, 1984

1,000

32–52

Egg yield

White Leghorn

Keshavarz and Austic, 1985

Biotin, mg/kg

0.10

19–73

Egg production

White Leghorn

Whitehead, 1980

Folic acid, mg/kg

0.5

44–55

Egg production, hatchability

White Leghorn

Sunde et al., 1950a,b

0.2

Not specified

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Couch and German, 1950

Thiamin, mg/kg

0.68

Not specified

Hatchability

White Leghorn

Polin et al., 1963

Pyridoxine, mg/kg

2.5

Not specified

Egg production, hatchability

White Leghorn

Cravens et al., 1946

2.3

Not specified

Egg production, hatchability

White Leghorn

Fuller et al., 1961

4.5

Not specified

Egg production, hatchability

White Leghorn

Fuller et al., 1961

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A–3 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Starting and Growing Market Broilers

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Arginine, %

1.2

10–20

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

=1.11

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Snyder et al., 1956

=0.85

7–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Barred Plymouth Rock

Krautmann et al., 1957

1.08

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Klain et al., 1960

0.92

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency nitrogen balance (adjusted to 23% crude protein diet

White Plymouth Rock × Light Sussex

Lewis et al., 1963

1.10

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

0.78

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Allen and Baker, 1972

0.85

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Hewitt and Lewis, 1972

=0.76

14–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Woodham and Deans, 1975

1.13, males

28–49

Growth, feed efficiency, feather loss

Hubbard × Hubbard

Kessler and Thomas, 1976

0.98, females

28–49

Growth, feed efficiency, feather loss

Hubbard × Hubbard

Kessler and Thomas, 1976

1.33

7–14

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

1.19

14–21

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

1.16

21–28

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

1.10

28–35

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.99

35–42

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.96

42–49

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

1.05

49–56

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

1.4

1–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Burton and Waldroup, 1979

1.25

8–29

Growth, feed efficiency

Vedette ISA

Alimentation Equilibree Commentri, 1981

0.91

29–50

Growth, feed efficiency

Vedette ISA

Alimentation Equilibree Commentri, 1981

1.25

0–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Peterson × Arbor Acre

Cuca and Jensen, 1990

Glycine + serine, %

1.6

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

=0.3

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1968

0.5–1.0

1–10

Growth, feed efficiency

Cobb

Coon et al., 1974

=1.8

1–23

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Ngo and Coon, 1976

0.60

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1979

Histidine, %

0.4

8–13 or 15

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Klain et al., 1960

0.3

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

=0.34

14–28

Total protein efficiency

Ross

Woodham and Deans, 1975

0.33

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1979

0.32

8–22

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Han et al., 1991

Isoleucine, %

0.60

10–24

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

0.73

8–15

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Klain et al., 1960

0.80

8–16

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

=0.52

7–21

Growth, plasma amino acid levels

Not specified

D'Mello, 1974

0.48

14–28

Total protein efficiency

Ross

Woodham and Deans, 1975

0.60

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et. al., 1979

0.81

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Ross × Arbor Acre

Farran and Thomas, 1990

Leucine, %

1.4

10 or 24

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

1.68

8–13 or 15

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Klain et. al., 1960

1.2

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

1.10

7–21

Growth, plasma amino acid levels

Not specified

D'Mello, 1974

=1.05

14–28

Total protein efficiency

Ross

Woodham and Deans, 1975

1.00

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1979

1.16

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Ross × Arbor Acre

Farran and Thomas, 1990

Lysine, %

0.90

2–14

Growth

Not specified

Almquist and Mecchi, 1942

0.96

14–28

Growth

Not specified

Grau et al., 1946

0.90

10–20

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

1.00

0–42

Growth

Rhode Island Red × White Leghorn

Milligan et al., 1951

0.72

56–63

Growth, feed efficiency

Rhode Island Red

Bird, 1953

1.10

1–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Rhode Island Red × Barred Plymouth Rock

Edwards et al., 1956

1.01

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Klain et al., 1960

0.83

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency, plasma amino acids

New Hampshire × Columbian

Zimmerman and Scott, 1965

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

0.70

14–21

Growth, feed efficiency, plasma amino acids

New Hampshire × Columbian

Zimmerman and Scott, 1965

0.67

21–28

Growth, feed efficiency, plasma amino acids

New Hampshire × Columbian

Zimmerman and Scott, 1965

0.59

28–35

Growth, feed efficiency, plasma amino acids

New Hampshire × Columbian

Zimmerman and Scott, 1965

0.92

35–56

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Bornstein, 1970

0.85

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Hewitt and Lewis, 1972

1.05

14–28

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973a

1.06

14–21

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973b

0.92

42–56

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973b

0.68

49–63

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Twining et al., 1973

1.12

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Woodham and Deans, 1975

0.64, females

49–63

Growth, feed efficiency

Vantress × Arbor Acre

Thomas et al., 1977

0.69, males

49–63

Growth, feed efficiency

Vantress × Arbor Acre

Thomas et al., 1977

1.18

7–14

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

1.00

14–21

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.95

21–28

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.87

28–35

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.78

35–42

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.76

42–49

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.84

49–56

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

1.10

14–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

McNaughton et al., 1978

1.18

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Attia and Latshaw, 1979

1.10

1–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Burton and Waldroup, 1979

0.99

35–42

Growth, feed efficiency

Cornish × White Plymouth Rock

Holsheimer, 1981

Methionine, %

0.50

10–20

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

0.45

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

0.18

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Klain et al., 1960

0.39

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Hewitt and Lewis, 1972

0.39

7–14

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.34

14–21

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.34

21–28

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.31

28–35

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.27

35–42

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.27

42–49

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.29

49–56

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.57

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Cobb

Waldroup et al., 1979

0.44

8–21

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Robbins and Baker, 1980a

0.46

1–14

Growth, feed efficiency, feathering

White Mountain × Hubbard

Moran, 1981

0.36, males

35–56

Growth, feed efficiency

White Mountain × Hubbard

Moran, 1981

0.29, females

35–49

Growth, feed efficiency

White Mountain × Hubbard

Moran, 1981

0.49

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Thomas et al., 1985

0.55

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Tillman and Pesti, 1985

Methionine + cystine, %

0.90

10–20

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

0.80

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1960

0.47

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Klain et al., 1960

0.70

0–42

Feed efficiency

Vantress × New Hampshire

Nelson et al., 1960

0.81

0–28

Feed efficiency

Vantress × New Hampshire

Nelson et al., 1960

0.5

28–56

Growth

Hubbard

Adams et al., 1962

>0.6–<0.7

28–56

Feed efficiency

Hubbard

Adams et al., 1963

0.81

0–35

Growth, feed efficiency

Cornish × White Plymouth Rock

Bornstein and Lipstein, 1964

0.90

0–35

Growth, feed efficiency

Cornish × White Plymouth Rock

Bornstein and Lipstein, 1964

0.67

35–56

Growth, feed efficiency

Cornish × White Plymouth Rock

Bornstein and Lipstein, 1966

0.60

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Graber et al., 1971

0.63

35–42

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Graber et al., 1971

0.65

49–56

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Graber et al., 1971

0.79

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Hewitt and Lewis, 1972

0.70

14–21

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Colubmian

Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973b

0.51

42–56

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973b

0.92

8–21

Growth, feed efficiency, nitrogen retention

New Hampshire × Columbian

Boomgaardt and Baker, 1973c

0.58

14–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Woodham and Deans, 1975

0.93

0–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Cobb

Murillo et al., 1976

0.61

35–49

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.84

7–14

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.78

14–21

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.79

21–28

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

0.76

28–35

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.68

35–42

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.69

42–49

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.39

49–56

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.86

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Attia and Latshaw, 1979

0.90

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Cobb

Waldroup et al., 1979

0.80

8–21

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Robbins and Baker, 1980a

0.52

8–21

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Robbins and Baker, 1980a

0.55

8–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Hubbard

Robbins and Baker, 1980b

0.57

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Willis and Baker, 1980

0.70

35–42

Growth, feed efficiency

Cornish × White Plymouth Rock

Holsheimer, 1981

0.87, males

1–14

Growth, feed efficiency, feathering

White Mountain × Hubbard

Moran, 1981

0.92, females

1–14

Growth, feed efficiency, feathering

White Mountain × Hubbard

Moran, 1981

0.81, males

35–52

Growth, feed efficiency, feathering

White Mountain × Hubbard

Moran, 1981

0.82

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Cobb

Wheeler and Latshaw, 1981

>0.70–<0.76

21–42

Growth, feed efficiency

Cobb

Wheeler and Latshaw, 1981

0.65

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Willis and Baker, 1981a

0.50

7–17

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1983

0.87

7–24

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1983

0.80

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Hubbard

Mitchell and Robbins, 1983

0.72

21–42

Growth, feed efficiency

Hubbard

Mitchell and Robbins, 1983

0.77

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Thomas et al., 1985

0.78

21–42

Growth, feed efficiency, carcass fat

Peterson × Arbor Acres

Jensen et al., 1989

Phenylalanine + tyrosine, %

1.6

10–20 or 40

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

=1.0

4–10

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Fisher et al., 1957

1.30

8–13 or 15

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Klain et al., 1960

1.31

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

0.87

8–14

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Sasse and Baker, 1972

1.09–1.12

14–28

Total protein efficiency

Ross

Woodham and Deans, 1975

0.95

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1979

Threonine, %

0.60

10–20

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

0.45

1–14

Growth, feed efficiency

White Leghorn

Grau, 1947

0.55–0.60

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Barred Plymouth Rock

Krautmann et al., 1958

0.58

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Klain et al., 1960

0.65

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

0.70

1–18

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × White Leghorn

Bhargava et al., 1971

0.53

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Hewitt and Lewis, 1972

0.52

14–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Woodham and Deans, 1975

0.80

7–14

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.71

14–21

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.71

21–28

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.67

28–35

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.60

35–42

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.60

42–49

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.64

49–56

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.73–0.75

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

ISA JV 715

Uzu, 1986

0.68

22–42

Growth, feed efficiency

ISA JV 715

Uzu, 1986

0.85

3–14

Growth, feed efficiency (adjusted to 23% crude protein

Peterson

Robbins, 1987

0.72, males

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Thomas et al., 1987

0.67, females

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Thomas et al., 1987

0.79

1–27

Growth, feed efficiency

Hybro

Bertram et al., 1988

0.79

7–20

Growth, feed efficiency

Vantress × Arbor Acres

Smith and Waldroup, 1988a

0.70–0.77

1–14

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Austic and Rangel-Lugo, 1989

Tryptophan, %

0.25

10–20

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

0.18

10–24

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × White Leghorn

Wilkening et al., 1947

0.143

10–20

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Griminger et al., 1956

0.17

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Klain et al., 1960

0.225

7–14

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

0.20

8–14

Growth, feed efficiency (adjusted to 23% CP

New Hampshire × Columbian

Boomgaardt and Baker, 1971

0.17

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Hewitt and Lewis, 1972

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

=0.14

14–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Woodham and Deans, 1975

0.179

28–49

Growth, feed efficiency, feather scores

Arbor Acres

Hunchar and Thomas, 1976

0.163

7–14

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.144

14–21

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.141

21–28

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.134

28–35

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.118

35–42

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.122

42–49

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.128

49–56

Computer model

Not specified

Hurwitz et al., 1978

0.17

7–56

Growth

Cobb

Freeman, 1979

0.24

0–7

Growth, feed efficiency

Cobb

Freeman, 1979

0.19

7–34

Growth, feed efficiency

Lohmann

Steinhart and Kirchgessner, 1984

=0.16

7–20

Growth, feed efficiency

Vantress × Arbor Acres

Smith and Waldroup, 1988b

0.22

8–22

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Han et al., 1991

Valine, %

0.80

10–20 or 24

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

0.83

8–13 or 15

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Klain et al., 1960

0.82

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Dean and Scott, 1965

0.75

7–21

Growth, plasma amino acid levels

Not specified

D'Mello, 1974

0.69–0.71

14–28

Total protein efficiency

Ross

Woodham and Deans, 1975

0.69

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1979

>0.72

21–42

Feed efficiency, abdominal fat

Broiler strain

Mendonca and Jensen, 1989a

0.90

7–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Ross × Arbor Acres

Farran and Thomas, 1990

Proline, %

=0.5

9–15

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Green et al., 1962

0.4–0.8

8–14

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Graber et al., 1970

0.40

8–16

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1979

Linoleic, %

 

Varied cited in a review

Growth, tissue triene: tetraene ratio

Various

Balnave, 1970

Calcium, %

0.90

29–56

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Waldroup et al., 1963a

0.74

0–28

Growth, bone ash

Vantress × Arbor Acres

Twining et al., 1965

0.80

42–56

Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash

Vantress × Arbor Acres

Twining et al., 1965

0.80

28–56

Growth, feed efficiency, tibia ash, bone breaking force

Broiler strain

Waldroup et al., 1974a

1.30

0–21

Maximum toe ash

White Cornish × White Plymouth Rock

Yoshida and Hoshii, 1982a

1.18

21–56

Maximum toe ash

White Cornish × White Plymouth Rock

Yoshida and Hoshii, 1982b

Nonphytate phosphorus, %

0.43

0–21

Growth, bone ash

New Hampshire × White Leghorn

O'Rourke et al., 1952

0.35

14–35

Growth, bone ash

New Hampshire × White Leghorn

O'Rourke et al., 1952

0.27

28–70

Growth, bone ash

New Hampshire × White Leghorn

O'Rourke et al., 1952

0.45

0–28

Growth, bone ash

Various

Almquist, 1954

0.55

0–21

Growth, bone ash

New Hampshire × White Leghorn

O'Rourke et al., 1955

0.33

28–70

Growth, bone ash

New Hampshire × White Leghorn

O'Rourke et al., 1955

0.45

0–28

Growth, bone ash, serum alkaline phosphates

Rhode Island Red

Gardiner, 1962

0.45

0–28

Growth, bone ash

Vantress × White Plymouth Rock

Waldroup et al., 1962

0.24

28–56

Growth, feed efficiency

Broiler strain

Waldroup et al., 1963a

0.39

0–28

Growth, bone ash

Broiler strain

Waldroup et al., 1963b

0.35

0–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Vantress × Arbor Acres

Twining et al., 1965

0.24

42–56

Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash

Vantress × Arbor Acres

Twining et al., 1965

0.43

0–21

Growth, bone ash

White Plymouth Rock

Fritz et al., 1969

0.24

28–56

Growth, feed efficiency, tibia ash, bone breaking force

Broiler strain

Waldroup et al., 1974a

0.53

0–28

Maximum bone ash

Broiler strain

Waldroup et al., 1975

0.35

28–56

Growth, feed efficiency

Hubbard

Sauveur, 1978

0.50

0–28

Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash

Broiler strain

El Boushy, 1979

0.50

8–22

Growth, feed efficiency, tibia ash

New Hampshire × Columbian

Willis and Baker, 1981b

0.75

0–21

Maximum toe ash

White Cornish × White Plymouth Rock

Yoshida and Hoshii, 1982a

0.35

21–56

Maximum toe ash

White Cornish × White Plymouth Rock

Yoshida and Hoshii, 1982b

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

0.38

0–28

Growth, toe ash

Hubbard

Nys et al., 1983

0.29

35–53

Growth, feed efficiency, tibia ash, bone length

Broiler strain

Tortuero and Diez Tardon, 1983

Potassium, %

0.25–0.30

13–41

Growth, mortality

Vantress × Plymouth Rock

Leach et al., 1959

Sodium, %

0.11–0.20

1–28

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

McWard and Scott, 1961a

0.13

7–23

Growth, blood pH

White Rock

Hurwitz et al., 1973

0.07

49–63

Growth, blood pH

White Rock

Hurwitz et al., 1974

>0.23

1–21

Growth

Broiler strain

Ross, 1977

0.2–0.25

7–21

Growth

Cobb × Hubbard

Ross, 1979

0.35

1–21

Growth

Peterson × Hubbard

Edwards, 1984

Chlorine, %

0.315–0.340

2–28

Growth, mortality, blood chlorine

White Plymouth Rock

Leach and Nesheim, 1963

0.13

7–23

Growth, blood pH

White Rock

Hurwitz et al., 1973

0.07

49–63

Growth, blood pH

White Rock

Hurwitz et al., 1973

0.12

1–21

Growth, mortality

Ross

Gardiner and Dewar, 1976

0.42

1–21

Growth

Peterson × Hubbard

Edwards, 1984

Magnesium, mg/kg

350–400

7–24

Growth

Not specified

Almquist, 1947

100–300

1–21

Growth, mortality

White Plymouth Rock

Edwards et al., 1960

250

1–28

Growth, blood magnesium, mortality

Vantress × Hubbard

Gardner et al., 1960

200

1–14

Growth, mortality

New Hampshire × Columbian

McWard and Scott, 1961b

577

1–21

Growth, mortality, bone magnesium

White Plymouth Rock

Nugara and Edwards, 1963

=350

1–27

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker and Molitoris, 1975

Manganese, mg/kg

50

1–42

Growth, perosis

New Hampshire

Gallup and Norris, 1939a

14

8–22

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Southern and Baker, 1983a

Zinc, mg/kg

35

12–26

Growth, feed efficiency

White Plymouth Rock

Morrison and Sarett, 1958

35

1–42

Growth, bone integrity

White Rock or Cornish × White Rock

O'Dell et al., 1958

30

1–28

Growth

White Meteor × White Rock

Roberson and Shaible, 1958

47–57

1–14

Growth, tibia ash

White Rock

Edwards et al., 1959

>52

1–28

Growth leg deformity

New Hampshire × Connecticut

Lease et al., 1960

>40 mg

1–28

Growth, hock enlargement

White Plymouth Rock

Zeigler et al., 1961

14

8–22

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Southern and Baker, 1983b

18

1–21

Growth

Broiler strain

Dewar and Downie, 1984

>45

8–22

Tibia zinc

New Hampshire × Columbian

Wedekind et al., 1990

Iron, mg/kg

56

7–21

Growth, blood hemoglobin, liver iron

Not specified

Waddel and Sell, 1964

75–80

1–28

Growth, blood hemoglobin

New Hampshire and Plymouth Rock

Davis et al., 1968

80

1–21

Growth, blood hemoglobin, packed cell volume

Not specified

McNaughton and Day, 1979

40

8–22

Growth, blood hemoglobin, hematocrit

New Hampshire × Columbian

Southern and Baker, 1982

Copper, mg/kg

8

1–21

Growth, blood hemoglobin, packed cell volume

Not specified

McNaughton and Day, 1979

Iodine, mg/kg

0.3–0.4

28–56

Growth, thyroid histology

Barred Plymouth Rock

Creek et al., 1957

Selenium, mg/kg

>0.02 mg

1–24

Mortality, exudative diathesis

Plymouth Rock × Vantress

Thompson and Scott, 1969

0.1 mg

1–31

Pancreatic degeneration and fibrosis

White Plymouth Rock × Vantress

Gries and Scott, 1972c

>0.1 mg

1–63

Growth, glutathione peroxidase activity

Hubbard

Binnerts and El Boushy, 1985

0.14–0.17

1–21

Growth, plasma thyroid hormones

Hubbard and Arbor Acre

Jensen et al., 1986

Vitamin A, IU/kg

2,200

Varied

Growth

Various

Almquist, 1953

1,320

1–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Columbian Rock

Olsen et al., 1959

=1,100

7–63

Growth

Not specified

Marusich and Bauernfeind, 1963

900

1–56

Growth, incidence of coccidiosis

Broiler strain

Ogunmodede, 1981

Vitamin D3, IU/kg

200–396

1–28

Growth

Not specified

Waldroup et al., 1963a

198

1–28

Growth, tibia ash

Not specified

Waldroup et al., 1965

200

1–54

Growth, tibia ash

Not specified

Biely and March, 1967

=200

1–14

Growth, bone mineralization

Not specified

McAuliffe et al., 1976

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

198

1–21

Growth, tibia ash

Not specified

McNaughton et al., 1977a

400

1–56

Growth, tibia ash

Not specified

Lofton and Soares, 1986

Vitamin E, IU/kg

15–24

1–28

Prevention of encephalomalacia

Barred Plymouth Rock × Rhode Island Red

Singsen et al., 1955

5–60

Varied, cited in a review

Encephalomalacia exudative diathesis, muscular degeneration

Various

Machlin and Gordon, 1962

5.4–7.4

2–33

Mortality, incidence of encephalomalacia

White Rock

Bartov and Bornstein, 1972

30–50

1–14 and 1–35

Growth, peroxidation in hepatic microsomes

Vantress × Plymouth Rock

Combs and Scott, 1974

Vitamin K, mg/kg

0.588

1–14

Prothrombin time

White Plymouth Rock

Nelson and Norris, 1960

0.479

1–28

Prothrombin time

White Plymouth Rock

Nelson and Norris, 1960

0.515

1–84

Prothrombin time

White Plymouth Rock

Nelson and Norris, 1961a

0.500

1–14

Prothrombin time

White Plymouth Rock

Nelson and Norris, 1961b

0.370

1–28

Prothrombin time

White Plymouth Rock

Nelson and Norris, 1961b

Riboflavin, mg/kg

2.5

1–56

Growth

Barred Rock × New Hampshire

Bethke and Record, 1942

3.0

14–42

Growth, feed efficiency

White Wyandotte

Bolton, 1944

3.0–3.5

14–42

Growth

White Wyandotte

Bolton, 1947

2.3

1–56

Growth

Hubbard × Arbor Acres

Wyatt et al., 1973a

5.1

1–56

Growth

Harco

Ogunmodede, 1977

3.6

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Cobb and Cobb × Arbor Acres

Ruiz and Harms, 1988b

2.6

8–22

Growth, leg paralysis

New Hampshire × Columbian

Chung and Baker, 1990

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

14

Not specified

Growth

Not specified

Jukes, 1939

10

Not specified

Growth

Not specified

Jukes and McElroy, 1943

5

Not specified

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Staten et al., 1980

Niacin, mg/kg

26–28

7–42

Growth, perosis

Barred Plymouth Rock

Childs et al., 1952

37

1–21

Growth

White Cornish

Yoshida et al., 1966

20

7–20

Growth, incidence of tongue lesions

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1973

=22

8–50

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Columbian

Yen et al., 1977

>55 mg

1–53

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Waldroup et al., 1985b

28–36

1–21

Growth, leg disorders

Cobb

Ruiz and Harms, 1988

32

1–21

Growth, leg disorders

Arbor Acres × Cobb

Ruiz et al., 1990

=22 mg

21–49

Growth

Cobb

Ruiz and Harms, 1990

Vitamin B12, mg/kg

0.01

7–29

Growth, energetic efficiency

Dominant White × White Plymouth Rock

Looi and Renner, 1974

=0.01 mg

1–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Sussex × White Rock

Rys and Koreleski, 1974

Choline, mg/kg

1,000

14–42

Growth, perosis

Barred Plymouth Rock

West et al., 1951

1,540–1,760

1–56

Growth, feed efficiency

White Rock

Quillen et al., 1961

1119

1–21

Growth

White Rock

Fritz et al., 1967

358

44–55

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Molitoris and Baker, 1976

800

7–28

Growth

White Rock

Lipstein et al., 1977

=1,171

7–35

Growth, perosis

Not specified

Derilo and Balnave, 1980

1,910–4,100

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Pesti et al., 1980

1,200

8–25

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Baker et al., 1983

625

8–17

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Lowry et al., 1987

>1,300

1–21

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Tsiagbe et al., 1987

Biotin, mg/kg

>0.26 mg

1–25

Growth, mortality, leg abnormalities

Not specified

Anderson and Warnick, 1970

0.14

1–24

Growth, mortality due to fatty kidney liver syndrome

Not specified

Payne et al., 1974

0.14–0.18

1–35

Growth

Ross

Whitehead and Bannister, 1980

=0.17–0.18

1–56

Incidence of fatty liver and kidney syndrome

Ross

Whitehead and Randall, 1982

=0.20

1–21

Growth, leg disorders, dermatitis

Hubbard

Watkins, 1988

Folic acid, mg/kg

=0.5

1–28

Growth

Not specified

Saxena et al., 1954

=0.3

1–21 and 1–28

Growth, perosis

Rhode Island Red × White Plymouth Rock

Young et al., 1955

0.40–0.65 mg

1–35

Growth

New Hampshire

March and Biely, 1956

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

0.3–0.45 mg

1–20

Growth, perosis

Arbor Acres

Creek and Vasaitis, 1963

0.34–0.49 mg

1–28

Growth, leg abnormalities

Not specified

Saxena et al., 1954

Thiamin, mg/kg

0.75

3–28

Growth, polyneuritis

New Hampshire × Delaware

Thornton 1960

1.0–1.3

Not specified

Growth, feed efficiency

New Hampshire × Delaware

Thornton and Shutze 1960

Pyridoxine, mg/kg

3–5

12–42

Growth, perosis, anemia, dermatitis

White Rock

Hogan et al. 1941

2

7–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Kratzer et al., 1947

<5.7

1–56

Growth, feed efficiency

White Plymouth Rock

Fuller and Kifer, 1959

3.3

1–14

Growth

White Plymouth Rock

Fuller and Dunahoo, 1959

2.2–2.6

1–28

Growth, gizzard erosion, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

Vantress × Arbor Acre

Daghir and Balloun, 1963

2.8–3.6

1–14 or 35

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Kirchgessner and Friesecke, 1963

3

Not specified

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Maier and Kirchgessner, 1968

>3.1

7–28

Growth, serum aspartate aminotransferase

Not specified

Daghir and Shah, 1973

3.2–3.4

1–28

Growth, perosis

White Plymouth Rock × Vantress

Gries and Scott, 1972a

=1.0

1–20

Growth, feed efficiency

Ross

Lee et al., 1976

1.1

8–17

Growth

New Hampshire × Columbian

Yen et al., 1976

1.75

3–49

Growth, plasma amino acids

Not specified

aboaysha and Kratzer, 1979

1.3–2.7

1–21

Growth

Not specified

Kazemi and Kratzer, 1980

=1.48

1–49

Growth

Not specified

Blalock et al., 1984

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A-4 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Broiler Breeder Pullets and Hens

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Weeks)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Protein, g/bird daily

20

24–52

Egg production, egg weight, body weight, liveability

Cobb

Waldroup et al., 1976b

15.6–16.5

Not specified

Estimated by model

Not specified

Bornstein et al., 1979

19.5

21–64

Egg production, egg weight, fertility

Marshall

Pearson and Herron, 1981

23.1

31–60

Egg yield

Tetra

Jeroch et al., 1982

19

19–40

Body weight, skeletal growth egg production, egg weight, hatchability

Hubbard

Spratt and Lesson, 1987

18–19

31–60

Egg production, egg weight, body weight, egg quality, hatchability

Tetra

Schloffel et al., 1988

Arginine, mg/bird daily

1,111

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

1,111

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

<1,226 mg

24–64

Egg production, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, egg specific gravity

Cobb

Wilson and Harms, 1984

Histidine, mg/bird daily

209

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

200

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

Isoleucine, mg/bird daily

853

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

850

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

Leucine, mg/bird daily

1,247

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

1,250

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

Lysine, mg/bird daily

773

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

760

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

<808

24–64

Egg production, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, egg specific gravity

Cobb

Wilson and Harms, 1984

Methionine, mg/bird daily

558

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

570

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

400

24–64

Egg production, body weight, fertility, hatchability

Cobb

Harms and Wilson, 1980

Methionine + cystine, mg/bird daily

819

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

830

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

723

24–64

Egg production, egg weight, fertility, hatchability

Cobb

Harms and Wilson, 1980

<682

24–64

Egg production, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, egg specific gravity

Cobb

Wilson and Harms, 1984

694

Peak egg production

Nitrogen balance

Tetra

Halle et al., 1984

Phenylalanine + tyrosine mg/bird daily

1,126

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

1,110

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

Phenylalanine, mg/bird daily

610

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

Threonine, mg/bird daily

717

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

720

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

Tryptophan, mg/bird daily

189

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

190

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

<223 mg

24–64

Egg production, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, egg specific gravity

Cobb

Wilson and Harms, 1984

Valine, mg/bird daily

979

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Waldroup et al., 1976c

920

Peak egg production

Body weight, egg mass

Mathematical model

Bornstein et al., 1979

Calcium, g/bird daily

3.91

26–53

Egg production, egg specific gravity, hatchability

Cobb

Wilson et al., 1980

Nonphytate phosphorus, mg/bird daily

338

26–53

Egg production, egg specific gravity, hatchability

Cobb

Wilson et al., 1980

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Weeks)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Sodium, mg/bird daily

<154

32–64

Egg production egg weight, fertility, egg specific gravity, hatchability

Cobb

Damron et al., 1983

Chlorine, mg/bird daily

208

32–60

Egg production, egg weight, hatchability

Cobb

Harms and Wilson, 1984

Biotin, µg/bird daily

16

20–58

Egg production, egg weight, hatchability

Marshall

Whitehead et al., 1985

TABLE A-5 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Broiler Breeder Males

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Metabolizable energy, kcal/bird daily

400

28–40

Body weight, fertility, hatchability, chick production, testes weight

Broiler strain

McCartney and Brown, 1980

458

30–54

Body weight, fertility, hatchability, chick production, testes weight

Broiler strain

Brown and McCartney, 1983

346

30–46

Body weight, fertility, hatchability, chick production, testes weight

Hubbard

Brown and McCartney, 1986

358

30–60

Body weight, semen volume, sperm cells, fertility

Broiler strain

Buckner et al., 1986

Protein, %

12.4

7–21

Development of testes, subsequent fertility

Peterson

Wilson et al., 1971

12–14

4–53

Weight gain, semen volume and concentration testes weight

Broiler strain

Wilson et al., 1987a

9

6–53

Weight gain, semen volume and concentration testes weight

Broiler strain

Wilson et al., 1987b

15

1–4

Fertility 24–27 weeks

Hubbard

Vaughters et al., 1987

Protein, g/bird daily

10–14

20–60

Semen production

Hubbard

Buckner and Savage, 1986

Calcium, %

<0.2

36–60

Semen volume, sperm concentration, dead sperm, fertility, hatchability

White Leghorn

Wilson et al., 1969

Calcium, mg/bird daily

7.98

44–56

Weight gain, blood parameters, bone constituents

White Leghorn

Norris et al., 1972

<500

Not specified

Reproductive parameters

Broiler strains

Kappleman et al., 1982

Nonphytate phosphorus, %

0.1

44–56

Weight gain, blood parameters, bone constituents

White Leghorn

Norris et al., 1972

Nonphytate phosphorus, mg/bird daily

110

32–40

Semen volume

Arbor Acres, cage males

Bootwalla and Harms, 1989

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A-6 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Turkeys

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Protein, %

28

0–7

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Lloyd et al., 1949

20

0–4

Growth

Jersey Buff, both sexes

Baldini et al., 1954

20

8–16

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Carter et al., 1957

28

0–8

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Atkinson et al., 1957

25–32

0–6

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Balloun et al., 1959

18

8–12

Growth

Bronze, females

Jensen et al., 1965

16

12–16

Growth

Bronze, females

Jensen et al., 1965

14

16–20

Growth

Bronze, females

Jensen et al., 1965

22

8–12

Growth

Large White, males

Summers et al., 1968

18

12–16

Growth

Large White, males

Summers et al., 1968

14

16–20

Growth

Large White, males

Summers et al., 1968

24

8–10

Growth

Large White, females

Summers et al., 1968

20

10–12

Growth

Large White, females

Summers et al., 1968

18

12–14

Growth

Large White, females

Summers et al., 1968

24

6–12

Growth

Large White, males

Eberst et al., 1972

30

0–7

Growth

Large White, males

Herz et al., 1975a

22

7–13

Growth

Large White, males

Herz et al., 1975b

30

0–4

Growth

Large White, males

Richter et al., 1980

21.3

10

Growth

Large White, males

Potter et al., 1981

19.5

14

Growth

Large White, males

Potter et al., 1981

17.6

18

Growth

Large White, males

Potter et al., 1981

21.7

10

Growth

Large White, females

Potter et al., 1981

18.4

14

Growth

Large White, females

Potter et al., 1981

15.0

18

Growth

Large White, females

Potter et al., 1981

20

5–14

Growth, carcass composition

Large White, both sexes

Richter and Prinz, 1980

26

4–10

Growth, carcass quality

Small White, both sexes

Salmon, 1984

20

10–13

Growth, carcass quality

Small White, males

Salmon, 1984

18

10–13

Growth, carcass quality

Small White, females

Salmon, 1984

Arginine, %

1.60

0–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Almquist, 1952

1.90

1–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Dunkelgod et al., 1970

1.60

1–3

Growth

Bronze and Large White, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

1.75

1–3

Growth

Large White, males

D'Mello and Emmans, 1975

1.59

0–4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983a

1.32

4–8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983a

1.02

8–12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983a

0.80

12–16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983a

0.63

16–20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983a

0.47

20–24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983a

Glycine, %

0.90

0–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Kratzer and Williams, 1948a

Histidine, %

0.58

1–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

0.53

0–4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.42

4–8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.30

8–12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.23

12–16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.18

16–20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.12

20–24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Isoleucine, %

 

 

 

 

0.80

0–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Kratzer et al., 1952

1.10

1–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

0.84

1–3

Growth

Large White, males

D'Mello, 1975

1.03

0–4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.86

4–8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.67

8–12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.53

12–16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.42

16–20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.31

20–24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Leucine, %

1.86

1–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

1.42

1–3

Growth

Large White, males

D'Mello, 1975

1.96

0–4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

1.62

4–8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

1.23

8–12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.96

12–16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.74

16–20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.53

20–24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Lysine, %

1.5

0–4

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Almquist, 1952

0.96

4–8

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Kratzer et al., 1956b

0.85

8–12

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Kratzer et al., 1956b

0.76

14–18

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Kratzer et al., 1956b

0.56

16–19

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Kratzer et al., 1956b

0.60

20–23

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Kratzer et al., 1956b

1.55

0–6

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Balloun and Phillips, 1957b

1.60

0–3

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Kummero et al., 1971

1.68

1–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

1.50

0–4

Growth

Large White, males

Tuttle and Balloun, 1974

1.40

4–8

Growth

Large White, males

Tuttle and Balloun, 1974

1.12

8–12

Growth

Large White, males

Tuttle and Balloun, 1974

1.55

1–3

Growth

Large White, males

D'Mello and Emmans, 1975

0.96

12–16

Growth

Large White, males

Jensen et al., 1976

0.76

16–20

Growth

Large White, males

Jensen et al., 1976

1.4

8–12

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Potter et al., 1981

1.2

12–16

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Potter et al., 1981

0.9

11–20

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Potter et al., 1981

1.42

0–4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

1.12

4–8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.81

8–12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.63

12–16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.49

16–20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.32

20–24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Methionine, %

0.55

Starting

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Almquist, 1952

0.56

0–6

Growth

Jersey Buff, both sexes

Baldini et al., 1957

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

0.6

0–3

Growth, foot pad dermatitis

Large White, males

Murillo and Jensen, 1976a

0.4

8–12

Growth, feed efficiency

Large White, males

Murillo and Jensen, 1976b

0.46

1–4

Growth

Large White, males

Behrends and Waibel, 1980

0.30

8–12

Growth

Large White, males

Behrends and Waibel, 1980

0.19

16–20

Growth

Large White, males

Behrends and Waibel, 1980

0.51

0–4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.41

4–8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.31

8–12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.24

12–16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.20

16–20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.15

20–24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Methionine + cystine, %

0.90

0–4

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Almquist, 1952

0.79

0–3

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Kummero et al., 1971

1.04

1–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

1.05

0–3

Growth, foot pad dermatitis

Large White, both sexes

Murillo and Jensen, 1976a

0.82

8–12

Growth, feed efficiency

Large White, males

Murillo and Jensen, 1976b

0.83

1–3

Growth

Large White, males

D'Mello, 1976

1.10

0–4

Growth

Medium White, males

Potter and Shelton, 1979

1.00

4–8

Growth

Medium White, males

Potter and Shelton, 1979

0.93

8–12

Growth

Medium White, both sexes

Potter and Shelton, 1980

0.75

12–16

Growth

Medium White, both sexes

Potter and Shelton, 1980

1.01

1–4

Growth

Large White, males

Behrends and Waibel, 1980

0.71

8–12

Growth

Large White, males

Behrends and Waibel, 1980

0.48

16–20

Growth

Large White, males

Behrends and Waibel, 1980

1.05

0–4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.93

4–8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.76

8–12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.60

12–16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.48

16–20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.38

20–24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

1.15

0–4

Growth, feed efficiency

Large White, both sexes

Schutte et al., 1986

1.05

4–8

Growth, feed efficiency

Large White, both sexes

Schutte et al., 1986

Phenylalanine + tyrosine, %

1.60

1–2

Growth

Large White, males

Dunkelgod et al., 1970

1.80

1–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

1.72

0–4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

1.43

4–8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

1.09

8–12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.86

12–16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.67

16–20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.49

20–24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Phenylalanine, %

0.83

1–2

Growth

Large White, males

Dunkelgod et al., 1970

1.05

0–4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

0.88

4 – 8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.67

8 – 12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.53

12 – 16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.41

16 – 20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.30

20 – 24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Threonine, %

1.10

1 – 2

Growth

Large White, males

Dunkelgod et al., 1970

1.00

1 – 3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

0.94

1 – 3

Growth

Large White, males

D'Mello, 1976

1.14

0 – 4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.94

4 – 8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.72

8 – 12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.56

12 – 16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.44

16 – 20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.32

20 – 24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Tryptophan, %

0.26

0 – 4

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Almquist, 1952

0.37

1 – 2

Growth

Large White, males

Dunkelgod et al., 1970

0.26

1 – 3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

0.21

0 – 4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.17

4 – 8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.13

8 – 12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.11

12 – 16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.08

16 – 20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.06

20 – 24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Valine, %

1.38

1 – 2

Growth

Large White, males

Dunkelgod et al., 1970

1.20

1 – 3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Warnick and Anderson, 1973

1.21

1 – 3

Growth

Large White, males

D'Mello, 1975

1.34

0 – 4

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

1.13

4 – 8

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.88

8 – 12

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.69

12 – 16

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.53

16 – 20

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

0.40

20 – 24

Carcass content plus maintenance

Large White, males, mathematical model

Hurwitz et al., 1983

Linoleic, %

1.00

0 – 3

Growth

Large White and Bronze, both sexes

Ketola et al., 1973

Calcium, %

1.7

0 – 3

Bone ash

Bronze, both sexes

Motzok and Slinger, 1948

1.5

0 – 4

Bone ash

Small White, both sexes

Wilcox et al., 1953

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

0.6

8 – 24

Growth, toe ash

Bronze, both sexes

Nelson et al., 1961

1.0

0 – 8

Growth, toe ash

Large White, both sexes

Slinger et al., 1961

0.7

8 – 20

Growth, toe ash

Bronze, both sexes

Sullivan, 1961

0.81

0 – 8

Growth, toe ash

Bronze, both sexes

Formica et al., 1962

0.83

8 – 23, 25

Growth, toe ash

Bronze, both sexes

Formica et al., 1962

Nonphytate phosphorus, %

0.6

0 – 4

Growth

Bronze and Small White, both sexes

Almquist, 1954

0.5

8 – 20

Growth, bone ash

Bronze, both sexes

Sullivan, 1960

0.35

9 – 16

Growth, toe ash

Bronze × White Holland, both sexes

Day and Dilworth, 1962

0.21

17 – 24

Growth, toe ash

Bronze × White Holland, both sexes

Day and Dilworth, 1962

0.50

0 – 3

Bone ash

Large White, males

Bailey et al., 1986

0.6 – 0.8

0 – 4

Growth, bone ash

Large White, males

Stevens et al., 1986

Potassium, %

0.6

0 – 2

Growth

Medium White, both sexes

Supplee and Combs, 1959

0.35

0 – 4

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Sullivan, 1963

0.6

0 – 4

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Chavez and Kratzer, 1973

0.8

0 – 4

Growth, tissue potassium

Large White, both sexes

Smith et al., 1973

Sodium, %

0.20

0 – 4

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Kumpost and Sullivan, 1966

0.25

0 – 4

Body, plasma composition

Large White, both sexes

Pang et al., 1978

0.17

0 – 3

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Harms, 1982

0.17

0 – 3

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Harms and Miles, 1983

0.12

42 – 48

Poult yield

Large White, females

Harms et al., 1985

Chlorine, %

0.15

0 – 4

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Kubicek and Sullivan, 1973

0.12

32 – 50

Maximum shell strength, poult yield

Large White, females

Harms et al., 1983

Magnesium, mg/kg

475

0 – 4

Alleviate deficiency symptoms

Bronze, both sexes

Sullivan, 1964

Manganese, mg/kg

30

0 – 8

Growth, alleviation of perosis

Bronze, both sexes

Ringrose et al., 1939

22

0 – 5

Growth, tissue levels

Large White, males

Woerpel and Balloun, 1964

60

0 – 4

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Kealy and Sullivan, 1966

Zinc, mg/kg

66

0 – 3

Growth, deficiency symptoms

Bronze, both sexes

Kratzer et al., 1958

70

0 – 4

Growth, deficiency symptoms

Bronze, both sexes

Sullivan, 1961

63

0 – 3

Growth, deficiency symptoms

Medium White, both sexes

Supplee et al., 1961

41

0 – 3

Growth, blood level

Large White, both sexes

Dewar and Downie, 1984

Selenium, mg/kg

0.28

0 – 4

Gizzard myopathy

Bronze, both sexes

Scott et al., 1965

0.20

0 – 5

Gizzard myopathy

Large White, both sexes

Cantor and Moorehead, 1977

0.23

18 – 38

Hatchability, poult mortality

Large White, both sexes

Cantor et al., 1978

Vitamin A, IU/kg

5,065

0 – 4

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Almquist, 1953

2,642

30 – 48

Poult yield

Large White, females

Stoewsand and Scott, 1961

5,280

0 – 8

Maintain liver levels of vitamin A

Large White, both sexes

 

4,721

0 – 12

Growth, liver storage of vitamin A

Large White, both sexes

Couch et al., 1971

2,000

0 – 12

Growth

Large White, males

Prinz et al., 1983

5,000

0 – 12

Growth, liver storage of vitamin A

Large White, males

Prinz et al., 1986

Vitamin D, IU/kg

700

0 – 12

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Baird and Greene, 1935

800

0 – 4

Growth, bone ash

Small White, both sexes

Hammond, 1941

2,000

0 – 4

Growth, bone ash

Large White, both sexes

Sanford and Jukes, 1944

300

0 – 4

Growth, bone ash

Large White, both sexes

Stadelman et al., 1950

1,100

0 – 4

Growth, toe ash

Large White, both sexes

Neagle et al., 1968

Vitamin E, IU/kg

11

0 – 4

Growth, gizzard myopathy

Bronze, both sexes

Scott et al., 1965

50

0 – 4

Gizzard myopathy

Large White, both sexes

Cantor and Moorehead, 1977

275

16 – 19

Meat oxidative stability

Large White, females

Sheldon, 1984

Vitamin K, mg/kg

1.76

0 – 4

Prothrombin time

Bronze, both sexes

Griminger, 1957

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Riboflavin, mg/kg

2.7

0–6

Growth, deficiency symptoms

Bronze, both sexes

Patrick et al., 1944

3.75

0–4

Growth, deficiency symptoms

Bronze, both sexes

Bird et al., 1946

4.0

0–6

Growth, deficiency symptoms

Bronze and Large White, both sexes

Jukes et al., 1947

4.0

0–3

Erythrocyte glutathione reductase and liver flavin

Medium White, both sexes

Lee, 1982

>3.50

0–3

Growth, leg paralysis

Large White, both sexes

Ruiz and Harms, 1989a

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

10.5

1–3

Growth, dermatitis

Bronze, both sexes

Kratzer and Williams, 1948b

<8.6

0–3

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Ruiz and Harms, 1989b

Niacin, mg/kg

71.5

0–2

Growth, enlarged hocks

Bronze, both sexes

Scott, 1953

21

4–12

Growth, leg disorders

Large White, both sexes

Christmas et al., 1986

44

0–3

Growth, leg disorders

Large White, both sexes

Ruiz and Harms, 1989b

Vitamin B12, mg/kg

0.002–0.010

0–4

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Sherwood and Sloan, 1954

0.003

0–6

Growth

Small White, both sexes

Johnson, 1955

Choline, mg/kg

2,000

0–2

Perosis

Not specified

Jukes, 1940

1,900

0–6

Perosis

Not specified

Evans, 1943

2,300

10–24

Growth

Bronze, females

Slinger et al., 1946

<1,490

0–3

Growth

Large White, both sexes

Harms and Miles, 1984

<1,250

4–8

Growth

Large and Medium White, both sexes

Blair et al., 1986

Biotin, mg/kg

0.284

0–3

Growth, deficiency symptoms

Bronze, both sexes

Jensen and Martinson, 1969

0.275–0.324

0–3

Growth, deficiency symptoms

Bronze, both sexes

Dobson, 1970

0.225–0.275

0–3

Growth, deficiency symptoms

Bronze, both sexes

Dobson, 1970

0.220

0–8

Growth

Large White, males

Krueger et al., 1976

Folic acid, mg/kg

0.8

0–6

Growth, anemia prevention

Bronze, both sexes

Jukes et al., 1947

2.0

0–3

Growth, cervical paralysis

Jersey Buff, both sexes

Russell et al., 1947

Thiamin, mg/kg

2.0

0–3

Growth, symptoms of deficiency

Bronze, both sexes

Robenalt, 1960

1.6–2.0

0–3

Growth

Bronze, both sexes

Sullivan et al., 1967

Pyridoxine, mg/kg

2.0–3.0

0–3

Growth

Not specified

Kratzer et al., 1947

3.9–4.4

0–4

Growth, survival

Bronze, both sexes

Sullivan et al., 1967

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A-7 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Turkey Breeders

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Protein, %

15

32–52

Poult yield

Large White, females

Jensen and McGinnis, 1961

15

30–48

Poult yield

Large and Small White, females

Atkinson et al., 1970

10

30–46

Poult yield

Large White, females

Minear et al., 1972

18

32–48

Poult yield egg weight

Large White, females

Menge et al., 1979

14

17–20

Egg production

Large White, females

Meyer et al., 1980a

14

20–32

Egg production

Large White, females

Meyer et al., 1980a

12

12–28

Semen production

Large White, males

Meyer et al., 1980b

14

28–56

Egg production

Large White, females

Meyer et al., 1980a

10

30–41

Poult yield

Large White, females

Meyer et al., 1980b

8

28–53

Semen production

Large White, males

Cecil, 1982

16

32–48

Poult yield

Large White, females

Bougon et al., 1985

Protein, g/bird daily

26

32–60

Poult yield

Small White, females

Jackson et al., 1974

Linoleic acid, %

1.21

24–55

Egg production, hatchability

Large White, females

Cooper and Barnett, 1968

1.1

30–55

Poult yield

Large White, females

Whitehead and Herron, 1988

Calcium, %

1.75

26–54

Poult yield

Bronze, females

Jensen et al., 1963

2.0

30–48

Poult yield

Large White, females

Balloun and Miller, 1964b

1.9

30–47

Egg production

Bronze, females

Atkinson et al., 1967a

2.66

30–47

Egg production

Large White, females

Atkinson et al., 1967a

3.19

30–47

Egg production

Bronze, females

Atkinson et al., 1967a

2.25

30–46

Poult yield

Large White, females

Arends et al., 1967

1.2

0–4

Growth

Large White, males

Neagle et al., 1968

2.5

33–53

Poult yield

Small White, males

Potter et al., 1974

2.55

30–50

Poult yield

Large White, females

Waldroup et al., 1974b

Nonphytate phosphorus, %

0.42

30–42

Poult yield

Small White, females

Ferguson et al., 1974

0.30

30–50

Poult yield

Large White, females

Waldroup et al., 1974

0.55

30–45

Poult yield

Small White, females

Atkinson et al., 1976

0.30

30–50

Fertility

Medium White, females

Slaugh et al., 1989

Manganese, mg/kg

60

30–46

Poult yield

Bronze, females

Atkinson et al., 1967b

Vitamin A, IU/kg

2,200–3,520

30–48

Hatchability, poult survival

Bronze, females

Jensen, 1965

Vitamin D, IU/kg

1,000

32–40

Poult yield

Bronze, females

Wilhelm et al., 1941

<750

31–40

Poult yield

Large White, females

Kramer and Waibel, 1978

300–400

41–53

Poult yield

Large White, females

Kramer and Waibel, 1978

900

29–35

Adequate poult yield but inadequate liver storage

Large White, females

Stevens et al., 1984

Vitamin E, IU/kg

24

32–54

Poult yield

Bronze, females

Jensen and McGinnis, 1957

Riboflavin, mg/kg

3.50

Not specified

Poult yield

Bronze, females

Boucher et al., 1942

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

16.0

Various

Poult yield, survival

Bronze, females

Kratzer et al., 1955

Niacin, mg/kg

23.6

32–48

Egg weight, poult yield

Large White, females

Harms et al., 1988

Choline, mg/kg

<990

32–46

Poult yield

Bronze and Large White, females

Balloun and Miller, 1964a

<1,230

32–54

Poult yield

Small White, females

Ferguson et al., 1975

Biotin, mg/kg

>0.105

30–46

Poult yield

Large White, females

Waibel et al., 1969

<0.150

Not specified

Poult yield

Large and Medium White, females

Arends et al., 1971

0.160

27–34

Egg biotin (albumen)

Medium White, females

White et al., 1987

Folic acid, mg/kg

0.7

32–48

Poult yield

Bronze, females

Kratzer et al., 1956a

1.23

32–48

Poult yield, survival

Large White, females

Miller and Balloun, 1967

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A-8 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Geese

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Protein, %

24

0–6

Growth

White Chinese

Roberson and Francis, 1963a

12

6–16

Growth

White Chinese

Roberson and Francis, 1963a

24

0–4

Growth

White Chinese

Roberson and Francis, 1963b

16

4–12

Growth

White Chinese

Roberson and Francis, 1963b

20

0–4

Growth, feathering

Embden

Allen, 1981

16

4–6

Growth, feathering

Embden

Allen, 1981

14

4–9

Growth, feathering

Embden

Allen, 1981

18.2

0–2

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Nitsan et al., 1983

12.0

2–7

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Nitsan et al., 1983

18

0–3

Growth, carcass yield, carcass composition

Embden

Summers et al., 1987

16

0–9

Growth, carcass yield, carcass composition

Embden

Summers et al., 1987

Lysine, %

0.90

1–2 and 3–7

Growth

White Chinese

Roberson and Francis, 1966

1.10

0–4

Growth

Not specified

Mateova et al., 1980

0.85

4–8

Growth

Not specified

Mateova et al., 1980

1.07

0–2

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Nitsan et al., 1983

0.60

2–7

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Nistan et al., 1983

Methionine, %

0.40

0–3

Growth, feed efficiency, carcass composition

White Italian

Znaniecke et al., 1975

0.29

0–2

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Nitsan et al., 1983

0.15

2–7

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Nitsan et al., 1983

Methionine + cystine, %

0.73

0–3

Growth, feed efficiency, carcass composition

White Italian

Znaniecka et al., 1975

0.58

0–2

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Nitsan et al., 1983

0.47

2–7

Growth, feed efficiency

Not specified

Nitsan et al., 1983

Calcium, %

0.4

0–4 and 0–6

Growth, bone ash

Pilgrim

Aitken et al., 1958

Total phosphorus, %

0.46

0–4 and 0–6

Growth, bone ash

Pilgrim

Aitken et al., 1958

Riboflavin, mg/kg

3.8

0–2

Growth

Embden

Serafin, 1981

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

12.6

0–3

Growth, mortality

Embden

Serafin, 1981

Niacin, mg/kg

 

 

 

 

66

0–3

Growth, perosis

Not specified

Battig et al., 1953

31.2

0–3

Growth

Embden

Serafin, 1981

Choline, mg/kg

1530

0–3

Growth, perosis

Embden

Serafin, 1981

Choline, niacin, folic acid

Not determined but estimates obtained

0–2

Growth, liveability

Toulouse

Briggs et al., 1953

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A-9 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Ducks

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Protein, %

22

0–2

Growth

White Pekin

Dean, 1972a

16

2–7

Growth

White Pekin

Dean, 1972a

18

0–2

Growth

White Pekin

Wilson, 1975

16

2 to market

Growth

White Pekin

Wilson, 1975

19

0–2

Growth

White Pekin

Siregar et al., 1982

16

3–8

Growth

White Pekin

Siregar et al., 1982

Arginine, %

1.08

1–3

Growth, feed efficiency

Mule

Chen and Shen, 1979

Isoleucine, %

0.63

1–3

Growth, feed efficiency

Mule

Yu and Shen, 1984

Leucine, %

1.26

1–3

Growth, feed efficiency

Mule

Yu and Shen, 1984

Lysine, %

0.60

Fattening

Growth

Not specified

Jeroch and Hennig, 1965

0.90

0–8

Growth, Plasma lysine

Pekin

Gazo et al., 1970

0.64

3–6

Growth

Muscovy

Leclerq and Carville,1977

0.55

6–10

Growth

Muscovy

Leclerq and Carville, 1977

1.06

1–3

Growth, feed efficiency

Mule

Chen and Shen, 1979

<0.70

1–7

Growth, feed efficiency

Pekin

Adams et al., 1983

Methionine, %

0.45

0–1.5

Growth

Pekin

Dean, 1967

0.30

3–6

Growth

Muscovy

Leclerq and de Carville, 1977a

0.25

6–10

Growth

Muscovy

Leclerq and de Carville, 1977a

0.40

0–2

Growth

Pekin

Elkin et al., 1986

Methionine + cystine, %

0.60

0–1.5

Growth

Pekin

Dean, 1967

0.60

3–6

Growth

Muscovy

Leclerq and de Carville, 1977a

0.55

6–10

Growth

Muscovy

Leclerq and de Carville, 1977a

0.70

0–2

Growth

Pekin

Elkin et al., 1986

Tryptophan, %

0.23

1–3

Growth, feed efficiency

Mule

Wu et al., 1984

Valine, %

0.78

1–3

Growth, feed efficiency

Mule

Yu and Shen, 1984

Calcium, %

0.56

0–8

Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash

Pekin

Dean et al., 1967

0.58

Ducklings

Growth, bone ash

Pekin

Dean, 1972b

1.00

Ducklings

Growth

Taiwan

Su, 1977

3.75

Sexually mature

Egg production

Taiwan

Su, 1977

Nonphytate phosphorus, %

0.60

0–4

Growth, bone ash

Pekin

Dean, 1972a

1.05

Sexually mature

Egg production

Taiwan

Su, 1977

0.40

0–3

Growth

Muscovy

Leclerq and de Carville, 1979

0.22

3–6

Growth

Muscovy

Leclerq and de Carville, 1979

0.18

6–10

Growth

Muscovy

Leclerq and de Carville, 1979

0.34

0–3

Growth, bone ash

Mule

Lin and Shen, 1979

Sodium chlorine, %

0.14

0–7

Growth, liveability

Pekin

Dean, 1972a

0.12

0–7

Growth, liveability

Pekin

Dean, 1972a

Magnesium, mg/kg

500

0–2

Growth, brain alkaline phosphatase

Pekin

Van Reen and Pearson, 1953

Manganese, mg/kg

50

0–3

Growth

Mule

Wu and Shen, 1978

Zinc, mg/kg

68

0–3

Growth

Mule

Wu and Shen, 1978

Selenium, mg/kg

0.14

0–7

Growth, liveability, glutathione peroxidase

Pekin

Dean and Combs, 1981

0.20

0–7

Growth liveability glutathione peroxidase

Pekin

Dean and Combs, 1981

Vitamin D3, IU/kg

 

 

 

 

300

0–3

Bone ash

Pekin

Fritz et al., 1941

400

0–3

Bone ash

Pekin and Indian Runner

Motzok and branion, 1946

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Vitamin E, IU/kg

9

0–4

Myopathy of heart muscle and smooth muscle of intestines

Pekin

Jager, 1972

Vitamin K, mg/kg

0.5

0–2

Prothrombin time

Pekin

Dean, 1972

Riboflavin, mg/kg

3

0–7

Growth

Pekin

Fritz et al., 1939

4

0.5–2

Growth

Pekin

Hegsted and Perry, 1948

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

11

0.5–2

Growth

Pekin

Hegsted and Perry, 1948

Niacin, mg/kg

52

0–2

Growth, leg development

Pekin

Heuser and Scott, 1953

45

0–3

Growth, feed efficiency

Mule

Wu et al., 1984

Pyridoxine, mg/kg

2.5

0.5–3 or longer

Growth, hemoglobin, hematocrit

Pekin

Hegsted and Rao, 1945

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A-10 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Pheasants

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

Breed

References

Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg

2,700

Sexually mature

Egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, mortality

Ring–neck

Monetti et al., 1982

Protein, %

26

0 – 3

Growth

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1954

24

3 – 5

Growth

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1954

26

0 – 4

Growth, feed efficiency

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1963

24

0 – 8

Growth, feathering, liveability

Chinese

Woodard et al., 1977

20

8 – 16

Growth, feathering, liveability

Chinese

Woodard et al., 1977

12

After 16

Growth, feathering, liveability

Chinese

Woodard et al., 1977

28

0 – 4

Growth

Ring–neck

Fuentes, 1981

28

0 – 4

Growth, feed efficiency

Ring–neck

Warner et al., 1982

19

8 – 17

Growth, feathering, feed efficiency, liveability

Ring–neck

Cain et al., 1984

15

Sexually mature

Egg production, fertility, hatchability

Ring–neck

Monetti et al., 1985

Methionine, %

0.48

0 – 4

Growth

Ring–neck

Fuentes, 1981

Methionine + cystine, %

0.94

0 – 4

Growth

Ring–neck

Fuentes, 1981

Calcium, %

0.93

0 – 5

Growth, bone ash

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1958a

0.53

5 – 14

Growth, bone ash

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1958a

0.90

0 – 5

Growth, bone ash

Ring–neck

Hinkson et al., 1971

1.2

0 – 8

Growth, bone ash

Ring–neck

Reynnells, 1979

2.1

Sexually mature

Egg production, shell quality, bone ash

Ring–neck

Reynnells, 1979

2.0

Sexually mature

Egg production, fertility, hatchability, body weight

Ring–neck

Wise and Ewins, 1980

Total phosphorus, %

0.98

0 – 4

Growth, bone ash

Ring–neck

Sunde and Bird, 1956

0.7

0 – 5

Growth, bone ash

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1958a

0.48

5 – 14

Growth, bone ash

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1958a

Nonphytate phosphorus, %

0.6

0 – 8

Growth, bone ash

Ring–neck

Reynnells, 1979

0.6

Sexually mature

Egg production bone ash

Ring–neck

Reynnells, 1979

Sodium, %

0.22

0 – 4

Growth, liveability

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1960

Manganese, mg/kg

70

0 – 5

Growth, bone development

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1959

Zinc, mg/kg

62

0 – 5

Growth, feather and bone development

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1959

120

0 – 3

Growth, feather development

Ring–neck

Cook et al., 1984

Vitamin D3, IU/kg

1,500

0 – 5

Growth, bone ash

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1958a

Riboflavin, mg/kg

3.4

0 – 5

Growth, feather and bone development

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1959

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

10

0 – 4

Growth, feather and bone development

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1964

Niacin, mg/kg

50

0 – 4

Growth, bone development

Ring–neck

Sunde and Bird, 1957

70

0 – 5

Growth, feathering and bone development

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1959

Choline, mg/kg

1,430

0 – 5

Growth, feather and bone development

Ring–neck

Scott et al., 1959

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A-11 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Japanese Quail

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

References

Protein, %

24

0–35

Growth, protein retention

Weber and Reid, 1967

24

0–42

Growth

Lepore and Marks, 1971

26

0–35

Growth, feed efficiency

Vogt, 1969

25

0–28

Growth

Vohra and Roudybush, 1971

20

Sexually mature

Egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency

Begin and Insko, 1972

20

Sexually mature

Egg production

Lee et al., 1977

28.4

Sexually mature

Egg production

Sakurai, 1979

16

Sexually mature, peak egg production

Egg production, egg yield, body weight

Allen and Young, 1980

24

Sexually mature

Not specified

Sakurai, 1981

20

Sexually mature

Egg production

Shim and Lee, 1982

24

0–28

Growth, carcass characteristics

Steigner, 1990

Arginine, %

1.25

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

1.13

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg weight

Allen and Young, 1980

Glycine, %

1.74

0–21

Growth

Svacha et al., 1970

1.17

21–35

Growth

Svacha et al., 1970

Glycine + serine, %

1.14

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

Histidine, %

0.36

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

0.38

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg weight

Allen and Young, 1980

Isoleucine, %

0.98

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

0.81

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg yield

Allen and Young, 1980

Leucine, %

1.69

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

1.28

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg weight

Allen and Young, 1980

Lysine, %

1.37

0–21

Growth

Svacha et al., 1970

1.2

21–35

Growth

Svacha et al., 1970

1.15

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

0.86

Sexually mature

Egg production

Allen and Young, 1980

0.97

Sexually mature

Egg production

Shim and Lee, 1984

Methionine, %

0.43

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

0.37

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg yield

Allen and Young, 1980

0.48

0–35

Growth, feed efficiency, feather development, carcass yield

Shrivastav and Panda, 1987

0.27

Sexually mature

Egg production

Shim and Lee, 1988

0.39

Sexually mature

Egg production, feather loss

Shim and Lee, 1989

Methionine + cystine, %

0.74

0–21

Growth

Svacha et al., 1970

0.72

21–35

Growth

Svacha et al., 1970

0.72

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

0.68

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg yield

Allen and Young, 1980

0.75

0–35

Growth, feed efficiency, feather development, carcass yield

Shrivastav and Panda, 1987

0.72

Sexually mature

Egg production

Shim and Lee, 1988

0.71

Sexually mature

Egg production, feather loss

Shim and Chen, 1989

Phenylalanine + tyrosine, %

1.79

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

1.25

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg yield

Allen and Young, 1980

Threonine, %

1.02

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

0.67

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg yield

Allen and Young, 1980

Tryptophan, %

0.22

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

0.17

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg yield

Allen and Young, 1980

Valine, %

0.95

0–10

Growth

Young et al., 1978

0.83

Sexually mature

Egg production, body weight, egg yield

Allen and Young, 1980

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

References

Calcium, %

2.5

Sexually mature

Egg production, hatchability

Nelson et al., 1964

0.80

0–14

Growth, bone ash, calcium and phosphorus retention

Consuegra and Anderson, 1967

0.48

14–28

Growth, bone ash, calcium and phosphorus retention

Consuegra and Anderson, 1967

0.44

0–35

Growth, feed efficiency, bone ash, liveability

Miller, 1967

0.70

0–21

Growth, bone ash

Bisoi et al., 1980

Nonphytate phosphorus, %

0.6

Sexually mature

Egg production, hatchability

Nelson et al., 1964

0.30

0–28

Growth, bone ash, calcium and phosphorus retention

Consuegra and Anderson, 1967

0.3

0–21

Growth, bone ash

Bisoi et al., 1980

Sodium chlorine, %

0.15

0–28

Growth

Scott et al., 1960

0.10

8–35

Growth, liveability, adrenal weight

Lumijarvi and Vohra, 1976

Magnesium, mg/kg

300

0–14

Growth, liveability, hemoglobin, tibia ash

Harland et al., 1976

150 mg

0–14

Growth, liveability

Vohra, 1972b

Iron, mg/kg

120

0–28

Growth, hemoglobin, feathering, bone ash

Harland et al., 1973

Copper, mg/kg

<5

0–28

Growth, hemoglobin, feathering, bone ash

Harland et al., 1973

Manganese, mg/kg

<12

0–28

Growth, hemoglobin, feathering, bone ash

Harland et al., 1973

Zinc, mg/kg

25

0–28

Growth, feathering, tibia ash, liveability

Spivey-Fox and Jacobs, 1967

Selenium, mg/kg

0.1

0–42

Growth, liveability

Thompson and Scott, 1967

Iodine, mg/kg

0.3

0–28

Growth, thyroid weight

Scott et al., 1960

Vitamin A, IU/kg

1,650

7–56

Growth, liveability

Shellenberger and Lee, 1966

3,300

Sexually mature

Hatchability

Shellenberger and Lee, 1966

825

0–14

Growth

Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974

1,000

0–10

Growth, liver vitamin A

Parrish and Al-Hasani, 1983

3,200

Sexually mature

Hatchability, liveability, vitamin A in yolk

Parrish and Al-Hasani, 1983

Vitamin D, IU/kg

480

0–21

Bone ash, plasma calcium

Shue, 1967

750

0–14

Growth

Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974

Thiamine, mg/kg

6

0–14

Growth

Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974

1.2

0–35

Growth, liveability

Mak and Vohra, 1982

Niacin, mg/kg

40

0–14

Growth

Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974

15

0–35

Growth, viability

Mak and Vohra, 1982

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

40

0–7

Growth, feather development, dermatitis

Spivey-Fox et al., 1966

10

7–35

Growth, feather development, dermatitis

Spivey-Fox et al., 1966

10

0–35

Growth, feather development

Cutler and Vohra, 1967

15

Sexually mature

Fertility, hatchability

Cutler and Vohra, 1967

23

0–14

Growth

Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974

Riboflavin, mg/kg

8

0–14

Growth

Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974

2

0–35

Growth, viability

Mak and Vohra, 1982

Choline, mg/kg

2,500

0–28

Growth, feed efficiency

Vogt, 1970

2,090

Sexually mature

Egg weight

Latshaw and Jensen, 1971

1,045–2,090

Sexually mature

Body weight, liver lipids

Latshaw and Jensen, 1972

1,300

0–14

Growth

Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974

Folacin, mg/kg

0.36

Not specified

Growth, liveability

Wong et al., 1977

Pyridoxine, mg/kg

6

0–14

Growth

Ramachandran and Arscott, 1974

1,25

0–35

Growth, viability

Mak and Vohra, 1982

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

TABLE A-12 Documentation of Nutrient Requirements of Bobwhite Quail

Nutrient and Estimated Requirement

Age Period (Days)

Response Criteria

References

Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg

2,850–3,170

0–5

Growth, energy consumption, feed efficiency

Wilson et al., 1977

Protein, %

28

0–8

Growth, liveability

Baldini et al., 1950

20

0–6

Growth, liveability

Baldini et al., 1953

26.5

0–4

Growth, feed efficiency, feathering

Scott et al., 1963

28

0–6

Growth

Andrews et al., 1973

20

6–9

Growth

Andrews et al., 1973

26

0–5

Growth, feed efficiency

Serafin, 1977

24

0–5

Growth, feed efficiency

Serafin, 1982

Methionine + cystine, %

1.0

0–5

Growth

Serafin, 1982

Calcium, %

0.65

0–6

Growth, liveability, bone ash

Wilson et al., 1972

2.3

Sexually mature

Egg production, eggshell thickness, fertility, hatchability

Dewitt et al., 1949

2.4

Sexually mature

Egg production, eggshell thickness, fertility

Cain et al., 1982

Nonphytate phosphorus, %

0.8

Sexually mature

Egg production, fertility, hatchability, liveability of offspring

Dewitt et al., 1949

0.40

0–6

Growth, liveability, tibia ash

Scott et al., 1958b

0.28

6–12

Growth, liveability, bone ash

Scott et al., 1958b

0.45

0–6

Growth, liveability, bone ash

Wilson et al., 1972

0.35

0–6

Growth, bone ash

Powell et al., 1974

>0.70

Sexually mature

Egg production, egg shell thickness, fertility

Cain et al., 1982

Vitamin A, IU/kg

8,800

0–10

Growth, liveability

Nestler, 1946

13,200

Sexually mature

Reproduction, survival of offspring

Nestler, 1946

Riboflavin, mg/kg

3.8

0–5

Growth, feed efficiency, liveability

Serafin, 1974

Pantothenic acid, mg/kg

10

0–4

Growth, liveability, feathering, leg development

Scott et al., 1964

12.6

0–5

Growth, feed efficiency, liveability

Serafin, 1974

Niacin, mg/kg

31

0–5

Growth, feed efficiency, liveability

Serafin, 1974

Choline, mg/kg

1,500

0–5

Growth, feed efficiency, liveability

Serafin, 1974

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Documentation of Nutrient Requirements." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 Get This Book
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This classic reference for poultry nutrition has been updated for the first time since 1984. The chapter on general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predicting the energy value of individual feed ingredients from their proximate composition.

This volume includes the latest information on the nutrient requirements of meat- and egg-type chickens, incorporating data on brown-egg strains, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail.

This publication also contains new appendix tables that document in detail the scientific information used to derive the nutrient requirements appearing in the summary tables for each species of bird.

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