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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×

References

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Baric, R. 2014. No Approved Vaccines or Therapeutics for SARS-Cov or Mers-CoV in the Midst of an Ongoing MERS-CoV Outbreak. Presentation at the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 15. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aw-nR6-4kQQ.

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Charo, A. 2014. Policy Implications. Presentation at the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 16. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyFoJNfUmxg&list=UUBeoZcQRZ800s3bP2yJrFEw.

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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×

Fineberg, H. 2014. Opening Remarks at the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 15. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyFoJNfUmxg&list=UUBeoZcQRZ800s3bP2yJrFEw.

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Fischoff, B. 2014b. Considerations/challenges for analysis of potential risks and benefits to inform broader assessments. Presentation at the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 16. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyFoJNfUmxg&list=UUBeoZcQRZ800s3bP2yJrFEw.

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Haas, C. 2014. Risk. Presentation to the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 16. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6anWHbQXjjo&list=UUBeoZcQRZ800s3bP2yJrFEw&index=9.

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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×

Holdren, J. P,. and L. Monaco. 2014. Enhancing Biosafety and Biosecurity in the United States. August 18. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/enhancing_biosafety_and_biosecurity_19aug2014_final.pdf.

Huntley-Fenner, G. 2014. The Role of Human Factors. Presentation at the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 16. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6anWHbQXjjo&list=UUBeoZcQRZ800s3bP2yJrFEw&index=9.

Imai, M., T. Watanabe, M. Hatta, S. C. Das, M. Ozawa, K. Shinya, G. Zhong, A. Hanson, H. Katsura, S. Watanabe, C. Li, E. Kawakami, S. Yamada, M. Kiso, Y. Suzuki, E. Maher, G. Neumann and Y. Kawaoka. 2012. Experimental Adaptation of an Influenza H5 HA Confers Respiratory Droplet Transmission to a Reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 Virus in Ferrets. Available at: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7403/full/nature10831.html.

Johnson, B. 2014. Global Biosafety Considerations and Gain-of-Function Research. Presentation at the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 15. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6anWHbQXjjo&list=UUBeoZcQRZ800s3bP2yJrFEw&index=9.

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Koblentz, G. Assessing the Risk of Bioterrorism and Implications for Dual-Use Research. Presentation at the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 15. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6anWHbQXjjo&list=UUBeoZcQRZ800s3bP2yJrFEw&index=9.

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Lipsitch, M. 2014. Presentation at the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 15. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6anWHbQXjjo&list=UUBeoZcQRZ800s3bP2yJrFEw&index=9.

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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×

Russell, C. 2014. Presentation to the Symposium on Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, December 15. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkS65OsYSzg.

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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×

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Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"References." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21666.
×
Page 76
Next: Appendix A: Key Issues for Risk/Benefit Assessment for Gain-of-Function Research »
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On October 17, 2014, spurred by incidents at U.S. government laboratories that raised serious biosafety concerns, the United States government launched a one-year deliberative process to address the continuing controversy surrounding so-called "gain-of-function" (GOF) research on respiratory pathogens with pandemic potential. The gain of function controversy began in late 2011 with the question of whether to publish the results of two experiments involving H5N1 avian influenza and continued to focus on certain research with highly pathogenic avian influenza over the next three years. The heart of the U.S. process is an evaluation of the potential risks and benefits of certain types of GOF experiments with influenza, SARS, and MERS viruses that would inform the development and adoption of a new U.S. Government policy governing the funding and conduct of GOF research.

Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research is the summary of a two-day public symposia on GOF research. Convened in December 2014 by the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council, the main focus of this event was to discuss principles important for, and key considerations in, the design of risk and benefit assessments of GOF research. Participants examined the underlying scientific and technical questions that are the source of current discussion and debate over GOF research involving pathogens with pandemic potential. This report is a record of the presentations and discussion of the meeting.

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