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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
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INDEX

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

Index

(Page numbers in bold refer to figures)

A

Acidification of soil, 232-234

AGNPS model, 345

Agricultural Conservation Program, 140-141

Agricultural Water Quality Protection Program, 140

Agriculture nonpoint source model, 135

Agroforestry, 392

Alfalfa

nitrogen fixation in, 242, 256-257

as nitrogen source in corn rotation, 60-62, 65, 267

Aluminum, 287, 290

American Farmland Trust, 125

ANSWERS model, 345

B

Bennett, Hugh Hammond, 150, 343

Biological processes

algal, phosphorus in, 284, 287-288

for desalinization of drainage water, 392-393

microbial attenuation of nonpoint source pollution, 423-425

nitrogen fixation, 242

for pest control, 88

for pesticide degradation, 317

plant uptake dynamics, 422-423

salinity effects on, 361

salinization effects on, 372-377

in soil degradation, 234-236

timing of fertilizer applications and, 66-68, 273, 279-280

trace element effects on, 381-387

Boron, 366

Buffer zones, 417

basic concepts, 7-8

characteristics of, 104

evaluating effectiveness of, 120-121

in phosphorus management, 310

plant uptake dynamics in, 422-423

riparian forest, 212, 425-426, 427-428

role of, 103, 104-106

Bureau of the Census, 137

C

Carbon dioxide emission, soil degradation and, 25

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

Case examples

Coon Creek, Wisconsin, soil conservation, 32-33

dibromochloropropane transport, 323-325, 334

Narrows Creek-Middle Baraboo watershed, 164-166

nitrogen management program, 169-170

systems approach in dairy farm management, 116-117

Chemical degradation, 230-234

Chesapeake Bay Program, 176

Clean Air Act, 2, 38

Clean Water Act, 2

Coastal Zone Management Act Reauthorization Amendments, 26, 118, 121, 139

Colorado River, 368

Salinity Control Act, 366

Compaction. see Soil compaction

Companion planting, 94

Conservation Compliance program, 14, 118

Conservation Reserve Program, 22, 141, 152, 172, 427

recommendations for, 174-175

Coon Creek, Wisconsin, 32-33

Cooperative Extension Service, 169

Corn

nitrogen consumption, 60, 65, 67, 275-279

nitrogen management research, 68

phosphorus consumption, 292

yield response to soil compaction, 229-230

Cotton, integrated pest management for, 84-85

Cover crops, 93

in nitrogen management, 280-281

in phosphorus management, 311

role of, 94-95, 355

CREAMS model, 343-344, 345, 421

Crop rotation

in integrated pest management, 84-86

nitrogen uptake in three corn scenarios, 275-276, 277

Crop yields

in commodity support programs, 153, 155, 156

compaction effects on corn, 229-230

erosion effects, 42

nitrogen management and, 63-64, 270-271, 272-273, 275-279

phosphorus management and, 303-304, 307

salinization effects, 376-377

setting goals for, 64, 272-273

soil compaction effects, 227

soil degradation effects, 193-194, 195

Cropping systems

cover crops in, 93, 94-95, 280-281, 311

encouraging diversity in, 154-156

models of, 123-124

in nitrogen management, 90-91, 280-281

in phosphorus management, 311

price support programs and, 154-156

to reduce erosion/runoff, 100-101

to reduce input use, 58-59

research needs, 11, 93-95

saline seeps and, 365

D

Denitrification, microbial processes in, 423-425

Department of Agriculture, 8, 9, 10, 11

conservation programs, 23-24t

conservation spending, 139-143

Cooperative Extension Service, 169

early conservation policy, 150

integrated farming system approach in, 113, 118, 119

in measurement of soil quality, 49

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

policy-relevant research in, 163-167

in program targeting, 128-129, 131

research programs, 14-15

in systems approach, 137-139

Desalinization techniques, 392-394

Design standards, 121-122

Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), 83-84, 314, 323-325, 334

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), 313, 333-334

E

Easements, 16

implementing program of, 174-175

recommendations, 172-175

role of, 171-172, 174

EC. see Electrical conductivity

Economic factors

agriculture income support program, 150, 152

cost of sedimentation, 25, 45

in efficient use of farm resources, 6

government conservation program funding, 139-143

in implementing integrated farming system, 9-10, 115, 116-117

incentives for conservation compliance, 15-16

in input management, 91-92

long-term easements, 16

losses in erosion, 42

managing irrigation by water pricing, 396-397

in manure management, 79-81, 404, 414

in nitrogen management, 274-279

nutrient value of manure, 77

in policy deliberation, 3-4

soil degradation in cost of production, 195

see also Price support/supply control programs

Economic Research Service, 135-136, 137

EGEM model, 345

Electrical conductivity, 369-370, 371, 372

Environmental Easement Program, 139, 141

Environmental Protection Agency, 8, 9, 10, 11, 48

conservation programs, 23-24t

conservation spending, 140-143

integrated farming system approach in, 113, 118

market-based incentives in programs of, 171

in measurement of soil quality, 49

in point source manure control, 410, 411, 412

policy-relevant research in, 163-167

in program targeting, 128-129, 131

research programs, 14-15

in systems approach, 137-139

Equilibrium phosphorus concentration, 297-299

Erosion/runoff, 97, 219-221

assessment programs, 200-201

channel management, 355-358

related to commodity price, 158-159

in conservation program spending, 141

control techniques, 6

Coon Creek, Wisconsin, demonstration project, 32-33

cropping systems to reduce, 93, 94, 100-101

early policy actions on, 150

effects of, 21-22, 22, 36, 45, 95-96, 97, 98, 198, 222-226

estimating cost of, 195

extent of, 22, 25, 48

forms of, 22, 43

identifying problem areas, 118

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

losses to, 42, 193, 200, 221-222, 338

management goals, 97-98

management strategies, 99-103

modeling of, 119-120, 214, 339-341, 343-345, 348

in pesticide management, 331-332

pesticide models, 325, 328

of pesticides, 319, 323

in phosphorous management program, 309-311

phosphorus loss in, 70, 71, 73, 301

in program targeting, 129-130

as part of soil management strategy, 47-48

storm events and, 7, 98-99, 101-102

surface sealing effects and, 348

time lag of effects from management of, 96-97

weather patterns in, 101-102

see also Sediments/sedimentation

Eutrophication, 406

phosphorus in, 283

Evaporation ponds, 394-395

F

Farm Practices Inventory, 133

Farming practices

advantages of systems approach, 108-109, 111-113

assessment of, 113, 130-134

channel erosion management, 355-358

commodity support programs and, 153-155, 158-159

cover cropping, 93, 94-95, 280-281, 311, 355

crop diversity in, 154-156

deacidification of soil, 233-234

diversity in, 33-34, 36-38

ecosystem threats from, 30

environmental trade-offs in, 35

estimating nitrogen needs, 270-273

geographic diversity in, 133-134

groundwater quality and, 27

herbicide use, 86

identifying problem regions, 8-9, 118

implementing integrated systems, 9-10

improving manure management, 80-81

improving nitrogen management, 68-69

incremental reform of, 14, 155-156

individual differences in, 32-34, 146

input efficiency in, 6, 57-59, 89-95, 119

integrated pest management, 84-86, 332-333

intrafield differences, soil maps for, 54

irrigation source management, 389

irrigation techniques, 390, 391-396

linkages in management systems, 107-108

long-term management strategies, 47-48

management tools for, 10-13

managing salt-affected land, 390-391

manure application, 257

manure management in, 78-80, 410-415

nitrogen application, 271, 273

nitrogen management in, 59-69, 273-274

nonincremental reform of, 156-159

on-farm record keeping, 10-11, 124

organic carbon losses from, 236

pesticide management in, 84-88

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

in pesticide transport, 321-322

phosphorus management in, 73, 76-77

as phosphorus source, 285-286

policy-relevant research, 162-167

pollution prevention in, 33

private-sector information sources, 15-16, 125, 126t

producer decision-making in, 30-31, 31, 133-134, 145-146, 147-148t , 160-162, 163-164

in program targeting, 130-134

realistic yield goals in, 272-273

recommendations for research, 14-15

in redesign of commodity support policy, 155-156, 158

to reduce erosion effects, 6-7, 99-103, 351-355

to reduce nitrogen losses, 266-270

to reduce pesticide pollution, 329-333, 334

to reduce pesticide use in, 82-83

to reduce phosphorus loss, 302-311

to reduce salt/trace element accumulation, 387-397

sediment effects, 337-338

soil compaction from, 226-227, 228

soil quality assessment, 51-55

surface water quality and, 26-27

sustainable, 203-204

timing of fertilizer applications, 66-68, 273, 279-280

water quality and, 44-46

see also Systems approach

Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 26, 38, 118, 139

Feed grains, 155

Fertilizers

agroecosystem pathways, 55-56, 56

economically, vs. environmentally, optimal application, 91-92

input efficiency, 6, 57-59, 89-95

input/output mass balance, 55-59

input related to commodity price, 158, 159

losses in erosion, 42, 193

manures as, 77, 399-402

in permit program, 171

synthetic, recommendations, 63

taxes on, 142

see also Nitrogen;

Phosphorus

Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act, 13, 26, 28t, 139, 153, 155

Food Security Act, 13, 22, 25, 152, 153

G

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 157

Geographic diversity

farm systems approach and, 111-113

policy-making and, 110

Geographic information systems, 135, 136

GRASSF model, 421

Groundwater

agricultural pollutants in, 27

irrigation drainage water disposal in, 395-396

microbial denitrification of, 424

nitrogen loss to, 264-266

pesticide path to, 83-84

pesticide properties in contamination of, 317, 321

pesticides commonly found in, 317-319

phosphorus leaching to, 299-300

site conditions in pesticide contamination of, 320-321

H

Herbicides

banding, 86, 133

reducing use of, 86

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

I

Imperial Valley, 369

Incentives

for crop diversity, 155-156

easement program, 172-175

in farm decision-making, 13, 30-31, 31, 133-134, 146

historical development of income supports, 150, 152

in irrigation management, 396-397

in manure management, 414

market-based, 170-171, 396-397

as obstacles to conservation policy, 153-155

pace of policy reform on, 155, 156-158

recommendations on, 159-160

Information management

assessing farm practices, 131-133

at farm level, 54-55

identifying problem regions, 8-9, 118

intrafield differences, soil maps for, 54, 217

national assessment of soil resources, 200-201

National Resources Inventory, 50

for nitrogen management, 273-274

on-farm, 124

producers' access to information, 160

recommendations, 10-13, 50-51, 134-137

technical assistance programs, 15-16, 115, 124-127, 160-162, 169-170, 414

see also Measurement

Integrated farming system

case example, 116-117

cost-sharing program, 115, 116-117

developing capacity for, 124-127

development of planning standards for, 118-121

implementing, 108-109, 113-118

inventory of resources in, 108-109

on-farm record keeping in, 10-11, 124

performance standards, 121-124

private-sector role in, 125-127

role of, 115-116

soil quality thresholds in, 53

Integrated pest management, 84-86, 332-333

International Ground Water Modeling Center, 329

Irrigation

application systems, 390

challenges in, 88, 368

drainage water disposal, 89, 364-365, 394-396

drainage water reuse, 391-392

drainage water treatment, 392-394

drainage water volume, reducing, 89

land retirement, 396

market-based management incentives, 396-397

nitrogen in, 259-260

as pollution pathway, 57

regional management authorities, 397

salinity problems in, 361, 362, 363-364, 368-369

scheduling, 390

source management, 389

Isomorphic substitution, 378

K

Kesterson Reservoir, 366, 381, 394-395

KINEROS model, 345

L

Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 90

Landowners rights/responsibilities, 17, 180-183

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

Landscape management

implementing, 426-428

microbial processes in, 423-425

models for, 421

plant uptake dynamics in, 422-423

process-place interactions, 425-426

role of, 417-418

sediment trapping, 418-421

in systems approach, 8

see also Buffer zones

Laterization, 218

Legal issues

landowner rights/responsibilities, 17, 180-183

see also Regulatory action

Lime, 233-234

Livestock management

in encouraging crop diversity, 156

manure management in, 78-79, 81, 407-409

phosphorus loss in, 285-286

see also Manures

Lysimeter, 372

M

Management Systems Evaluation, 119

Manhantango Creek, 2

Manures

alternative uses of, 415

application practices, 257

benefits of, 400-401

challenges in management of, 78-80, 404-410

in concentrated livestock production, 407-409

cost of management techniques, 97-80

economic value of, 401-402

environmental threats from, 402-403

estimating nutrient values of, 404-405

from grazing, vs. confined, animals, 401-402

handling/storage of, 404, 410

livestock concentrations and distribution of, 78-79

management strategies, 80-81

mass balance calculations for, 434-437

national production of, 77

nitrogen in, 66, 79, 242, 257-258, 405-407

nonpoint source management, 410-411, 413-415

nutrient values, 77

phosphorus in, 71, 79, 285-286, 292-293, 300, 406-407

point source management, 410, 411-413

as pollution source, 67

processor responsibility for, 179-180

regional use patterns, 61t, 72t, 77

role of, 399-400

supply of, 401-402

as waste, 400, 402-403

as water pollutant, 7

Mass balances

assumptions in calculating, 444-447

basic equation, 431-432

data sources, 433

estimation of inputs in, 433-441

estimation of outputs in, 441-444

implications of, 447

limitations of models, 123

national nutrient distribution, 111

nitrogen, 60-63, 240-242

pesticide, 83-84, 322-325

phosphorus, 70-73, 291-293, 294-296t

regional differences in, 292, 294-296t

role of, 57, 431, 432

Measurement

of erosion losses, 221-222, 222-226

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

farm system evaluation standards, 11-13

of field nitrogen, 270

frequency of, in soil quality assessment, 216-217

of manure nutrient values, 404-405

of manure supply, 401-402

national assessment of soil resources, 200-201

of nitrogen content, 273-274

of nitrogen fixation, 242, 256-257

of nitrogen sources, 64-66

of pesticide sorption, 317

of phosphorus threshold levels, 75-77

of phosphorus uptake in algae, 287-288

presidedress soil nitrate test, 274

sedimentation, 102-103

of soil organic carbon, 208-209

of soil pH, 211

of soil quality, 49-51, 51-55, 202-203

soil quality minimum data set, 49-50, 206-207

of soil salinity, 369-370

of soil structure, 210

see also Monitoring

Minimum data set, 49-50, 206-207

Modeling techniques

effect of soil management on water quality, 214

erosion, 103, 119-120, 135, 214, 339-341, 343-345

geographic information systems, 135, 136

nitrogen input/output balance, 261-263

nitrogen needs, 69, 271-272

nonpoint source pollution, 123-124

pesticide transport, 325-329

phosphorus, 303

price support/supply control programs in, 158-159

role of, 122-123

sediment transport, 345-350

soil productivity, 213-214

for soil quality research, 49-50, 51-53

vegetative filter strips, 421

water-holding attribute of soils, 209-210

Monitoring

buffer zone effectiveness, 120-121

for design standard compliance, 121-122

of erosion, national, 200-201

frequency of, for soil quality, 216-217

harmful farming practices, 131-134

in integrated farming system, 115, 118-124

management tools, 10-13

nitrogen levels, 269-270

pesticide applications, 87

in program targeting, 128-134

soil quality, 204-206, 49-51

N

Narrows Creek-Middle Baraboo watershed, 164-166

National Agriculture Statistics Service, 135-136, 137

National Resources Inventory, 50, 134, 201

erosion loss estimates, 222

Nitrates, 22, 59, 240, 259, 266

formation of, 239

in groundwater, 27

in microbial denitrification, 423-425

nitrification inhibitors, 66

reduction techniques, efficacy of, 90-91

Nitrification

inhibitors, 66

process, 239

Nitrite, 240

formation of, 239

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

Nitrogen, 22

agroecosystem pathways, 237-240

application of, 63, 64-66, 66-68, 131, 271, 273, 279-286

balances, scenarios for, 261-263

in crop residue, 258, 261

crop yield goals and, 63-64

cropping systems in management of, 280-281

in denitrification, 240

estimating crop needs, 270-272

in fertilizers, 243, 256

fixation, 242, 256-257, 267

groundwater losses of, 264-266

in harvested crops, 261

in immobilization processes, 239

input estimates in mass balance calculations, 433-441, 444-447

input management in controlling, 90-92

interactive processes in cycle of, 240

in irrigation water, 259-260

losses in erosion, 42, 193

management approaches in case example, 164-166

management tools, 273-274

in manure, 66, 77, 257-258, 404, 405-407

mass balance, 60-63, 111, 240-242, 244-255t

mineralization, 239, 260

mobile forms of, 59

in natural environments, 241

in nitrification processes, 66, 239

obstacles to better management of, 274-281

output estimates in mass balance calculations, 433, 441-444

overapplication of, 64-66, 131

processes for loss of, 240-241, 242, 260-261, 263-266

in rainfall, 258-259

recommendations, 59

reducing losses of, 266-270

regional consumption data, 60-62, 61t

research needs, 68-69

residual, reduction of, 59

soil buildup, 79

soil testing for, 270

sources of, 59, 60, 237, 241-242, 243

in synthetic fertilizers, recommendations for, 63

technical assistance management program, in case example, 169-170

timing of application, 66-68, 273, 279-280

see also Fertilizers

Nonpoint source pollution

design/performance standard approach and, 121-122

implementing landscape controls in, 426-428

landscape approach to, 417-418

landscape plant uptake in controlling, 422-423

manure as, 410-411, 413-415

microbial attenuation of, 423-425

models of, 123-124

off-field control practices, 417

process-place interactions in management of, 425-426

sediment trapping of, 418-421

sources of, 29

state programs for controlling, 139

of surface waters, 29

Nutrients. see Fertilizers;

Nitrogen;

Phosphorus

O

Obstacles to conservation programs, 35-36

geographical diversity as, 110

informational needs, 3

resistance to policy targeting, 8

Organic carbon, 208-209, 236

losses in erosion, 223-226

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

P

Pedotransfer functions, 211, 212t

Performance standards, 121, 122, 177-179

Pesticides

agroecosystem pathways, 56, 56-57, 83-85

alternative technologies, 88

application technique, 86-87, 330-331

commonly found in groundwater, 317-319

controlling erosion in management of, 331-332

degradation of, 317

development of, 313-314

extent of water pollution from, 314

in groundwater, 27, 317-319

improving characteristics of, 86

input efficiency, 6, 57-59, 82-83

in integrated pest management, 84-86, 332-333

knowledge base, 333-334

management practices, 321-322, 329-333

mass balance, 55-59, 83-84, 322-325

modeling of, 325-329

obstacles to policymaking, 82

in permit program, 171

persistence classes, 317, 318-319t

proper use of, 334-335

properties of, 315-319

selection criteria, 87

site factors in transport of, 320-321, 322

soil properties in transport of, 320, 322

sorption properties, 317

spray drift, 323

in surface waters, 26-27, 319

taxes on, 142

transport processes, 314-315

Petiole tests, 274

pH of soil, 211, 232-234

pesticide action and, 320

Phosphorus

agricultural consumption of, 71

agricultural sources of, 285-286

agroecosystem pathways, 69-70, 289-291

buffer strips in management of, 309

cropping systems in management of, 311

enrichment ratio, 301-302

equilibrium concentration, 297-299

erosion control in management of, 309-311

establishing threshold levels for, 302-307

forms of, 286-289

input estimates in mass balance calculations, 433-441, 444-447

losses in erosion, 42, 193

management strategies, 73

in manure, 77, 292-293, 300, 404

mass balance, 70-73, 111, 291-299

output, 293

output estimates in mass balance calculations, 433, 441-444

point sources of, 284-285

as pollutant, 283

soil buildup, 71-75, 79, 293-299, 406-407

soil type in movement of, 299-300, 303

sources of, 71, 292-293

surface water effects, 283-284

in synthetic fertilizers, 71

threshold levels, recommendations for, 75-77

transport processes, 299-302

weather as loss factor, 310-311

see also Fertilizers

Policy-making

agriculture private-sector in, 32-34

conservation programs, 22, 23t

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

defining soil quality for, 190, 201-202

economic factors in, 3-4

factors influencing, 30-31, 31

farming practice and, 159

forms of government assistance, 169-170

government conservation spending, 139-143

historical development, 150-152

as impediment to conservation, 153-155

implementation, recommendations for, 14-17

incremental reform approach, 14, 155-156

for integrated farming systems implementation, 125

interagency coordination in, 8-9, 137-139

landowner/land user responsibilities in, 17, 180-183

at local/state level, 32, 109-110, 139, 173-174

long-term objectives, 146-150

nonincremental reform approach, 156-159

nonvoluntary approaches, 175-180

obstacles to, 3, 8, 35-36, 110

on pesticides, obstacles to, 82

price support/supply control programs, 13-14, 159-160

program linkages in, 108-110

recommendations, 4, 36-38

research agenda in, 162-167

role of monitoring systems in, 204

short-term goals in, 3-4, 11-13, 122, 167-169

soil quality in, 48

see also Regulatory action

Potassium

losses in erosion, 42, 193

in manure, 404

Poultry processors, 179-180

Presidedress soil nitrate test, 274

Preventive interventions, recommendations for, 3

Price support/supply control programs

base acreage structure in, 156

conservation practices related to, 158-159

development of, 150, 152

elimination of, 157, 158-159

as obstacles to conservation, 153-155

recommendations, 13-14, 155-156, 159-160

set-asides, 172, 173

Private-sector

in developing integrated farming systems, 125-127

in policy-making, 32-34

structure of agricultural business, 179

technical assistance from, 15-16, 125, 126t

Problem areas, identifying

for regulatory action, 177-179

Problem regions, identifying, 8-9, 118, 128-132

see also Targeting

Processors of agriculture products, 179-180

Public opinion, 21, 38-39

R

Regional differences

adapting national policies to, 133-134

in cover cropping practices, 93

data collection, 133-137

in erosion losses, 222

farming systems approach and, 110-113

implications for policy-making, 36-38

nitrogen inputs/outputs, 60-62, 61t

nitrogen mass balance, 111, 244-255t

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

phosphorus mass balance, 71, 72t, 111, 292, 294-296t

phosphorus soil buildup, 73-75, 74t, 303, 305t

in reliance on private-sector technical assistance, 127

soil pH, 234

use of manures, 61t, 72t, 77

wetlands classification, 359

Regulatory action, 162

clarifying landowner responsibilities/rights, 17, 180-183

in erosion management, 99-100

implementing systems approach, 10, 11

in irrigation management, 397

at local/state level, 8, 109-110, 139, 176-177, 178, 412

in manure management, 80-81

market-based incentives in, 15-16, 170-171

need for, 175-176, 177

objections to, 177

for off-site salinization effects, 366

participation in integrated farming system, 115-118

performance standards in, 121, 177-179

recommendations, 16-17, 177-179

through agricultural processors, 179-180

voluntary approach to change, 15, 17, 167-170

Research needs

alternative pest control technologies, 88

biochemical treatment of selenium, 393-394

buffer zones, 105

cropping systems, 11, 93-95

data collection, 134-137

in developing performance standards, 122

in estimating sedimentation, 102-103

identifying soil quality indicators, 49-51

in integrated pest management, 86

long-term phosphorus uptake, 76

market-based incentives, 16, 171

national data, 3

new farming technologies, 164-166

nitrogen management, 68-69

on producer decision-making processes, 133-134, 163-164

recommendations, 10, 14-15, 162-167

storm probability models, 7, 101-102

in water erosion prediction technology, 346-351

Residue management, 6, 99-100

Resource Conservation Act, 50-51

Resource Management System, 116-118

Rill erosion, 22, 25

Riparian buffer zone, 8, 105-106, 121, 417, 421, 425-426, 427-428

Rodale Institute Research Center, 190

S

Saline seeps, 365

Salinization, 22, 230-232

agroforestry in management of, 392

assessment of, 369-370

crops sensitive to, 376

effects of, 361, 366, 368-369, 370-377

extent, 22, 26t, 48, 231-232, 361-362

farming practices in management of, 387-397

irrigation source management to reduce, 389-391

process, 363-364

sodification and, 230, 372

sources of, 365, 370

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

in surface water pollution, 27

Salton Sea, 369

San Joaquin Valley, 88, 362, 391, 392, 394-395, 396, 397

selenium in, 380-385

SAR. see Sodium absorption ration

Sediment trapping, 418-421

Sediments/sedimentation

agriculture contribution to, 337-338

depositions of, 339

effects of, 337-338, 341-342

estimating, 102-103, 342-345

farming practices to control, 351-355

modeling transport of, 345-350

processes, 338-342

time lag of effects from erosion management, 96-97

upland processes in, 349

in waterways, 25, 45, 341-342

wetlands and, 358-359

Selenium, 27, 362, 366, 377, 380-385, 393-394, 394-395, 396

Set-asides, 172, 173

Sheet erosion, 22, 25

Sludge, 381, 385-387

Sodbuster program, 14

Sodification, 26t, 48, 195, 230, 372

Sodium absorption ratio (SAR), 371, 372

Soil, Water and Related Resources Conservation Act, 201

Soil compaction, 47

causes of, 226-227

corn yield and, 229-230

deep tillage effects on, 228-229

effects of, 48, 229-230

extent of, 22, 48

losses to, 230

measurement of, 210

subsoil compaction, 227-230

surface soil, 227

Soil Conservation Service, 53, 116, 118, 135-136, 137, 141, 201

founding of, 150

Soil degradation

acidification, 232-234

biological processes in, 234-236

effects of, 21-22, 36, 42, 193-196

elements of, 2, 22-25, 192

extent of, 2

indirect effects, 198

interactive processes in, 42, 219, 219

microbial processes, 236

organic carbon loss as, 236

price support/supply control programs and, 14

processes, 218, 218-219, 219

see also Erosion/runoff;

Salinization

Soil productivity

basic concepts, 5

effects of soil degradation, 193-196

erosion and, 222, 226, 338

indicators of, 213-214

soil quality and, 40, 41-44, 190, 192

Soil quality

in assessing farming system implementation, 119

assessment of, 49-51, 216-217

basic concepts, 1-3

benefits of manure for, 400-401

buffering capacity indicators, 215-216

as common good, 181

cover cropping effects on, 94

defining, 40-41, 190-191, 201-202

early policy action on, 150, 152

elements of, 189

erosion effects on, 222-226

global climate and, 46-47, 199

indicators of, 53, 202-203, 205-211

intrafield differences, 53-54, 217

irrigation effects, 89

labile carbon in, 209

long-term management goals, 47-48, 199-200

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

minimum data set for, 49-50, 206-207

monitoring system, 204-205

national assessment of, 200-201

in national resource inventory, 50

nitrogen buildup, 79

nutrient availability assessment, 207-208

organic carbon in, 208-209, 236

pedotransfer functions in, 211, 212t

in pesticide transport, 320, 322

pH, 211

phosphorus buildup, 79

phosphorus leaching and, 299-300

as policy goal, 48, 145

policy recommendations, 1-6

program targeting assessment, 129-130

public interest in, 38-39

quantifying, 211-213

in repeated manure applications, 405-407

role of, 38-39, 189, 191-192

rooting depth as factor in, 210

sampling procedures in assessing, 217

soil maps, 54

soil productivity and, 40, 41-44, 190, 192

structure as attribute of, 210

as sustainability criteria, 203-204

texture as element of, 209

water-holding capacity in, 209

water quality linkage to, 5-6, 44-46, 196-199

see also Soil degradation

Soil Science Society of America, 40, 190

Soybeans, nitrogen fixation in, 242, 256-257

Storm events, 7, 98-99, 101-102, 310-311

Stubble mulch tillage system, 52

Surface water

agricultural pollutants, 26-27

irrigation drainage water discharge to, 394

modeling pesticide transport to, 328

nitrogen loss to, 264

pesticide contaminants of, 319

phosphorus loss to, 300-302

phosphorus pollution of, 70, 283-286

types of nonpoint pollution, 29

Sustainable practices, 30, 153

developing framework for, 203-204

SWRRB model, 345

Systems approach

advantages of, 110-113

components of, 187

in dairy farm, case example of, 116-117

farm evaluation standards, 11-12, 113

implementation, 8-13

see also Integrated farming system

T

Targeting

data collection needs, 135-137

definition, 127

of farming practices, 130-134

in farming systems approach, 110-112

informational needs in, 127-128

recommendations, 8-9

role of, 127

soil/water monitoring and, 128-130

Taxes, 142

Technical assistance, 15-16

from Cooperative Extension Service, 169

delivery of, 115

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

example of program for change, 169-170

in integrated farming system, 124-127

in manure control practices, 414

private-sector as source of, 15-16, 125-127, 126t

role of, 160-162

sources of, 125-7, 126t

Technology

digitized soil surveys, 54-55

erosion modeling, 343-345

manure management, 81

for nitrogen management, 273-274

policy-relevant research, 162-167

producers' access to information on, 160

sediment transport modeling, 345-350

water application systems, 390

TIGER system, 137

Tillage systems

conservation techniques in, 99-100

effects of, 353, 354t

for mitigating compaction effects, 228-229

no-till drill, 352

to reduce erosion/runoff, 99-100

to reduce phosphorus erosion loss, 309

stubble mulch, 52

types of, 352, 353t

use of, 355

Trace elements, 22, 362, 366

effects of, 368, 380-387

examples of, 378

management practices, 368-369, 387, 397

maximum concentrations, 385, 386-387t

nature of, 377-378

sources of, 368, 378

transport of, 379-380

treating contaminated water, 392-393

U

United Nations, 217

V

Vegetative filter strips, 8, 105, 120, 418-421, 426

W

Water Erosion Prediction Project, 214

Water quality

as common good, 181

manure and, 78

modeling soil management effects, 214

phosphorus effects on, 283-284

price support/supply control programs and, 14

in program targeting, 129-130

soil quality linkages to, 5-6, 44-46, 196-199

surface water, 26-27

threats to, 25-27

Water Quality Incentives Program, 116, 117

Waterlogged land

management of, 390-391

in soil salinization, 361-362

Weather

global, soil quality and, 46-47, 199

nitrogen in rainfall, 258-259

in nutrient management, 64

in phosphorus loss, 310-311

rainfall dynamics, 339

seasonal erosion risk, 352

storm events in soil erosion, 7, 98-99, 101-102

Weed control. see Herbicides

WEPP model, 344, 345, 346

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

WEQ model, 349-350

WERM model, 350

Wetland Reserve Program, 139, 141

Wetlands

as buffer zones, 8

sedimentation processes in, 358-359

Whitman County, Washington, 37

Wind erosion, 48, 222, 338

modeling of, 344, 349-350

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

Recent Publications of the Board on Agriculture

Policy and Resources

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993), 408 pp., ISBN 0-309-04875-3.

Managing Global Genetic Resources: Livestock (1993), 294 pp., ISBN 0-309-04394-8.

Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics (1993), 720 pp., ISBN 0-309-04749-8.

Agriculture and the Undergraduate: Proceedings (1992), 296 pp., ISBN 0-309-04682-3.

Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992), 320 pp., ISBN 0-309-04528-2.

Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees (1991), 244 pp., ISBN 0-309-04034-5.

Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (1991), 198 pp., ISBN 0-309-04390-5.

Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991), 448 pp., ISBN 0-309-04578-9.

Toward Sustainability: A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (1991), 164 pp., ISBN 0-309-04540-1.

Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04127-9.

Alternative Agriculture (1989), 464 pp., ISBN 0-309-03985-1.

Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988), 80 pp., ISBN 0-309-03936-3.

Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988), 394 pp., ISBN 0-309-03798-0; ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk).

Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987), 224 pp., ISBN 0-309-03745-X.

Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987), 288 pp., ISBN 0-309-03746-8.

Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986), 480 pp., ISBN 0-309-03627-5.

Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986), 136 pp., ISBN 0-309-03676-3.

Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986), 134 pp., ISBN 0-309-03649-9; Volume 2 (1986), 314 pp., ISBN 0-309-03675-5.

New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities (1985), 122 pp., ISBN 0-309-03542-2.

Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03434-5.

Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles

Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-03989-4; diskette included.

Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, Update 1989 (1989), 168 pp., ISBN 0-309-03826-X; diskette included.

Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Revised Edition (1988), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03779-4.

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1993. Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2132.
×

Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-03728-X.

Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986), 95 pp., ISBN 0-309-03695-X.

Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986), 87 pp., ISBN 0-309-03682-8.

Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985), 79 pp., ISBN 0-309-03496-5.

Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985), 106 pp., ISBN 0-309-03596-1.

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition (1984), 90 pp., ISBN 0-309-03447-7.

Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Eighth Revised Edition (1984), 71 pp., ISBN 0-309-03486-8.

Further information, additional titles (prior to 1984), and prices are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, 202/334-3313 (information only); 800/624-6242 (orders only); 202/334-2451 (fax).

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture Get This Book
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How can the United States meet demands for agricultural production while solving the broader range of environmental problems attributed to farming practices? National policymakers who try to answer this question confront difficult trade-offs.

This book offers four specific strategies that can serve as the basis for a national policy to protect soil and water quality while maintaining U.S. agricultural productivity and competitiveness. Timely and comprehensive, the volume has important implications for the Clean Air Act and the 1995 farm bill.

Advocating a systems approach, the committee recommends specific farm practices and new approaches to prevention of soil degradation and water pollution for environmental agencies.

The volume details methods of evaluating soil management systems and offers a wealth of information on improved management of nitrogen, phosphorus, manure, pesticides, sediments, salt, and trace elements. Landscape analysis of nonpoint source pollution is also detailed.

Drawing together research findings, survey results, and case examples, the volume will be of interest to federal, state, and local policymakers; state and local environmental and agricultural officials and other environmental and agricultural specialists; scientists involved in soil and water issues; researchers; and agricultural producers.

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