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Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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Index

A

Abandonment, 60, 63

Academic performance, 2, 17, 39, 41, 138, 174-175, 198n, 212

Accidents, 68, 73n

Addiction, see Substance abuse

Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF), 304, 306-308, 356-357

Administrative records, 59, 61-62, 69-70, 73n, 79-83, 87, 90-91, 345, 350

Adolescents, 58, 124-125, 217-223

as sexual abuse offenders, 18-19, 84, 139, 260

see also Juvenile delinquency; Teenage pregnancy

Adult survivors, 18, 87, 224-226, 228, 229, 258-259, 335

recall bias, 6, 8, 44, 45, 90, 224-225

Advisory organizations, 27, 313

Advocacy organizations, 24, 165, 315

African Americans, 67, 88, 98n, 130-131, 136, 175, 185, 371

Age, 15, 58, 66, 113, 124-125

parental, 7, 122-123, 133, 220

see also Adolescents; Developmental stages; Infants

Aggression, 51, 61, 119-121, 128, 212, 215-216, 371

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 19, 266, 303

Alcoholism, 2, 16, 39, 220-221, 223

parental, 7-8, 17, 118-119, 141, 221

of sexual abusers, 114

American Bar Association, 61

American Humane Association (AHA), 79-80, 98n

American Medical Association, 72n, 86

American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, 294

Amphetamines, 114

Anatomical dolls, 280n

Anger, 8, 109, 215-216

Animal models and studies, 119-122, 144n

Antipoverty programs, 12, 19-20, 182-183, 266

Antisocial behavior, 215-216, 226

parental, 7, 111-112, 117, 128

personality disorder, 7, 16, 113, 119, 223

Anxiety, 61, 111-112, 124, 128, 213, 224

Archives and databases, 23, 25, 97, 298, 299-300

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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Asian Americans, 98n, 128, 138

Attention disorders, 15, 212

Attitudinal factors, parental, 7, 115-116

Automotive safety technology, 69

Autonomy, of research subjects, 29, 36, 326, 329, 333, 361

Aversive behavior, 125, 129, 144n

B

Background checks, 183

''The Battered Child Syndrome," 43, 60, 98n, 187

Beatings, 59, 64, 67

Behavioral function and disorders, 2, 15-16, 32, 39, 208, 212-216

see also Antisocial behavior; Cognitive function; Juvenile delinquency; Mental health and illness; Parenting styles and behaviors; Sexuality and sexual dysfunction; Violent behavior

Belittlement, 60, 94, 214

"Best interests of the child," 22, 274

Bias in research

case report analysis, 69-70, 73n, 80, 95

clinical samples, 45

respondent recall, 6, 8, 44, 45, 90, 224-225

Biological factors, 114, 119-122

Black population, see African Americans

Bone fractures, 60, 68, 71

Brain damage, 15, 68, 121-122, 129, 210

Budgets, see Funding of research

Burns and scalding, 59, 64, 68, 73n

Bystander behavior, 13, 188

C

Cases of maltreatment, see Epidemiological studies; Incidence; Reporting of cases

Castration, 273

Categories of maltreatment, 4, 43-44, 59, 98n

co-occurrence among, 5, 44, 106-107, 142

definitions, 58, 62-63, 71, 85, 345

and etiology, 106, 141-142

and interventions, 254, 351

in research, 4-5, 31, 32, 44, 49, 51, 54, 347

Cause-and-effect models, 7, 53, 107

Center-based programs, 11, 169, 173-174, 175

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 65

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 36, 310- 311, 319, 359

Dentral nervous system damage, 15, 68, 121-122, 129, 210, 211, 212

Certificates of confidentiality, 337-338, 361

Chemical intervention, for sexual offenders, 19, 260

Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption and Family Services Act, 81

Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 43, 60, 79

Child Abuse Prevention Challenge Grants, 178-179, 306

Child Assault Prevention (CAP), 180

Child development, see Developmental delay and disability; Developmental stages

Child-oriented research framework, 4, 49-50, 54

Children's Bureau, 308

Children's Initiative, 174

Children's Justice Act, 306

Chlamydia, 69

Chronic maltreatment, 4, 6, 8, 49-50, 65, 94, 107, 127, 129, 232

Classification, 58, 61, 62-63. See Definitions; Instrumentation

Classroom-based instruction, see School-based programs

Clearinghouses, 299-300

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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Clinical studies, 53, 71

bias in, 45

and definitions of maltreatment, 5, 44, 58

Cocaine, 114, 119

Cognitive appraisal of events, 16, 228

Cognitive function, 15, 16, 17, 32, 67, 198n, 208, 211-212, 227, 235-236n

parental, 7, 115-116

Cohort studies, 90, 97

Coining, 67

Collaborative research, 4, 23, 27, 35-36, 42, 54, 313, 357-359

Colposcope, 267

Community-based programs

evaluations, 13, 14, 20, 34, 191, 195, 352-353

intervention, 20-22, 266-274

prevention, 12-13, 168-170, 174-176, 178-188, 195

see also School-based programs

Comprehensive Crime Control Act, 178

Condylomata, 69

Confidentiality and privacy, 21, 22, 136

in research studies, 29, 36, 92-93, 96, 325, 329, 332, 333, 337-338, 339, 361

Conflict resolution, 11, 12, 13-14, 35, 167

Conflict Tactics Scales, 64-65, 83, 98n 130, 133

Consequences and outcomes, 15-17, 28, 32, 38, 39, 44, 46, 208-210, 212, 232

for adolescents, 217-223

and definitions, 4, 5, 57

and development, 15, 51

of emotional abuse, 209, 211, 232

of interparental violence, 4, 7, 13, 16, 36, 126, 144n, 216-217, 224

of interventions, 3, 21, 22, 33, 40

long-term, 209, 224-226

of neglect, 209, 210-211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 232

of physical abuse, 15, 209-216 passim

of sexual abuse, 15, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214-215, 219, 220, 222

see also Behavioral function and disorders; Cognitive function; Injuries; Intergenerational abuse; Mental health and illness

Consortia, 36, 319, 320, 358, 359, 360

Contextual factors

and maltreatment definitions, 5, 58, 64-65

and outcomes, 15, 209, 234

and treatment, 263-264

Continuum of behavior, 107, 108, 130, 142, 347

cultural acceptability, 137

sexual abuse, 113, 179

Control studies, 17, 46, 47, 90

ethical issues, 29, 36, 329, 332-333, 339, 361

of treatment programs, 276-277

Co-occurrence of maltreatment types, 5, 44, 94, 106-107, 142, 254

consequences, 15, 17, 32, 232, 234

Coordinated research approaches, 3-4, 43

Corporal punishment, see Discipline and punishment

Cost-effectiveness 3, 40

Costs of services, 1, 21, 34, 38, 92, 277

long-term, 2, 39-40

Counseling services, 20, 23, 27, 40, 92, 277

Court Appointed Special Advocates, 273, 280n

Courts, see Legal system

Covenant to Care, 186-187

Crime and criminal justice, see Criminal sanctions; Juvenile delinquency; Legal system

Criminal sanctions, 13-14, 33, 190, 197

Culpability, 66

Culture and ethnicity, 4, 9-10, 110, 136-138, 142

and alcoholism, 8, 114, 119, 141

categories of race, 98n

and definitions of abuse, 58, 61, 63, 66-67, 70, 71

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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discrimination, 10, 16, 41, 137, 226, 258

and disproportionate representation, 87-88, 137-138

and parenting behaviors, 5, 8, 57, 66-67, 128-129, 130-131, 138, 142, 189-190

and prevention, 13-14, 188-190

and research, 24, 28, 31, 32, 41-41, 47, 53, 69, 72n, 97n, 316, 331, 332-333, 345, 347, 348, 349, 358

and sexual abuse, 138

Curriculum-based programs, see School-based programs

Custody issues, 22, 63, 272, 274

D

Data collection and sources, 6, 24, 28, 43

archives, 23, 25, 97, 298, 299-300

case reports and records, 59, 61-62, 69-70, 73n, 79-83, 87, 90-91, 345, 350

comparability, 17, 21, 24, 33, 44, 59, 65

dissemination, 23, 25, 26, 28, 299-301

national, 25, 26, 36, 96-97, 304

state, 27, 34, 95, 306, 354, 360

see also Instrumentation; Methodology; Samples and sampling

Day care services, 20, 256-257

workers identification of abuse, 12-13, 183

Deaths, 1, 15, 38, 52, 82, 89, 93, 98n, 210, 235n

misclassification of, 79, 88-89, 210

Debriefing and desensitization, of research subjects, 29, 36, 327, 329, 333-334, 339, 361

Deception, of research subjects, 29, 324, 327, 329, 330-332

Definitions, 6, 29, 30, 44, 47, 59, 344

development of, 4-5, 31, 44, 57-63, 345

emotional abuse, 44, 60, 61, 62, 72n

legal, 60-61, 62, 70

medical-diagnostic, 60, 67-69, 72n

neglect, 59-66 passim, 82

operationalization of, 31, 61-62, 63-67, 70-71, 85, 123, 345

physical abuse, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64-65

for research, 60, 61-63, 70, 345

sexual abuse, 44, 59, 62

sociological, 60, 61

standardization, 5, 21, 57-59, 70, 95

Degrees, advanced, 24, 295

Dehydration, 73n

Delinquency, see Juvenile delinquency

Delivery of services, 17-18, 21, 23, 33, 34, 45, 254, 276

Demographic factors, 122-123. See also Age; Culture and ethnicity; Gender; Household composition and density; Poverty

Demonstrable harm, 5, 57, 64

Demonstration projects, 25, 26, 33, 43, 255, 279n, 303, 318, 350

Department of Defense, 25, 301, 303, 312

Department of Education, 25, 301, 303, 312

Department of Health and Human Services, 25, 26, 301, 303-311, 328

Department of Justice, 25, 36, 301, 311-312, 319

Department of Transportation, 25, 301, 312

Depression, 2, 39, 61, 65, 111-112, 124, 128, 214, 222, 224, 236n

Deprivation, see Neglect

Design of studies, 6, 89-91

Detachment, 8, 127, 213

Detection, see Identification of abuse

Developmental delay and disability, 2, 39, 73n, 173, 211, 212, 353

treatment costs, 40

Developmental stages, 4, 14, 15, 50-52, 118, 124-125, 209

and definitions of abuse, 64-65, 66, 70, 345

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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parental knowledge of, 116, 178

and prevention programs, 196

and research, 23, 44, 325

and self-inflicted injury, 68

and severity of acts, 64-65

sexual, 29, 72, 73n, 337

and treatment, 23, 51-52, 276-277

see also Adolescents; Infants

Diagnosis of abuse, see Health care services

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 58

Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines Concerning Child Abuse and Neglect, 72n

Diagnostic systems, 58, 60

Difficult children, 7, 115-116, 124-125, 211

Directories, 25, 294, 358, 360

Disabled children, 84, 123, 306

Discipline and punishment, 8, 29, 59, 83, 128, 129-131, 144n

cultural differences, 67, 130-131

media promotion of appropriate, 13, 35

prevention strategies, 11, 13-14, 189-190, 197

Discrimination and bias, 16, 226

and research, 41-42, 43, 69, 87-88, 91

Dissemination of research, 17-18, 23, 28, 29, 33, 36, 336, 350-351, 355, 360

federal, 25, 26, 299-312 passim

states, 27, 36, 95, 319, 360

Documentation, of research, 24, 28, 36, 63, 66, 304. See also Substantiation of case reports

Domestic violence, see Spousal conflict and violence

Drug abuse, see Substance abuse

Duration of abuse, 5, 44, 70, 232, 345

Dwarfism, 210-211

Dysfunctional families, see Family functioning

E

Early childhood education, 11, 173-174, 198n

Early intervention programs, 11-12, 177-178

home visitation, 11, 34, 169, 170-173, 178, 191-193, 351

hospital-based, 11, 170, 176-177

Earnings losses, of abused children, 2, 40

Eating disorders, 18, 224

Ecological development models, 4, 14, 49-52, 109-111, 161, 190-191

Education, see Academic performance; Educational services, for parents; Media roles and programs; School-based programs; Training

Educational services, for parents, 12, 20, 182-183

Education levels, parental, 123, 124, 175

Elmira Prenatal/Early Infancy Project, 171-172, 174

Emotional abuse, 4, 6, 43-44, 61, 67, 69, 114

incidence, 81, 82, 94, 98n

outcomes, 209, 211, 232

Endangerment, 5, 57, 64, 81, 92

Environmental factors, 4, 8-9, 10, 16, 23, 25, 110, 132-136, 371

and consequences, 15, 234, 348-349

and definitions, 5, 57

see also Culture and ethnicity; Family functioning

Epidemiological studies, 6, 31, 44, 45, 69, 346

methodological problems, 6, 78-79, 85-93

use of case reports, 79-83

see also National incidence studies

Episodic maltreatment, 4, 49-50, 65

Ethical and legal research issues, 23, 28-30, 36, 42, 324-334, 337-340, 361

sexual abuse studies, 72, 328

validity, 29, 327, 334-336

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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Ethnic groups, see Culture and ethnicity

Etiology and etiological studies, 4, 5, 28, 30, 32, 40-41, 44, 46, 106-107, 139-142, 143n, 344, 347, 349

biological factors, 114, 119-122

child factors, 123-125, 227-228

cultural factors, 4, 9-10, 110, 136-138, 142

demographic factors, 122-123

emotional abuse, 114

environmental factors, 4, 8-9, 10, 16, 23, 25, 110, 132-136, 371

family functioning, 8, 25, 110, 126-132

models, 6-7, 10, 31-32, 107-111, 140, 346-347

neglect, 112, 115, 125, 128, 135

parenting behaviors, 4, 13, 17, 26, 29, 35, 46-47, 57, 128-130, 333

physical abuse, 111-112, 115-116, 137

and prevention, 3, 14, 40, 166

sexual abuse, 11, 112-114, 126-127, 139, 195

Evaluations, 32-34, 48, 336, 350-353

community-based programs, 13, 14, 20, 34, 191, 195, 352-353

demonstration projects, 25, 33, 255, 279n

early intervention services, 11, 177-178

family preservation, 33, 277, 279n, 351

family services, 261-262, 265

home visitation services, 34, 171-173, 192-193

intervention services, 17-18, 22, 23, 30, 32-34, 254-256, 344, 350-353

of media programs, 187

offender treatment, 18-19, 19, 278

parenting programs, 168-169, 262-263

protective services, 20-21, 27, 34, 53, 275-276, 353

school-based programs, 12, 180-181, 184-185, 191, 196-197, 352-353

sexual abuse prevention, 193-194, 352

treatment programs, 22-23, 34, 44, 45, 254-256, 276-277

Evolutionary theory, 122

Exhibitionism, 84

Exosystem, see Environmental factors

Experimental studies, see Control studies

F

Failure to thrive, 73n, 125, 210-211

Fair Start, 174

Falls, 68. See also Injuries

Family functioning, 8, 25, 110, 126-132

and chronic neglect, 8, 127, 129

composition and size, 7, 8, 61, 123, 127, 144n, 236n

interaction with other factors, 7, 141

research, 4, 29, 46-47

see also Discipline and punishment; Parenting styles and behaviors

Family preservation, 22, 40, 52, 230, 263-265, 271

Family services, 10, 18, 19, 25, 137, 167-178, 262-266

center-based programs, 11, 169, 173-174, 175

hospital-based, 11, 170, 176-177

Family Support Act, 183

Family systems treatment, 19, 263

FAST Track, 185

Fatalities, see Deaths

Fathers, 116, 126-127, 134, 141

Federal Government, 43

cooperation with states, 27, 178-179, 306, 308

information dissemination, 25, 26, 299-312 passim

research funding, 6, 25-26, 28, 35-36, 43, 93, 96, 255, 294, 295, 301-312, 318-320, 343, 355-357, 359

research regulations, 326-328

Female sexual abuse offenders, 113

Follow-up services, 21, 52, 192

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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Fondling, 59

Food assistance, 19-20, 266

Forms of abuse, see Categories of maltreatment

Foster care placement, 21, 40, 52, 270-272, 274

evaluation studies, 27, 33, 277-278, 308, 351

maltreatment in, 60, 123, 230

and outcomes, 15, 16-17, 226, 229-231

Fractures, 60, 68, 71

Frequency of abuse, 4, 49-50, 65, 70, 96, 107

Funding of research, 27-28, 30, 39, 41, 298

constraints, 1-2, 6, 23, 25, 28, 35-36, 41, 48, 320, 359-360

federal, 6, 25-26, 28, 35-36, 43, 93, 96, 255, 294, 295, 301-312, 318-320, 343, 355-357, 359

instrumentation, 6, 25, 96, 317-319

interdisciplinary, 25-27, 315, 318-320, 357-359

methodology development, 6, 24, 129

private foundations, 27, 313-314

state, 26-27, 28, 312-313, 319

training of researchers, 24, 25, 27, 293-296, 316-317

G

Gender, 15, 16, 58, 123, 124, 125, 209-210, 234-235

and sexual abuse, 84, 113, 210, 222

Genetic diseases, 71-72

Genital herpes, 69

Genitalia, 68, 72, 72n, 73n

Geopolitical area studies, 90-91

Gonorrhea, 73n, 211

Government services and agencies, see Antipoverty programs; Federal Government; Protective services and agencies; Social services and agencies; State governments; names of specific federal agencies

Graduate training programs, 24, 27, 293-296, 321n, 358

Grassroots volunteer groups, 175-176

Group therapy, 259, 278 sexual offenders, 19, 260

Growth retardation, 210-211

Guardian ad litem services, 273, 280n

Guidelines for research, 327, 330, 331, 333, 361

H

Hawaii, 173

Head Start, 19, 34, 174, 175, 266, 303, 308

Head trauma, 71

Healing of injuries, 67, 71

Health care services, 20, 23, 25, 168, 267-268

deprivation of, 60, 63, 67, 73n, 306

identification and reporting of abuse, 5, 20, 44, 67-69, 71-72, 72-73n, 86, 267

preventive, 10, 137

see also Hospital-based interventions

Healthy Beginnings, 174

Healthy People 2000, 52, 59, 311

Healthy Start, 173, 174

Hispanic population, 67, 98n, 128, 131

Home-based services, 263-264

Homebuilders program, 264

Home visitation services, 11, 34, 169, 170-173, 178, 191-193, 351

Homicides, 36, 98n, 218, 371

Homosexuality, 143n

Hormones, 114, 120, 121-122, 144n

Hospital-based interventions, 11, 170, 176-177

Household composition and density, 7, 8, 61, 123, 127, 144n, 236n

Housing assistance, 20, 266

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 211, 267-268, 333

Human subjects research ethics, 28-29, 325, 326-329

Hygiene deficiencies, 73n, 129

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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I

Identification of abuse, 5, 11, 26, 51, 71

by health professionals, 5, 20, 44, 67-69, 71-72, 72-73n, 86, 267

sexual abuse, 20, 68-69, 71, 72

by teachers, 12-13, 183-184

training in, 12-13, 183-184

Impulse control, 111, 112, 113, 121

Incest, 59, 113, 126-127, 143n, 222, 224

Incidence, 1, 5-6, 38, 52, 78-79, 81, 82, 93, 97-98n

and definition standards, 4, 59, 62, 70

of emotional abuse, 81, 82, 94, 98n

of endangerment, 81

of neglect, 6, 79, 81, 82, 93-94

of physical abuse, 6, 81, 82, 94

and prevalence, 86-87, 94

of sexual abuse, 6, 79, 81, 82, 94

see also Epidemiological studies

Income maintenance, see Antipoverty programs

Indian Health Service, 311

Individual factors, 7-8, 10, 16, 110, 111-123

of children, 123-125, 227-228

Infant Health and Development Program, 170, 174, 175

Infants, 68, 124, 125, 129, 210-211

Information, see Dissemination of research

Informed consent, 29, 36, 91, 92-93, 326, 327, 329, 330-332, 339, 340n, 361

Injuries, 1, 15, 17, 32, 38, 68, 208, 210-211

as indicators of abuse, 60, 61, 64, 65, 71-72, 310

and medical treatment, 17, 20, 67-68, 71-72

Institutional review boards (IRBs), 328, 340, 361

Instrumentation, 6, 23, 24-25, 28, 29, 30, 46, 47, 91, 297-298, 321n, 344

and definitions, 5, 31, 63, 70-71, 345

and developmental stages, 66

evaluations, 33, 350

and researcher training, 24-25, 63, 71, 297

standardization, 24, 25, 63, 70, 91, 95-96, 297

Intelligence, see Cognitive function

Intensity of abuse, 5, 15, 44, 209

Intent to harm, 66

Interactive models, 7, 47, 50, 54, 107-109, 139-140, 162, 347

Interdisciplinary research, 4, 23, 25, 26, 35, 43, 292-296, 315-316

and definition development, 31, 70, 345

government support, 25-27, 315, 318-320, 357-359

Intergenerational abuse, 7, 8, 10, 52, 68, 116-118, 132, 140-141, 143-144n, 223-224, 226, 233-234, 347

and discipline, 130, 371

sexual, 113, 118

International Classification of Diseases, 98n

International comparisons, 84-85, 130, 371

International Society for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse, 294, 298

Interventions, 17-18, 22-23, 46, 52, 253, 274-275. See also Community-based programs; Prevention; Protective services and agencies; Treatment programs

Intimacy, 219-220, 224

Isolation, social, 8, 9, 10, 68, 107, 112, 120, 127, 135-136, 224

J

Justice system, see Legal system

Juvenile delinquency, 4, 14, 15-16, 26, 38, 39, 40, 51, 127, 174, 217-218, 223, 226, 227, 236n

justice system, 16, 52, 226, 273

Juvenile Justice Standards Project, 60-61

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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K

Kempe, C. Henry, 43, 60, 98n, 187, 294

Kinship care, 21, 270

L

La Leche League, 175

Latinos, see Hispanic population

Laws, see Legislation

Leadership needs, 28, 30, 35, 314-315, 343, 355, 357-359

Legal system, 17, 21-22, 25, 27, 47, 61, 272-274, 280n

and definitions of maltreatment, 5, 58

discrimination against victims, 16, 226

family members involvement, 14, 190

and offender treatment, 18, 22, 190, 259, 272-273

and parental rights, 22, 274

see also Criminal sanctions; Ethical and legal research issues

Legislation, 60, 62, 165, 183, 187

on data collection, 43, 79, 81, 307-308

see also Mandatory reporting

Literacy, 62, 66

Literature, see Publication of research

London Secondary School Intervention Project on Violence, 184-185

Long-term studies, 27, 42, 45, 53, 90, 97

of consequences, 17, 232-233, 348

ethical issues, 28, 334-335, 339, 361

intergenerational abuse, 117-118, 141, 233-234

Louisville Child Behavior Checklist, 297

Low birthweight, 123, 124, 125, 170

Low self-esteem, 15, 16, 213, 214, 228

of offenders, 10, 111, 112

M

Malnutrition, 71, 125, 129, 210-211

Mandatory reporting, 67, 72n, 73n, 79, 87, 98n, 267

by researchers, 6, 42, 71, 91-93, 96, 325, 335

Marital conflict, see Spousal conflict and violence

Marital status, 7, 123

Mass media, see Media roles and programs

Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 311, 356

Measures and measurement, see Instrumentation; Methodology

Media roles and programs, 13, 35, 48, 165, 187-188, 197, 334, 336, 354-355

and research findings, 29, 334, 336

Medical research, 23, 24, 25, 292, 293, 295

Medical services, see Health care services

Mental health and illness, 2, 6, 15, 17, 18, 25, 39, 111, 208, 209, 212-215

of adult survivors, 224-226

diagnostic classification, 58, 63

physiology of, 121-122

services, 18, 20, 52, 63, 256-258

see also Cognitive function; Depression; Emotional abuse; Personality disorders

Mental retardation, 211

Methodology, 29, 96, 235

intervention evaluation, 23, 254

problems in, 6, 14, 24-25, 26, 78-79, 85-93, 116

and research ethics, 339

see also Definitions; Documentation, of research; Instrumentation; Samples and sampling

Minority groups, see Culture and ethnicity

Misclassification bias, 91

Models and modeling

animal, 119-122, 144n

cause-and-effect, 7, 53, 107

ecological development, 4, 14, 49-52, 109-111, 161, 190-191

etiological, 6-7, 10, 31-32, 107-111, 140, 346-347

interactive, 7, 47, 50, 54, 107-109, 139-140, 162, 347

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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longitudinal studies, 339

public health, 162, 164

transactional, 108, 123-124

Moral development, 60

Mothers, 7, 115-116, 123, 124-125, 126-127, 169, 175

Multiple abuse, see Co-occurrence of maltreatment types

Multiple personality disorder, 224

Multisystem community prevention programs, 13, 185

Munchausen by proxy, 59

N

National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN), 36, 43, 79, 80, 81, 95, 293, 307-308, 319, 356, 359

data systems, 299-300

funding, 25, 36, 301, 304, 306, 359

graduate support, 295, 296

peer review system, 307, 309

National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), 81-82, 306

National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect, 299

National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 299

National Commission on Children, 52

National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA), 82

National Criminal Justice Reference Services, 300

National Data Archive of Child Abuse and neglect, 298, 321n

National Family Violence Survey, 86

National Health Interview Survey on Child Health, 96, 346

National incidence studies (NIS), 59, 64, 78, 80-81, 86, 87, 88, 89, 98n, 306, 307

National Information Clearinghouse on Infants with Disabilities and Life Threatening Conditions, 299

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 36, 303, 310, 319, 356, 359

National Institute of Justice (NIJ), 300, 312

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 36, 95, 98n, 309-310, 319, 356, 359

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child Supplement, 96, 346

National Research Council Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy, 49

National Resource Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, 299

National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, 299

National Survey of Children, 96, 346

Native Americans, 138

Navy, 303

Neglect, 4, 43-44, 115, 278

chronic, 6, 8, 94, 127, 129, 232

etiology, 112, 115, 125, 128, 135

identification of, 67, 69, 73n, 210

incidence, 6, 79, 81, 82, 93-94

outcomes, 209, 210-211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 232

and poverty, 9, 12, 66, 88, 133, 182

prevalence, 60, 94

prevention, 11, 12, 177

treatment programs, 264

Neighborhoods, 8, 9, 14, 134-136, 144n

New Chance, 183

Noncontact sexual abuse, 84, 94

Norplant, 273

O

Office for Protection from Research Risks, 328

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 311

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 300, 311-312

Ontogenic factors, see Individual factors

Opiates, 114

Oral stimulation, excessive, 73n

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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Origins of maltreatment, see Etiology and etiological studies; Risk factors

Outcomes, see Consequences and outcomes

P

Pacific Islanders, 98n

Parent-Child Development Centers (PCDC), 174

Parenting styles and behaviors, 4, 13, 17, 26, 29, 35, 46-47, 57, 128-130, 333

and emotional abuse, 72n

interaction with other factors, 7-8, 10, 108-109

interventions, 11-12, 19, 22, 165, 166, 167-178, 191-193, 262-263

and stress, 8, 9, 15, 19, 35, 109, 112, 120, 131-132, 144n, 168

see also Discipline and punishment; Intergenerational abuse

Parents Anonymous, 260-261

Parents United, 261

Parricide, 218

Pathogenic model, 53-54

Pediatrics, 23, 292

Pedophilia, see Sexual abuse

Peer relations, 12, 15, 125, 128, 167, 184, 216

Peer review systems, 307

Personality disorders, 18, 224

antisocial, 7, 16, 113, 119, 223

of offenders, 7, 111-115

Physical abuse, 4, 12, 43-44

and corporal punishment, 14, 128, 130, 132, 136

etiology, 111-112, 115-116, 137

identification of, 67-68, 71

incidence, 6, 81, 82, 94

offender treatment, 260-261, 262-263

outcomes, 15, 209-216 passim

and poverty, 88, 133

prevalence, 83, 86

Physical discipline, see Discipline and punishment

Physiology, 71-72, 119-122

parental hyperreactivity, 115

Pilot screening studies, 71

Placement, see Foster care placement

Plea bargaining, 18, 259

Poisoning and ingestions, 64, 73n

Policy decisions and planning, 2-3, 22, 23, 27-28, 39, 40, 57

family services, 10, 137

by multiple agencies, 17, 254

research, 29, 30, 33, 35-36, 40-43, 45, 52-53, 314-315, 320, 344, 355-357

Population-based studies, 69, 83-85, 95-97

Pornography, 59, 139

Positive Adolescents Choices Training (PACT), 185

Postpartum services, see Home visitation services; Hospital-based interventions

Post-traumatic stress disorder, 215, 224, 236n

Poverty, 7, 9, 10, 17, 41, 88, 89, 107, 109, 123, 126, 133-135

and abuse definitions, 61

antipoverty programs, 12, 19-20, 182-183, 266

and center-based programs, 173-174

and community-based programs, 174-175

disproportional representation, 9, 69, 87-88, 133

and ethnicity, 10, 137

and family functioning, 128

and low birthweight, 124

and research studies, 47, 69

Predatory behavior, 44

Pregnancy

drug use during, 119, 170

unplanned, 115, 224

see also Teenage pregnancy

Prematurity, 123, 124, 125, 170

Preservation of family, see Family preservation

Prevalence, 4, 93, 94

methodological problems, 6, 86-87

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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of neglect, 60, 94

of physical abuse, 83, 86

of sexual abuse, 44, 83-84, 94

studies of, 31, 69, 83-85, 97, 346

Prevention, 5, 10, 52, 161-165

community-based programs, 12-13, 168-170, 174-176, 178-188, 195

corporal punishment, 11, 13-14, 189-190, 197

and cultural factors, 13-14, 188-190

evaluation studies, 34, 190-191, 336

Federal aid to states, 178-179

and maltreatment definitions, 5

parenting interventions, 11-12, 165, 166, 167-175, 178, 191-193

see also Family services; School-based programs

Preventive health care services, 10, 137

Privacy, see Confidentiality and privacy

Private foundations, 27, 313-314

Productivity losses, of severely abused children, 2, 40

Professional societies, 294, 315, 327

Project 12-Ways, 262-263

Prospective studies, see Long-term studies

Protective factors, 10, 14, 31-32, 109, 140

and intergenerational abuse, 117-118

and outcomes, 16-17, 226-231, 234-235

Protective services and agencies, 17, 20-21, 22, 52, 268-270

administrative records, 59, 61-62, 69-70, 73n, 79-83, 87, 90-91, 345, 350

evaluations, 20-21, 34

federal funding, 306

investigations, 17, 20-21, 23, 34, 71, 78, 268-269, 354

rates of substantiation, 78, 81, 82, 89, 279n

and research subjects, 329-330

resource and staff, 21, 88, 268, 279n

staffing, 21, 268, 279n

Protocols, 327, 361

Psychology, 23, 25, 292

Psychometrics, 25, 96, 297, 298

Psychopathology, see Mental health and illness; Personality disorders

Puberty, 72

Publication of research, 17-18, 25, 26, 33, 45-47, 68, 294, 298, 299-301, 307-308, 328, 350-351

Public awareness campaigns, see Media roles and programs

Public health model, 162, 164

Public Health Service, 52, 308-311

Punishment, see Discipline and punishment; Legal system

R

Racism, 10, 41, 137, 226, 258

Recall bias, 6, 8, 44, 45, 90, 224-225

Recidivism, 261, 263, 351

sexual offenders, 19, 259-260

Recruitment of research subjects

bias in, 44

ethical issues, 29, 36, 329-330, 339, 361

Referrals to services, 20, 21, 23, 34, 253, 269-270, 279-280n, 354

by home visitors, 171

by researchers, 30, 71, 345-346

Regional variations, 69-70

Regulation of research, 326-328

Relapse, see Recidivism

Reliability

of definitions, 60

of instrumentation, 31, 63, 298, 345

of research findings, 6, 29

Religion, 135-136, 186-187

Rent subsidies, 19, 266

Replication of research, 336

Reporting of cases, 5, 20, 44, 52

and apparent increase in abuse, 6, 78-79, 88-89, 93

bias in, 144n, 354

by children, 194

and definitions, 57, 62, 70, 71

discretionary, 92, 267

mandatory, 6, 42, 67, 72n, 73n, 79, 87, 91-93, 96, 98n, 267, 325, 335

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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and poverty, 9, 87-88, 133

by researchers, 6, 42, 71, 91-93, 96, 325, 335

unsubstantiated, 78, 79, 80

Research, see Bias in research; Data collection and sources; Definitions; Dissemination of research; Ethical and legal research issues; Funding of research; Interdisciplinary research; Methodology; Models and modeling; Research centers; Researchers; Samples and sampling; Status of research

Research centers, 23, 24, 36, 294, 295, 318, 358-359

federal support, 25, 26, 304

Researchers, 53, 293-294, 313, 315-316, 358

mandatory case reporting, 6, 42, 71, 91-93, 96, 325, 335

referrals to services, 30, 71, 345-346

training of, 23-28, 35, 71, 292-296, 297, 316-318, 358

Retrospective studies, 8, 116-117, 144n, 224-225, 233, 335, 348

bias in, 6, 8, 44, 45, 90, 209, 225-226

Revictimization, 220, 224, 267

Rights, of children and parents, 22, 274

Risk factors, 5, 39, 108, 140

assessment of, 21, 23, 86-87, 140-141

interactions among, 7, 10, 14, 16, 31-32, 38, 54, 108-109, 140-141, 166, 167, 226-231, 346-347, 348

and prevention, 10-11, 166-167

see also Culture and ethnicity; Discipline and punishment; Environmental factors; Etiology and etiological studies; Family functioning; Individual factors; Intergenerational abuse; Poverty; Protective factors; Spousal conflict and violence

Rituals, sexual, 59

Runaways, 15, 219, 236n

S

Samples and sampling, 6, 29, 46, 47, 69, 89-90, 96

case reports, 70

clinical studies, 45, 53

epidemiological studies, 97

Scalding, see Burns and scalding

Scales of severity, 64-65, 83

Scars, 86

School-based programs, 13, 165, 178, 191, 352-353

sexual abuse prevention, 11, 12, 127, 179-182, 194

violence prevention, 11, 12, 13, 167, 184-186, 196-197

School lunch programs, 19, 266

Seattle Project, 185

Self-destructive behavior, 16, 213, 222, 224

Self-help services, 17, 260-261, 278

evaluation studies, 33, 351

Self-inflicted injury, 68

Sensational abuse cases, 183, 197

Sensitivity of topics, 21, 43, 55n

and research, 29, 325, 334, 336-338

Separation from caregiver, 61, 230-231

Severity of abuse, 64-65, 70, 83, 107, 232, 345

Sex, see Gender

Sexism, 41

Sexual abuse, 4, 11, 43-44, 72, 84, 133, 138, 143n, 194, 195, 273

adolescent offenders, 18-19, 84, 139, 260

adult survivors, 18, 224-225, 228

etiology, 11, 112-114, 126-127, 139, 195

female offenders, 113

identification of, 20, 68-69, 71, 72

incidence, 6, 79, 81, 82, 94

medical diagnosis, 20, 68-69, 71, 72, 72-73n, 267

offender treatment, 18-19, 165, 190, 259-260, 261, 278

outcomes, 15, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214-215, 219, 220, 222

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prevalence, 44, 83-84, 94

prevention programs, 34, 166-167, 193-195, 352

school-based prevention programs, 11, 12, 127, 179-182, 194

Sexuality and sexual dysfunction, 2, 18, 39, 211, 214-215, 224

among adolescents, 16, 19, 84, 125, 210, 219-220, 260

developmental, 29, 72, 73n, 337

Sexually transmitted diseases, 68-69, 73n, 211, 267-268

Shaken baby syndrome, 68, 210

Sibling relationships, 126, 216

Significant relationships, 16, 229

Single parents, 123, 126-127, 174

Single-theory models, 7, 10, 140

Skin injuries, 68, 211

Skull fractures, 68. See also Injuries

Sleeping arrangements, 138

Social isolation, 8, 9, 10, 68, 107, 112, 120, 127, 135-136, 224

Social networks, 9, 135-136, 141

Social Security supplemental income, 19, 266

Social services and agencies, 2, 5, 44-45, 62, 135

costs, 1, 21, 34, 38, 92, 277

interagency relations, 17, 21, 23, 27, 34

and poverty, 9, 69, 87-88, 133

research, 3, 27, 34, 41, 49, 354

see also Antipoverty programs; Community-based programs; Protective services and agencies; Referrals to services

Social work, research, 23, 25, 292

Societal neglect, 10, 137

Socioeconomic status, 16, 66, 69, 71, 88, 109, 128, 133. See also Poverty

Somatization, 224

Spanking, 14, 131, 189. See also Discipline and punishment

Speech and language problems, 211-212

Spillover effect, 13, 174-175, 186

Spousal conflict and violence, 4, 7, 13, 16, 36, 126, 144n, 176, 216-217, 224

Standardization

among state agencies, 34, 87, 95, 306, 354

of definitions, 5, 21, 57-59, 70, 95

of instrumentation, 24, 25, 63, 70, 91, 95-96, 297

State governments

data sources, 27, 34, 95, 306, 354, 360

death investigations, 52

federal aid, 27, 178-179, 306, 308

information dissemination, 27, 36, 95, 319, 360

research funding, 26-27, 28, 312-313, 319

see also Protective services and agencies

Status of research, 1-2, 3-4, 24-25, 28, 30, 45-47, 48-49, 53-54, 292-293, 343

Stepfathers, 126-127

Stranger abduction, 182

Stress, 8, 9, 15, 19, 35, 109, 112, 120, 131-132, 144n, 168

of research subjects, 29, 327

Substance abuse, 4, 7-8, 14, 16, 20, 36, 38, 39, 41, 51, 127, 221-222

by adult survivors, 18, 224

parental, 17, 118-119, 273-274

by sexual abusers, 114

see also Alcoholism

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 310

Substantiation of case reports, 5, 21, 23, 44, 71, 268-269

rates, 78, 81, 82, 89, 279n

Suicide attempts, 213, 222, 223

Surveillance bias, 88

Surveys, see Epidemiological studies; Instrumentation; Samples and sampling

Survivors, see Adult survivors

Sweden, 130

Symbolically abusive acts, 60, 94, 214

Suggested Citation:"INDEX." National Research Council. 1993. Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2117.
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Syndromes of abuse, 32, 43, 60, 63, 349

adult psychopathology, 111

shaken baby, 68, 210

Syphilis, 73n, 211

T

Task forces, 36, 70, 294, 308

Teachers

abuse identification by, 12-13, 183-184

relationships with, 125

Teenage pregnancy, 15-16, 174, 210, 220

Temperament, 7, 16, 123, 124, 227-228

Terrorism, 60, 94, 214

Testimony by children, 22, 273, 280n

Theories, see Models and modeling

Therapy, see Treatment programs

Timing of abuse, 5, 15, 44, 209, 232

Toddlers, 124, 125

Training

in abuse identification, 12-13, 183-184

of educators, 12-13, 181, 183-184

of health professionals, 71, 86

of parents, 12, 173-174, 181, 196-197

of researchers, 23-28, 35, 71, 292-296, 297, 316-318, 358

see also Home visitation services

Transactional models, 108, 123-124

Transitional models, 107-108

Treatment programs, 17, 22, 23, 60, 92, 253-256

for adult survivors, 18, 258-259

for child victims, 18, 34, 256-258, 351-352

and definition development, 4, 57

and development, 23, 51-52, 276-277

and emotional abuse, 254

evaluations, 22-23, 34, 44, 45, 254-256, 276-277

and foster care, 272

neglect, 264

for offenders, 18-19, 22, 34, 260-261, 278, 351-352

for parents, 19, 22, 169, 262-263

Trigger behavior, 68, 211

U

Unemployment, 7, 9, 10, 41, 123, 134

Universities

graduate training programs, 24, 27, 293-296, 321n, 358

research programs, 24, 294, 295

Unplanned pregnancy, 115, 224

Unrelatedness, 8, 127

Unreported abuse, 86, 90, 94

U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 52-53, 189, 308

V

Validity, 29, 327, 334-336

of definitions, 60

of instrumentation, 31, 63, 298, 345

Verbal abuse, 60, 94, 214, 261

Vietnamese cultures, 67

Violent behavior, 2, 15, 38

among adolescents, 218

among siblings, 126, 216

interparental, 4, 7, 13, 16, 36, 126, 144n, 176, 216-217, 224

prevention programs, 11, 12, 13, 167, 184-186, 196-197, 352

and sexual abuse, 113

societal, 9, 10, 136, 137, 371

Visitation rights, 22, 274

Visiting Nurse Associations, 175

Vocational assistance, 12, 182-183

W

Welfare, see Antipoverty programs

Witness, see Legal system; Testimony by children

Women with Infants and Children (WIC) food supplement program, 19, 266

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Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect Get This Book
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The tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention. Yet, without a conceptual framework, research in this area has been highly fragmented. Understanding the broad dimensions of this crisis has suffered as a result.

This new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the nation. The committee presents an overview of three major areas:

oDefinitions and scope--exploring standardized classifications, analysis of incidence and prevalence trends, and more.

oEtiology, consequences, treatment, and prevention--analyzing relationships between cause and effect, reviewing prevention research with a unique systems approach, looking at short- and long-term consequences of abuse, and evaluating interventions.

oInfrastructure and ethics--including a review of current research efforts, ways to strengthen human resources and research tools, and guidance on sensitive ethical and legal issues.

This volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and researchers.

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