National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems (1994)

Chapter: The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension

« Previous: Greening the Telephone: A Case Study
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. 1994.

Pp. 178-190. Washington, DC:

National Academy Press.

The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension

WALTER R. STAHEL

A key difference between the industrial economy and the service economy is that the first gives value to products that exist materially and are exchanged, whereas value in the service economy is more closely attributed to the performance and real use of products integrated into a system. In our classical, industrial economy, the value of products is essentially identified with the costs of producing them, whereas the notion of value in the service economy is shifted toward the evaluation of costs incurred to provide results in use.

The first approach considers the value of a personal computer with a printer. The second, on the other hand, evaluates the actual performance of the, system, taking into consideration not only its cost of production but also all sorts of costs associated with successful use (such as the cost of learning to use it and the cost of repair and maintenance) as well as the quality of the result. In the service economy, what is purchased is the functioning of a tool; people buy "system functioning," or performance, not products.

CHANGES AND OPPORTUNITIES AHEAD

Reuse and recycling are among the strategies for waste minimization that should lead us (i.e., the industrial countries that represent 20 percent of the world population but consume 80 percent of all resources) to a more sustainable and resource-saving economy. But how?

Waste-reduction and resource-saving strategies can be applied to the following activities:

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
  • Production (clean technologies through closed loops—a goal of zero waste, primary materials recycling).

  • Use (long-life goods, product-life extension, and more intensive use of goods and systems).

  • Postuse (secondary recycling of "clean," or sorted, materials, and refurbished components and parts).

Closed loops are one common denominator of waste reduction in these three radically different areas. The other common denominator is the need for management decisions to implement waste prevention. Waste prevention does not happen by accident!

There are two kinds of loops that differ fundamentally with regard to their feasibility: (1) reuse of goods, and (2) recycling of materials (see Figure 1 and Table 1).

The reuse of goods means an extension of the utilization period of goods, through the design of long-life goods; the introduction of service loops to extend an existing product's life, including reuse of the product itself, repair, reconditioning, and technical upgrading; and a combination of these (Figure 2). The result of the reuse of goods is a slowdown of the flow of materials from production to recycling (or disposal). Product-life extension means waste prevention not only through increased use but also in production, distribution (including packaging), and recycling/disposal, as well as a reduction of the environmental impairment caused by the transport necessary for these activities. Reusing goods and product-life extension imply a different relationship with time.

The recycling of materials means simply closing the loop between postuse waste (supply) and production (resource demand). Recycling does not influence the speed of the flow of materials or goods through the economy.

It can be shown that there are fundamental differences in the economic feasi-

FIGURE 1

The reuse loop and the recycle loop. Loop 1: Waste prevention, long-life products, and product-life extension. Loop 2: Waste reduction and recycling of materials.

SOURCE: Stahel and Reday (1976/1980).

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

TABLE 1 Fundamental Differences Between Reusing Goods and Recycling Materials

Reusing goods through product-life extension activities such as reconditioning

Reusing raw materials through resource recycling

Potential sales price depends on

Potential sales price depends on:

• Prices of comparable new goods (e.g., bottles, tires, cars) on the local markets

• Commodity prices on the world market (e.g., scrap steel, sand for glass, rubber)

• Utilization value

• State of the world economy and of economic cycles

• Rarity and collection values

 

Characteristics of potential buyers are:

Characteristics of potential buyers are:

• Large number (everybody)

• Small number (monopolistic markets)

• Small volumes needed

• Substantial volumes demanded

• Short transport distances to buyer

• Long transport distances to buyer

Intensity of activity

Intensity of activity

• Mainly skilled labor

•Mainly energy

The following examples will explain these differences in concrete terms, comparing the reutilization of tires with the reutilization of the raw materials inherent in tires:

• Retreading using a special "cold" process that enables a multiple repetition of the process

• Recycling using a special process that consists of freezing the tires with liquid nitrogen and subsequent shredding. Irreversible

• The process is environment friendly, uses medium temperatures (90°C) and produces no waste

• The process is environment friendly and produces no waste

 

SOURCE: Stahel (1986).

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

FIGURE 2

The self-replenishing system of product reuse and recycling services. Loop 1: Reuse of goods. Loop 2: Repairs of goods. Loop 3: Reconditioning or rebuilding of goods. Loop 4: Recycling of raw materials.

SOURCE: Stahel and Reday (1976/1980).

bility of these two loops. One important difference is that the smaller the loop, the more profitable it is (Table 1). It could therefore be expected that in a free market economy, manufacturers, guided by the "invisible hand," would jump to develop opportunities for reusing goods, without even looking at recycling. We all know that, in reality, the exact opposite is happening. There are gains to selling the use of goods instead of the goods themselves. When we have to sell the use of goods, we will have at least the same turnover and profit as before, when we sold products, once we made the adjustment. Again, what about the invisible hand that seems to have gone astray?

You might object that this is due to the fear that, if we considerably extend the useful life of goods in our consumer society, the economy will break down. The contrary, however, is true. Product-life extension is in many cases a substitution of labor for energy (Figure 3 and Table 2). The missing link in our analyses is liability:

FIGURE 3

The trade-offs among energy, labor, and materials for each step in product-life extension (PLE).

SOURCE: Stahel and Reday (1976/1980).

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

TABLE 2 Comparison of Labor and Energy Input for Production and Maintenance of a 10- and 20-Year Lifetime Car (excluding operation)

 

10-Year Lifetime Car(Today)

20-Year Lifetime Car(Possible Future)

Change from 10- to 20-Year Lifetime Car

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

For the Average European Car

per car

per car/yr

Δ*

per car

per car/yr

per car

per car/yr

Energy consumption

(in Toe)

(in Toe)

 

(in Toe)

(in Toe)

(%)

(%)

In basic materials (57%)

0.85

0.85

20

1.020

0.051

 

 

In manufacturing (43%)

0.65

0.065

10

0.715

0.035

 

 

Total Energy Consumption. (transport during production phase was ignored as it represented a low %, i.e., 3 to 4%)

1.5

0.150

16

1.735

0.067

+ 16

-42

Labor

(in man years)

(in man years)

 

(in man years)

(in man years)

(%)

(%)

In basic materials

0.03

0.003

10

0.033

0.0016

 

 

In manufacturing

0.11

0.011

20

0.132

0.0066

 

 

In production

0.14

0.014

 

0.165

0.0062

+18

-41

In maintenance and repair

0.020

50

0.030

 

 

In reconditioning

 

0,015

 

 

Total labor

0.034

 

0.0532

 

+56

NOTES: Toe = tons of oil equivalent; Δ* = % increase of column 4 over column 1.

SOURCE: Stahel and Reday (1976/1980).

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

FIGURE 4

Quality defined as optimization of system functioning over long periods of time.

SOURCE: Stahel (1991).

  •  The logic of ''reuse loops" implies perfect quality and a broad service liability.

  • Selling only the use of goods implies an unlimited product liability by manufacturers and their agents (importers and shops), "from cradle back to cradle" including an environmental impairment liability at all levels (Figure 4 and Tables 3a and 3b); this is also inherent in the German Waste Law of 1986 and its provision (para. 14) regarding the manufacturer's obligations to take goods back and recycle them after use.

RECYCLING

The nice thing about the recycling of materials is not its economic attractiveness, but the fact that it carries a limited product and material life cycle liability. The liability "from cradle to grave" that is so fashionable today is really ''for cradle and grave;" it excludes unlimited use liability as well as the obligation to reuse

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

Table 3a How Selling the Utilization of Products Rather than the Products Themselves Affects Liability of Economic Actors

 

Alternative Utilization and Commercialization Opportunities

Examples of Economic Actors

Alternative Liability Carriers "product quality" and "utilization"

Producer

Fleet Manager

User

SALE

Owner is user

Durable product is sold (cash or credit)

• cars

• white goods

• clothes

• computers

Individuals

Risk of warranty (6/12 months)

All risks for an unlimited time period (except warranty)

RENTAL

Owner is fleet manager

Product is rented

• cars

System is rented

• apartment

• hotel room

Service is rented

• taxi

Companies and individuals offering service

• shops

• Hertz, Avis

• investors

• hotels

• taxi owners

Risk of warranty

All risks for the full utilization period (except warranty)

none

SELLING SYSTEM UTILIZATION

Owner is fleet and maintenance manager

System utilization is sold

• transport

• telecom

• clothes

Fleet managers

• railways

• airlines

All risks for a period of time determined and negotiated between producer and fleet manager

none

Owner is producer, fleet and maintenance manager

Manufacturers

• Aia-Geveert AG

• Xerox

All risks for an unlimited period of time

 

none

System utilization (goods and services) is sold

• photocopies

 

Producer is also fleet manager

 

 

 

SOURCE: Börlin and Stahel (1987)

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

Table 3b How Selling the Utilization of Products Rather than the Products Themselves Affects Product Design and Waste Reduction Strategies

 

Alternative Utilization and Commercialization Opportunities

Impact on Product Durability

Liability for Waste and Costs of Waste Elimination

Waste Reduction Strategies

SALE

Owner is user

Durable product is sold (cash or credit)

• cars

• white goods

• clothes

• computers

 

Costs of eliminating dispersed waste are paid by the community (local taxes)

Re-use

RENTAL

Owner is fleet manager

Product is rented

• cars

System is rented

• apartment

• hotel room

Service is rented

• taxi

Fleet manager seeks most advantageouscost-performance ratio, which also involves speculation on tax depreciation rules.

(household waste)

Product-life extension of components Re-use

SELLING SYSTEM UTILIZATION

Owner is fleet and maintenance manager

System utilization is sold

• transport

• telecom

• clothes

Maintenance manager engages in preventive maintenance engineering. Goal is to minimize operation costs, including costs of maintenance and waste elimination.

 

Repair

Reconditioning, remanufacturing

Product-life extension of components

Re-use

 

Costs of eliminating concentrated waste are internalized by producer.

 

Owner is producer, fleet and maintenance manager

System utilization (goods and services) is sold

• photocopies

Producer engages in preventive engineering. The goal is zero maintenance. Full compatibility of products and systems using long-lived components.

Waste prevention occurs by optimizing the product-life of systems and components reconditioning, leasing, updating use, etc.).

Long-life goods

Repair

Reconditioning, remanufacturing

Technological upgrading

Product-life extension of components

Re-use

 

SOURCE: Börlin and Stahel (1987)

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

the materials for the production of (the same) new products. Product liability "for cradle and grave" is in most cases an upgrading of the work of the grave digger— a delegation of the problem to somebody else. Said another way: The marketing expressions "Our products can be recycled 100%" and "We recycle our products 100%" are light-years apart! One rejects responsibility and liability; the other accepts it.

By putting product use into the center of economic behavior (Figure 5), we discover that besides product-life extension there are a number of other commercial and technical strategies to intensify the use of goods. According to our reasoning that "the smaller the loop, the more profitable," these commercial strategies are even more promising than product-life extension! In addition, most of these strategies increase resource efficiency; that is, they greatly reduce the amount of resources needed to produce a given result (e.g., grams of resource per wash cycle in washing machines). The reason these strategies were invisible in the first loops (Figures 1 and 2) lies in our technocratic way of analyzing environmental problems.

So, if we broaden the definition of "reuse of goods" to include optimizing the use of goods, we find a multitude of new strategies that have the following elements in common:

  • Considerable savings in resource consumption.

  • Considerable waste prevention (reduction of waste in production, distribution, recycling, and disposal).

  • A shift from a manufacturing economy to a service economy.

  • A substitution of decentralized labor-intensive service workshops for centralized (global) highly mechanized production units.

  • A substitution of labor for energy (and capital) (Figure 3) that is strongest in small loops (see Figure 2).

These strategies also imply changes in some of the basic economic concepts:

  • The inclusion of the factor "time" in economic thinking; that is, the adoption of a dynamic nonlinear approach to solutions, including the simultaneous optimization of several factors.

  • A change in the notion of economic value from "exchange value" to "utilization value."

  • A change in the notion of risk from entrepreneurial to pure risk.

  • A different attitude toward ownership where the status of utilization becomes dominant over that of property.

  • A change in the function of the point of sale from a one-time point-of-no-return in the transfer of liability and full ownership to a point of service that includes periodic renegotiation.

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

FIGURE 5

Waste prevention strategies of a utilization-oriented service economy.

SOURCE: Stahel (1991).

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

MORE CHANGES AND OPPORTUNITIES AHEAD

If we focus technical development on optimizing use rather than optimizing production, we realize that there are vast "white" areas on our map. To shift from a product-oriented to a utilization-oriented economy, the following competitive and technological strategies, among others, become key issues:

  • "Prevention" engineering (trying to construct systems, products, and components so that they could last indefinitely, with little or no maintenance).

  • Adaptable system design (modular design that enables later system adaptations due to changes in technologies or user requirements through the technological upgrading of existing goods rather than their substitution for new ones).

  • Risk management and consumer satisfaction on all levels, especially the system level (it is normally more economical and effective to improve system performance instead of product performance).

  • Fault-tolerant system design (in an emergency, the system should give adequate warning but enable continued use of its basic functions before it breaks down).

  • Self-protecting system design (long-life goods need to protect themselves and the environment against abuse by the user, such as rpm governors in car engine design to prevent speeding and engine damage).

  • Technical standardization of components (the marketing strategy of redesigning every product from scratch to ensure sales of spares by original-equipment manufacturers is an economic and ecological killer in any long-life approach).

  • User standardization of man-machine interfaces (for example, the standardized flight deck of modem airliners, imposed by the aircraft leasing companies, has shown the immense advantage Of this approach with regard to crew cost and maintenance reliability and cost, with savings of $250,000 to $400,000 per aircraft).

    Self-curing spares (a self-explanatory concept that enables products and systems to maintain their integrity under stress, and an area where Japanese innovation appears to be far ahead of the pack).

  • In-situ monitoring of system parameters and the transmission of results to a central supervisor (as used today in aircraft engine operation, e.g., by Lufthansa, and formula-one racing cars, such systems are an important part of the "self-protection" capabilities of long-lived goods).

  • Training operation and maintenance engineers to the highest degree and giving them the tools to gain access to the total system knowledge through expert systems. This should, in fact, be the first priority on this list. It also implies another decisive shift in the value system of society in general and engineering in particular. Are we ready for this?

If we put all this in a cube and shake it well, we get a new definition of technical quality as system functioning over long periods of time (Figure 4). It will be

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

hard to find a better product in the marketplace, even in 100 years' time, once a manufacturer has established itself as the "leader of quality" according to this new definition. A successful system is much harder to compete against than a successful product.

Examples of this new quality are as follows:

  • Lighthouses and guidance systems that greatly increase the safety of shipping, without having to do with the design of ships themselves.

  • Laundromats that allow a high-intensity use of leased long-life washing machines, resulting in a resource saving by a factor of 40 per wash cycle over typical home systems.

  • Lightweight aircraft tractors that lift the front wheel of an aircraft and pull it to the beginning of the runway, resulting in a saving of 10 percent for aircraft fuel.

  • Diamond—high occupancy vehicle—lanes that favor car and van pooling.

  • Computers that can be upgraded by changing a component or module instead of trading in the whole computer.

  • Multifunctional products, such as a laser scanner-fax-printer-copier, that result in resource savings per page, as well as in savings in (standby) energy, of approximately 75 percent.

Governments concerned for the future of the planet can take action in many ways that do not increase the budget deficit:

  • Government should spend R&D money not exclusively on technical innovations, but increasingly on commercial and marketing innovations. Most of the V-strategies (commercial innovations) shown in Figure 5 could be applied today instantly without any new technology!

  • Government as one of the biggest national waste producers (everything that is bought goes finally to waste) should build up a "de-curement" office at least as large as its procurement office. In the case of product reuse, one person's waste is often another person's dream! However, this other person may be at the other side of the globe and not even know the product exists, let alone that it is thrown away in working order and in large quantities.

TO SUMMARIZE

The reuse of goods, through long-life product design, product-life extension services, and strategies intensifying product use, is economically and ecologically superior to the recycling of materials. Long-life goods, product-life extension, and a more intensive use of products are part of a technoeconomic strategy within a utilization-focused service economy, which

  • Is sustainable and environment-friendly.

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
  • Maintains existing wealth and welfare.

  • Is modem and economically feasible.

  • Promotes technical progress and self-responsibility by economic actors.

  • Reduces the speed of the flow of resources through the economy.

  • Incorporates the idea of a higher resource efficiency.

The last two of these items are missing in most current "green" discussion, which focuses primarily on recycling.

The introduction of these strategies into the economy demands a change in the mind-set of corporations and government. However, these strategies are themselves long-term and are here to stay, once established. For strategic reasons, dynamic companies should therefore try to be the first in their field of activity to change.

REFERENCES

Börlin, Max, and Walter R. Stahel. 1987. La stratégic économique de la durabilité: Die wirtschaftliche Strategic der Dauerhaftigkeit. Société de Banque Suisse/ Swiss Bank Corporation, Basel. Cahier/Heft SBS no. 32, Nov. 87.


Stahel, Walter R. 1984. The product-life factor. In An Inquiry into the Nature of Sustainable Societies: The Role of the Private Sector, Susan Grinton Orr, ed. The Woodlands, Tex.: Houston Advanced Research Center.

Stahel, Walter R. 1986. Product-life as a variable: The notion of utilization. Science and Public Policy 13(4)(August): 196-203.

Stahel, Walter R. 1991. Langlebigkeit und Materialrecycling - Strategien zur Vermeidung yon Abellen im Bereich de Produke. Essen: Vulkan Verlag.

Stahel, Walter, and Geneviéve Reday. 1976/1980. Jobs for Tomorrow: The Potential for Substituting Manpower for Energy. Report to the Commission of the EC. New York: Vantage Press.

Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 180
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 181
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 182
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 183
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 184
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 185
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 186
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 187
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 188
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 189
Suggested Citation:"The Utilization-Focused Service Economy: Resource Efficiency and Product-Life Extension." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
Page 190
Next: Zero-Loss Environmental Accounting Systems »
The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $75.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

In the 1970s, the first wave of environmental regulation targeted specific sources of pollutants. In the 1990s, concern is focused not on the ends of pipes or the tops of smokestacks but on sweeping regional and global issues.

This landmark volume explores the new industrial ecology, an emerging framework for making environmental factors an integral part of economic and business decision making. Experts on this new frontier explore concepts and applications, including

  • Bringing international law up to par with many national laws to encourage industrial ecology principles.
  • Integrating environmental costs into accounting systems.
  • Understanding design for environment, industrial "metabolism," and sustainable development and how these concepts will affect the behavior of industrial and service firms.

The volume looks at negative and positive aspects of technology and addresses treatment of waste as a raw material.

This volume will be important to domestic and international policymakers, leaders in business and industry, environmental specialists, and engineers and designers.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!