National Academies Press: OpenBook

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994 (1994)

Chapter: Appendix C: Conversion Factors

« Previous: Appendix B: Estimating the Energy Value of Feed Ingredients
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Conversion Factors." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
×

Ingredient

Prediction Equation

Reference

Products of animal origin

Skim milk powder

MEn = 40.94 × CP + 77.96 × EE + 19.04 × NFE

Janssen, 1989

Whey, dried, low lactose

MEn = 38.79 × CP + 77.96 × EE + 19.04 × NFE

Janssen, 1989

Meat and bone meal

MEn = 33.94 × DM = 45.77 × ash + 59.99 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Fish meal (60%, 65%, 67% crude protein)

MEn = 35.87 × DM - 34.08 × ash + 42.09 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Herring meal, Norwegian

MEn = 35.87 × DM - 34.08 × ash + 42.09 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Blood meal, spray dried

MEn = 34.49 × CP + 64.96 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Blood meal, drum dried

MEn = 31.88 × CP + 60.32 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Feather meal (pepsin dig

80%)

MEn = 33.2 × CP + 57.53 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Poultry offal meal

MEn = 31.02 × CP + 74.23 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Poultry offal meal, high-fat

MEn = 31.02 × CP + 78.87 × EE

Janssen, 1989

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = -725 + 0.841 × GE (kcal/kg dry matter)

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 4,070 - 142 × calcium

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 4,330 - 61 × ash

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 5,060 - 263 × ash + 491 × calcium

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 479 + 89 × CP - 1,094 × phosphorus

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 11,340 - 103 × CP - 327 × calcium

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 934 - 69 × CP - 110 × ash

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 561 - 154 × calcium - 622 × phosphorus

Pesti et al., 1986

Poultry by-product meal

TMEn = 556 - 63 × ash - 506 × phosphorus

Pesti et al., 1986

Fat products from Dutch renderers

MEn = 20,041 - 23.0 × IV - 319.1 × C16:0 - 153.4 × C18:0

Janssen et al., 1979

Fats and oils

MEn = 8,227 - 10,318(-1,1685[Unsaturated:Saturated ratio])

Ketels and DeGroote, 1989

All fats and oils

MEn = 28,119 - 235.8 (C18:1 + C18:2) - 6.4 (C16:0) - 310.9 (C18:0) + 0.726 (IV × FR1) - 0.0000379 (IV[FR1 + FFA])2

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

Vegetable oils (free fatty acid <50%)

MEn = -10,147.94 + 188.28 IV + 155.09 FR1 - 1.6709 (IV × FR1)

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

Vegetable oils (free fatty acid >50%)

MEn = 1,804 + 29.7084 IV + 29.302 FR1

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

Animal fats (free fatty acid <40%)

MEn = 126,694 + 1645 IV + 838.4 C16:0 - 215.3 C18:0 + 746.61 FR1 + 356.12 (FR1 + FFA) - 14.83 (IV × FR1)

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

Animal fats (free fatty acid >40%)

MEn = -9,865 + 194.1 IV + 300.1 C18:0

Huyghebaert et al., 1988

NOTE: Abbreviations used above are as follows: GE = gross energy; ME = metabolizable energy; MEn = nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy; TMEn = nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy; CP = % crude protein; EE = % ether extract; CF = % crude fiber; NFE = % nitrogen-free extract; ADF = % acid detergent fiber; APF = % Acid-pepsin fiber; STA = % starch; SUG = % sugar; IV = iodine value; C16:0 = % palmitic acid; C18:0 = % stearic acid; C18:1 = % oleic acid; C18:2 = % linoleic acid; FFA = % free fatty acid, calculated as oleic acid equivalents; FR1 = first fraction from a column chromatography separation that contains the practically unaltered triglycerides plus other apolar components; and DM = dry matter.

TABLE C–1 Conversion reactors—Weights and Measures

Units

Multiplied by the Factor Below Equals

Units

Multiplied by the Factor Below Equals

Units

lb

453.6

g

0.002205

lb

lb

0.4536

kg

2.205

lb

oz

28.35

g

0.035273

oz

kg

1,000

g

0.001

kg

kg

1,000,000

mg

0.000001

kg

g

1,000

mg

0.001

g

g

1,000,000

mcg (or µg)

0.001

mg

g

109

ng (nanogram)

10-9

g

g

1012

pg (picogram)

10-12

g

mg

1,000

mcg (or µg)

0.001

mg

mg/kga

0.0001

%

10,000

mg/kg

ppm

0.0001

%

10,000

ppm

gal (U.S.)

3.785

liters

0.2642

gal (U.S.gal (Brit.)

4.546

liters

0.220

gal (Brit.bu (bushel)

0.3525 hl

(hectoliter)

2.837

bu

 

 

cal (calorie)

4.184

j (joule)

0.239

cal

kcal (kilocalorie)

1,000

cal

0.001

kcal

Mcal (megacalorie)

1,000,000

cal

0.000001

Mcal

Mcal

1,000

kcal

0.001

Mcal

a 100 ppm = 100 mg/kg = 0.010 percent; thus converting 0.0002 percent = 2 ppm = 2 mg/kg.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Conversion Factors." National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry: Ninth Revised Edition, 1994. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2114.
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This classic reference for poultry nutrition has been updated for the first time since 1984. The chapter on general considerations concerning individual nutrients and water has been greatly expanded and includes, for the first time, equations for predicting the energy value of individual feed ingredients from their proximate composition.

This volume includes the latest information on the nutrient requirements of meat- and egg-type chickens, incorporating data on brown-egg strains, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, Japanese quail, and Bobwhite quail.

This publication also contains new appendix tables that document in detail the scientific information used to derive the nutrient requirements appearing in the summary tables for each species of bird.

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