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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Index

A

Accountability, see Democratic accountability

Ad Hoc Committee on Privacy and Confidentiality, 50, 65-66, 104, 105, 209.

See also Committee on Privacy and Confidentiality

Ad Hoc Committee on Professional Ethics, 66, 209

Administrative agencies, 2, 18, 30, 40

Administrative procedures, 2, 18-19, 141

archiving, 174-176, 177, 225

data protection, 3, 4, 12, 203-205

for disclosure limitation, 10-11, 86-87, 152, 154, 155

informed consent, 9, 69-71, 75, 219

nongovernment data access, 7, 97, 99-100, 221

public information activities, 10, 88, 220

see also Restricted access

Administrative records, 1, 4-5, 17, 24, 27-28, 34, 40-41, 47, 48, 67, 68, 74, 172, 173, 178

historical use, 47, 48

and notification, 63, 65, 70, 71-75, 77-80, 220

public views on statistical uses, 61, 83-85

risk of privacy violations, 9, 88

statutes on, 50, 110, 114-115, 135

see also Continuous Work History Sample;

Interagency data sharing;

Linkages of records;

Lists of respondents;

Tax records;

Vital statistics

Advisory agency, 13, 50-51, 79, 214-215, 217, 227.

See also Review boards and mechanisms

Advocacy groups, 17, 36, 92

and privacy violations, 10, 86-87, 89, 221

Agencies, see Administrative agencies;

Administrative procedures;

Interagency data sharing;

names of specific agencies

Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 78

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 86-87

American Society for Access Professionals, 209

American Statistical Association (ASA), 46, 50, 65-66, 87, 97, 104 , 105, 206, 209-210

fellowships, 94, 101, 165-166, 200

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
×

Analysis, see Policy and program analysis; Statistical disclosure limitation

Anonymization, 142, 145

Archiving procedures, 174-176, 177, 225

Association for Public Data Users, 17, 97, 210

Attribute disclosure, 23-24, 143-144

Australia, 194

Authorization, see Informed consent and notification

Autonomy, see Individual autonomy

B

Baldridge v. Shapiro, 119-120

Behavioral Sciences Research Group, BLS, 82

Bellagio principles, 104, 105

Bias, 30, 147

Birth certificates, 96, 163

Blurring, 146.

See also Statistical disclosure limitation

Boskin initiative, 49, 181, 196

Burden on data providers, 32, 36, 75, 219

and barriers to interagency data sharing, 6, 98-99, 221

and data linkage, 41, 53

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 21, 128, 164, 170, 171, 191, 192, 194

Bureau of Environmental Statistics, 132, 188

Bureau of Justice Statistics, 15, 20, 39, 40, 137

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 2, 15, 20, 21, 29, 40, 165

cognitive research, 55, 82

and Current Population Survey, 94, 159

data policies and statutes, 183, 188

organizational data, 129-131, 191, 192-193, 194, 198

Bureau of the Census, 1-2, 4, 20, 21, 41, 109, 113, 118-121, 136, 183

address lists, 37, 95-96, 119-120, 134, 191

administrative data use, 96, 140n, 162-163

archived material, 175-176

cognitive research, 55, 82

confidentiality statutes, 37, 41

Current Population Survey, 94, 159, 160-162, 175, 181

disclosure limitation procedures, 86-87, 98, 146, 148, 205, 206

Exact Match Study, 160-162

external user access, 38, 39, 165

history of, 46-47, 48

and IRS, 127, 128, 162-163

microdata releases, 120-121

organizational data, 183, 191-194, 198

and public opinion, 35, 83, 86-87

reimbursable surveys, 120-121

special sworn employees, 38, 101, 119, 159, 164, 166

waiver use, 68-69, 73, 198, 199

Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 20, 131-132, 140n, 188

Businesses, see Organizations

C

Canada, 46, 194-195, 211, 213-214

CD-ROM data releases, 87, 92, 102

encrypted formats, 7, 94, 123, 167-168, 200

Cell suppression, 98, 144, 148.

See also Statistical disclosure limitation

Census Bureau, see Bureau of the Census

Censuses, 1, 17

nonstatistical uses, 5-6, 8-9, 33-34, 71

see also Decennial censuses

Center for Economic Studies, 200-201

Central state planning board, 31

Certificates of research, 215

Child support data, 159-160

Cognitive research, 9, 30, 52, 55, 82, 85-86, 220

Committee on Privacy and Confidentiality, 87, 209

Communications technology advances, 52, 150

Computer-assisted surveys, 70

Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act, 111, 160

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
×

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, 17

Computer technology, 15, 17, 52, 93, 149-151

data base access, 56, 144-145, 150-151

Concentration rule, 147, 148.

See also Statistical disclosure limitation

Conferences, for data users, 35, 36, 54

Confidentiality

definition of, 22-23

historical overview, 47, 48-49

violations of, 7, 38, 100, 101, 119, 138, 223

Congress, 16, 21, 30

Congressional Budget Office, 21

Constitutional Convention of 1787, 45

Constitutional empowerment, 2, 3, 18, 26-27, 29, 33, 78

Consultation, 11, 157, 224

Consumer Expenditure Survey, 21

Consumer Price Index, 30

Continuous Work History Sample, 95, 128, 169-171, 173, 191, 200

Cooperation, see Voluntary survey participation

Costs of data collection, 29-30, 32

and data linkage, 41

Cotton gin reports, 198

Council of Economic Advisers, 21, 48, 49

Council of Professional Associations on Federal Statistics, 97-98

Criminal records, 74

Current Industrial Reports, 198, 199

Current Population Survey (CPS), 94, 159, 160-162, 175, 181

D

Data protection, definition of, 23

staff training for 12, 215-216, 226

Death information, 68, 172, 178n

Decennial censuses, 29, 30, 36, 72, 87-88, 98

address lists, 119-120

history of, 45-47, 48

use of administrative data, 40, 83, 84, 96, 162-163

Declaration on Professional Ethics, 66, 210

Definitions, 22-24

of records, 24, 113, 139n

Democratic accountability, 2, 3, 18, 25-26, 29, 31-33, 36, 78

Denials of user requests, 95, 98, 158, 169-173

monitoring of patterns, 7-8, 96, 100, 222

Department of Agriculture, 48

Department of Defense, 159-160

Department of Health and Human Services, 112, 114, 159-160

Department of Justice, dispute with Energy Information Administration , 34, 129, 185-188

Department of the Treasury, 128, 164

Disclosure risk, 88, 136-137, 223.

See also Attribute disclosure;

Identity disclosure;

Inferential disclosure;

Restricted access;

Restricted data;

Statistical disclosure limitation

definition, 23-24

notification of, 8, 66, 76, 136, 156, 220

Dissemination, see Disclosure risk;

Microdata files;

Restricted access;

Restricted data;

Statistical disclosure limitation;

Tabulations;

Users of federal data

E

Economic data, 181, 189-190

Economic Policy Working Group, 49

Economic Research Service, 21, 201

Economics of data and data collection, 26-27, 29-30, 43n, 184

Education data, 31, 121-123

Education statistics, see National Center for Education Statistics

Electronic data formats, 92

archiving of, 175-176, 177, 225

see also CD-ROM data releases;

Microdata files;

On-line data access

Employer Identification number, 170, 190

Employment data, 129-131, 169-171, 173, 182, 184, 200

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
×

Encryption, 143

CD-ROMs, 7, 94, 123, 167-168, 200

End uses of data, 92

Energy Information Administration (EIA), 20, 38

data policies and statutes, 205, 206

dispute with Justice Department, 34, 129, 185-188

proprietary data collection, 34, 129, 185, 191, 193

Environmental Protection Agency, 43n

Epidemiology, 40, 95, 128, 171-173

Equifax, Inc., 83, 87

Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice, 66

Ethical principles

for agencies, 2-3, 18-19, 25-29

for data users, 105-107, 222

Evaluation studies, 70-71, 92

Exact Match Study, 160-162

Experimental research, 1, 17-18, 63, 107

Export data, 183

F

Face-to-face interviews, 62, 80-81

False statements, to data providers, 8, 76, 220.

See also Informed consent and notification

Farm Costs and Returns Survey, 201

Federal Aviation Administration, 2, 18

Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology, 11, 143

Federal-state cooperative arrangements, 18

Federal Trade Commission, 33-34

Fellowship programs, 94, 96, 101, 165-166, 200

Financial data, 76, 116-117, 182, 184

Finland, 194, 195

Fish and Wildlife Service, 20-21

Follow-up interviews, 8, 76, 220

Food and Drug Administration, 116

Food Security Act, 135

Food Stamp program, 4-5, 78, 149

Foreign trade data, 183

Framework for Planning U.S. Federal Statistics for the 1980's, 51, 72-73

France, 195, 211-212

Freedom of Information Act, 4, 27, 37, 98, 109, 111, 112-113, 115-117

and organizations, 116-117, 130, 182-183

Functional separation, 4-6, 34-35, 50, 53-54, 73, 134, 135, 223

advisory body promotion of, 13, 217-218, 227

and organizational data, 189, 225

Future use of data, notification on, 9, 76, 220.

See also Informed consent and notification

G

General Accounting Office, 113

General Education Provisions Act, 121, 122

General-purpose data sets, 1-2, 17

Geocoding, 87-88, 149

Germany, 211, 213

Grantees, statistical activities, 18

Great Depression, 48

Great Society programs, 48

Guidelines for Federal Statistical Activities, 208, 217, 227

H

Hawkins-Stafford amendments, 121, 122, 137

Health and Retirement Study, 69

Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), 18

Medicare lists, 172, 178n

How the Census Bureau Keeps Your Information Strictly Confidential , 86

I

Identity disclosure, 23, 143-144, 145, 153.

See also Statistical disclosure limitation

Illegal behavior, 76

Income tax, 47

Income Tax Act, 47

Independent advisory agency, 13, 50-51, 79, 214-215, 217, 227.

See also Review boards and mechanisms

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
×

Individual autonomy, 2, 3, 18, 27-29, 33, 46-47, 58, 78

Individually identifiable data, see Administrative records;

Disclosure risk;

Interagency data sharing;

Statistical disclosure limitation;

Tax records

Individual Master File, 162

Infant formula data, 115

Inference channel, 150-151

Inferential disclosure, 24, 144, 145, 151

Informational privacy, 22

Informed consent and notification, 8-9, 113, 115, 134, 135, 204, 223

administrative data, 36, 62, 63, 65, 70, 71-75, 74, 77-80, 220

definitions of, 23, 63

guidelines, 63-69, 75-77, 219-220

and interagency data sharing, 6, 99, 112, 221

methods of data collection, 62

for nonstatistical uses, 5-6, 8-9, 76-77, 133, 220

proxy procedures, 74, 203

research on, 9, 52, 55, 80-82

routine-use exemption, 113-115, 133

survey participants, 8-9, 52, 56-57, 65

see also Waivers

Institutional Brokers Estimate System (IBES), 44n

Institutional review boards, 107

Interagency data sharing, 6, 21, 40-41, 58, 74, 92, 93, 94, 98-99, 101, 111-112, 113, 158-165, 176, 203, 221, 224

administrative records, 6, 48, 58, 73, 74, 83-84, 94, 98-99, 159-163, 221

barriers, 6, 37, 98-99, 100, 111-112, 134, 158, 221

business lists, 191, 195-196, 225-226

statutes, 6, 98, 99

Interagency technical cooperation, 10, 11, 216-217

Intercensal surveys, 96, 162-163, 191, 198

Intermediate uses of data, 92, 93, 101

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, 131, 188

Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 2, 18, 21

data policies and statutes, 41, 94, 117, 127-128

organizational data, 191-193

and public opinion, 35, 55, 82, 83-85

taxpayer lists, 161-163, 164, 172

International Statistical Institute (ISI), 65, 66-67, 210

Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 39

J

Japan, 194

Jefferson, Thomas, 45

Joint Economic Committee, 48

L

Lawyers, 16-17

Legislation, 4-6, 36-38, 50, 51, 98, 109-111, 135.

See also Freedom of Information Act;

Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act ;

Income Tax Act;

Paperwork Reduction Act;

Privacy Act;

Public Health Service Act;

Tax Reform Act

agency-specific, 117-136

on data sharing, 6, 98, 99, 192

on external use, 7, 114-115

on organizational data, 182-183, 189, 196, 225, 226

Licensing agreements, 7, 38-39, 94, 96, 100, 101, 102-104, 123, 200

microdata, 168-169

Linkages of records, 8, 40-41, 52, 53-55, 74, 111, 159-163

and informed consent, 9, 65, 67, 70-71, 76, 220

in microdata files, 94

Lists of respondents, 37, 95-96, 119-120, 171-173

business, 6, 95, 128, 190-196, 203, 225-226

Local government, 21, 182, 183

Longitudinal Research Database, 38, 154

Longitudinal Retirement History Survey (LRHS), 68-69, 73, 96, 206

Lotus Marketplace: Households, 87

Louis Harris and Associates, surveys, 55, 82-83

Luxembourg Income Study, 150, 166-167

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
×

M

Mail surveys, 37, 62

Management, see Administrative procedures

Mandatory disclosure, 4-5, 33-34, 36

Mandatory participation, 23, 28-29, 56-57, 61, 62

and notification, 63, 67, 71-75

by organizations, 184

Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey, 38

Maryland Motor Vehicles Administration, 27-28

Masking of data, see Statistical disclosure limitation

Matching, see Linkages of records

Matrix masking, 152

Media, 17, 21, 92

Medical records, 40

Medicare, 78, 178n

Microdata files, 48, 52, 64, 92, 94, 97, 107, 119, 124-125, 157, 203, 222

denied use of, 95

disclosure limitation, 7, 10, 11, 12, 101-102, 104, 141-142, 144-146, 148-149

and informed consent, 65, 68-69

licensing agreements, 168-169

Luxembourg Income Study, 166-167

organizational data, 184, 200-201

Microdata Review Panel, Census Bureau, 48, 97, 148, 205

Misleading statements, to data providers, 8, 76, 220.

See also Informed consent and notification

Multiple imputation, 153

Multipurpose statistical programs, 1-2, 18, 29-30

N

National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), 20, 21, 94, 164

data policies and statutes, 41, 110, 134, 135, 164, 165-166

organizational data, 191, 194, 197-199, 201

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), 113, 174-176, 177, 225

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 121

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2, 15, 20, 21, 31 , 40, 110, 121-123

CD-ROM encryption, 94, 167, 201

data policies and statutes, 136, 137, 205, 206

restricted access, 38-39, 102, 165, 168-169

National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 15, 20, 21, 30-31, 43n, 70, 95-96, 172

cognitive research, 55, 82

data policies and statutes, 4, 28, 110, 123-127, 204-205

informed consent procedures, 70

National Death Index, 68, 172

National Educational Longitudinal Study, 40

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 95-96

National income accounts, 29, 170

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 128, 164, 172

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 165

National Institute on Aging (NIA), 68-69, 96, 206

National Institutes of Health, 43n, 107

National Justice Data Archive, 39

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 102

National Science Foundation (NSF), 38-39, 206

fellowships, 94, 101, 165-166, 200

Needs-tested entitlement programs, 74, 78

Netherlands, 194, 195

New Zealand, 194

Noise introduction, 144, 152, 178n.

See also Statistical disclosure limitation

Nonresponse, 80, 81

North, S.N.D., 46

Notification, see Informed consent and notification

O

Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards (OFPS), 49, 51, 73

Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 8, 21, 32, 111, 192-193, 196 , 207-209, 211, 217, 227

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
×

confidentiality rulings, 69, 73, 96, 198, 199

disclosure limitation research, 11, 155, 224

Off-site data access, 96, 100, 102, 123, 168-169

Oil company data, 34, 129, 185-188

On-line data access, 7, 92, 166-167, 200

On-site data access, 7, 96, 101, 173

Organizations, 16, 21, 52, 54, 62, 181-182

access to data on, 7, 51, 57, 116-117, 199-202, 226

and confidentiality, 2, 5, 18, 23, 51, 57, 62, 64, 75, 182, 188-190, 219, 225

as data collectors, 15

informed consent of, 8, 184, 197

lists of, 6, 95, 128, 190-196, 203, 225-226

proprietary data, 57, 116-117, 182-183, 184

related legislation, 182-183, 189, 196, 225, 226

waivers, 197-199, 226

P

Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 102

Paperwork Reduction Act, 4, 109, 111

Passive consent, 77, 78, 80, 81, 203

Permanent Census Act, 46

Personal Privacy in an Information Society, 50

Personal records, see Administrative records

Pledges of confidentiality, 5, 10, 34, 37, 40, 55, 66

and data users, 104, 105

interpretation of, 80-82

Policy and program analysis, 3, 15-16, 25-27, 32, 92, 96, 99

and data quality, 26-27, 31, 56

historical overview, 48

by outside researchers, 52, 53, 97, 99

and subject notification, 74, 78, 79-80

President's Reorganization Project for the Federal Statistical System , 48, 140n

Privacy, definition of, 22

Privacy Act, 4, 24, 35, 37, 41, 48, 62, 109, 111-115, 132-133, 135 , 137, 139n, 211

informed consent under, 8, 64-65, 69-70, 75, 219

and organizations, 122, 135, 182

Privacy Protection Study Commission, 5, 35, 49, 50-51, 140n

Private sector data collection, 15, 29-30, 31, 35

government maintenance of, 115-116

risk of privacy violations, 9, 87-88

use of government data, 87-88

Professional organizations, 17, 65-67, 97-98, 105, 107, 209-210, 222

Project Metropolitan, 54-55, 212-213

Proprietary data, 57, 116-117, 182-183, 184

EIA collection of, 34, 129, 185, 191, 193

Protected enclaves, 51, 73

Providers of data, 9, 16, 20-21, 22, 28-29, 35, 35-36, 46, 56-57, 57, 61-62, 62-63

See also Cognitive research;

Informed consent and notification;

Mandatory participation;

Organization;

Pledges of confidentiality;

Proxy respondents;

Voluntary survey participation;

Waivers

Proxy respondents, 22, 74, 203

Public Health Data, 43-44n

Public Health Service Act, 28, 124

Public information activities, 36, 56, 88, 220

about privacy violations, 10, 86-89, 221

Public opinion on data activities, 35, 55, 61, 82-86, 206, 220

Public-use microdata files, see Microdata files

Q

Quality improvement initiative, 49, 181, 196

Query restriction, 151, 200

Questionnaires, notification statements, 70

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
×

R

Race and ethnicity, 9, 86-87, 96, 163

Random digit dialing, 15

Random error, 144, 152

Randomized responses, 82

Records, see Administrative records;

Definitions of records;

Linkages of records ;

Tax records

Reidentification problem, 162, 168

Reimbursable surveys, 120-121

Respondents, see Providers of data

Response modification, 151

random error, 144, 152

Restricted access, 7, 32, 38-39, 92-93, 94-97, 99-102, 141, 142, 165-169, 177, 221, 224-225

archived materials, 174-176, 177-178

conditions of, 100-101, 104, 106, 157-158, 222

Restricted data, 141-142.

See also Statistical disclosure limitation

Retention of survey data

notification on, 9, 76, 220

Revenue Act, 47

Review boards and mechanisms, 36, 73, 78-79, 107, 214-215, 216, 217 , 227

for disclosure limitation, 10-11, 97, 148-149, 205-206

foreign, 211-214

Routine-use exemption, 113-115, 133

S

Sampling frames, 6, 40, 92, 95-96, 99, 221

business, 190-191

Scope of Federal statistical system, 1-2, 17-18

Security classification, 150-151

Sensitive data items

and disclosure-avoidance policies, 12, 156

and notification, 8, 75-76, 80-81, 219

Signature requirements, 80, 81

Simulated data, 146, 153, 154

Sixteenth Amendment, 47

Small-area data, 87-88, 163

Small business, 184, 191

Small Business Administration (SBA), 191, 193

Social Security Administration (SSA), 96, 205

administrative lists, 68, 172, 173

see also Continuous Work History Sample;

Exact Match Study

Social Security data, 6, 30, 71-72, 74, 78, 84, 88

Social Security numbers, 9, 67, 69, 70, 76, 96, 161-162, 163, 169, 220

Software, 11, 93, 157, 224

Special sworn employees, 38, 101, 119, 121, 159, 164, 166

St. Regis Paper Company, 33-34

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), 190, 191, 193

Standard Statistical Establishment List (SSEL), 37, 191-192, 193

State governments, 21, 182, 183

cooperation with federal government, 6, 18, 96, 164, 196, 198, 225

vital statistics data collection, 46, 125, 126-127

Statistical disclosure limitation, 10-12, 39, 66, 147-149, 178n, 209

techniques, 144-149, 151-153, 179n

user impacts, 11, 12, 99, 155-157, 209

Statistical Policy Office, OMB, 21, 196, 207-209

disclosure limitation research, 11, 155, 225

Statistical records, definition, 24, 113, 139n

Statistics Canada, 46, 194-195, 213-214

Statistics of Income Division, IRS, 82, 94, 127

Statistics Sweden, 54, 212

Statutes, see Legislation

Summary tape files, 98

Surveillance, 3, 27

Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife Related Recreation, 20-21

Survey of Income and Program Participation, 149

Surveys and Privacy, 87

Swapping techniques, 146, 153.

See also Statistical disclosure limitations

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
×

Sweden, 54, 194, 211, 212-213

Synthetic data, 146, 153, 154

T

Tabulations

disclosure limitation, 7, 10, 12, 48, 144, 146-147, 148

of early census data, 46, 48

organizational data, 197-198

Tax-exempt organizations, 57

Taxpayer Opinion Survey, 83-85

Tax records, 40, 47, 48, 62, 71, 83-85, 95, 127-128, 161, 164

and notification, 70

Tax Reform Act, 48, 95, 110, 117, 127-128, 164, 170-171, 172

Telemarketing, 15

Telephone surveys, 37, 62, 70, 81, 204

Topcoding, 144, 162

Training of researchers, 105, 107, 222

U

United Kingdom, 194

Unlawful disclosure, see Violations of confidentiality

Users of federal data, 7-8, 16, 21, 35, 46, 91-93

denials, 7-8, 95, 96, 98, 100, 222

government interaction with, 35-36, 51, 52, 53, 58, 91, 97-98

legal and ethical responsibilities, 100-107, 222

sanctions against for misuse, 7, 57, 100, 101, 104

and statistical disclosure limitation, 11, 12, 39, 98, 99, 101, 155 -157, 209, 224

V

Violations of confidentiality

penalties, 4, 7, 38-39, 57, 100, 102, 104, 112, 135, 137-139, 157, 223

and public opinion, 8, 9-10, 87, 88, 138, 221

Vital statistics, 46, 96, 125-127, 172, 181

Voluntary survey participation, 28, 50, 52, 54-55, 57, 61, 62

and informed consent, 8-9, 36-37, 56, 63, 67, 71

Voting records, 71

W

Waivers, 37, 68-69, 77-80, 96, 196, 197, 203, 220

by organizations, 197-199, 226

Watergate scandal, 48

World Almanac, 21

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2122.
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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics Get This Book
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Americans are increasingly concerned about the privacy of personal data--yet we demand more and more information for public decision making. This volume explores the seeming conflicts between privacy and data access, an issue of concern to federal statistical agencies collecting the data, research organizations using the data, and individuals providing the data.

A panel of experts offers principles and specific recommendations for managing data and improving the balance between needed government use of data and the privacy of respondents. The volume examines factors such as the growth of computer technology, that are making confidentiality an increasingly critical problem.

The volume explores how data collectors communicate with data providers, with a focus on informed consent to use data, and describes the legal and ethical obligations data users have toward individual subjects as well as toward the agencies providing the data. In the context of historical practices in the United States, Canada, and Sweden, statistical techniques for protecting individuals' identities are evaluated in detail.

Legislative and regulatory restraints on access to data are examined, including a discussion about their effects on research.

This volume will be an important and thought-provoking guide for policymakers and agencies working with statistics as well as researchers and concerned individuals.

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