National Academies Press: OpenBook

Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary (2015)

Chapter: Appendix B: Workshop Agenda

« Previous: Appendix A: References
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×

B

Workshop Agenda

Defining the Expertise Needed for the 21st Century Neuroscience
Workforce: A Workshop

October 28–29, 2014

Institute of Medicine
500 Fifth Street NW, Room 100
Washington, DC

Background:

From its very beginnings, neuroscience has been fundamentally interdisciplinary. As a result of rapid technological advance and the advent of large collaborative projects, however, neuroscience is expanding well beyond traditional subdisciplines and intellectual boundaries to include expertise from many other fields, such as engineering, computer science, and applied mathematics. Revolutionary tools are quickly becoming incorporated into the work of many labs. However, the importance and rapid proliferation of mission-critical technologies raises important questions on how to train the next generation of neuroscientists, not only to use particular tools, but to be prepared for a changing technological landscape. In addition, the advent of new types of data and the growing importance of large datasets raise additional questions about how to train the next generation in approaches to data sharing and proper analysis. These concerns dovetail with the need to teach improved scientific practices ranging from experimental design (powering of studies, appropriate blinding) to greater sophistication in statistics. As important is the increasing need for investigators who are able to bridge the translational

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×

gap between basic and clinical neuroscience. Given the changing landscape resulting from technological advance and the growing importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative science, the goal of this workshop is to explore future diverse workforce needs and consider the changing needs of training programs.

Meeting Objectives:

  • Explore future workforce needs in light of new and emerging tools, technologies, and techniques
    • Consider what new subdisciplines and/or collaborations with other fields might be needed moving forward
    • Describe opportunities and challenges for cross-training of neuroscience research programs with other areas (e.g., engineering, computer science, mathematics, physical sciences) and across research environments (e.g., academia, industry)
  • Identify current components of graduate training programs that could be leveraged and new components that could be developed that might lead to
    • greater interdisciplinary and collaborative approaches,
    • ehanced data handling and analysis capabilities,
    • increased scientific accuracy and reproducibility,
    • improved understanding of translational research, and
    • enhanced awareness of ethical research practices.
  • Examine roles of training program funders (e.g., government, fellowships), administrators, mentors, and mentees in developing and executing revised training programs to meet the needs outlined above.
  • Consider mechanisms for updating researcher competencies at multiple levels (e.g., postdoctoral, independent investigators) to meet the needs outlined above.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×

DAY ONE

12:30 p.m. Opening Remarks
 

HUDA AKIL, Co-Chair

Professor of Neurosciences

Department of Psychiatry

University of Michigan

STEVIN ZORN, Co-Chair

Executive Vice President

Neuroscience Research

Lundbeck Research USA

12:35 p.m. Challenges for the Next Generation of Scientists
 

STORY LANDIS

Former Director

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

12:55 p.m. The Changing Neuroscience Research Landscape: Opportunities and Challenges
 

EVE MARDER

Professor of Biology

Brandeis University

1:15 p.m. Imagining the Future Neuroscience Workforce
 

CAROL MASON

Professor

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology

Columbia University

1:35 p.m. Discussion with Speakers and Participants
  • What key workforce characteristics would best position the field to address emerging opportunities and challenges in neuroscience research?
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×

SESSION I: BASIC SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES AND FUNDAMENTAL KNOWLEDGE

Session Objectives: Identify current gaps in expertise necessary to advance fundamental knowledge and basic neuroscience research. Explore the impact of integrating additional disciplines into the basic neuroscience research enterprise. Examine innovative programs addressing these gaps. Consider potential strategies for creating and/or updating training of both current and future researchers.

Session Moderator:

KATJA BROSE

Editor

Neuron

1:55 p.m. Defining the Gap in Neuroscience Expertise Around Basic Scientific Principles and Fundamental Knowledge
 

JOAN FERRINI-MUNDY

Assistant Director

Directorate for Education & Human Resources

National Science Foundation

2:15 p.m. Addressing the Gaps Through Cross-Training and Collaboration
  • How could disciplines outside the neurosciences help address this gap?
  • Which disciplines would provide the greatest value-add?
 

TERRY SEJNOWSKI

Professor

Computational Neurobiology Laboratory

Salk Institute for Biological Studies

2:35 p.m. Program Example
  • On what gaps in knowledge has the program focused? How were these gaps determined?
  • What challenges and opportunities have emerged during development and execution of the program?
 
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×

DARCY KELLEY

Professor

Biological Sciences

Columbia University

2:55 p.m. Discussion with Speakers, Panelists, and Participants
  • How could programs be designed to enhance the abilities of current and future researchers to meet the challenges and develop an inter- and multidisciplinary research enterprise?
    • What are priority components of such programs?
  • How could enhanced awareness of ethical research practices be incorporated into current programs?
3:20 p.m. BREAK

SESSION II: DATA HANDLING AND ANALYSIS

Session Objectives: Identify current gaps in expertise necessary to advance the ability to handle and analyze data. Explore the impact of integrating additional disciplines into the basic neuroscience research enterprise. Examine innovative programs addressing these gaps. Consider potential strategies for creating and/or updating training of both current and future researchers.

Session Moderator:

RICHARD MOHS

Vice President

Neuroscience Clinical Development

Eli Lilly and Company

3:30 p.m. Defining the Gap in Neuroscience Expertise Around
Data Handling and Analysis Knowledge
 

MARYANN MARTONE

Co-Director

National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research

University of California, San Diego

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
3:50 p.m. Addressing the Gaps Through Cross-Training and Collaboration
  • How could disciplines outside the neurosciences help address this gap?
  • Which disciplines would provide the greatest value-add?
 

BRIAN LITT

Director

Penn Center for Neuroengineering and Therapeutics

University of Pennsylvania

4:10 p.m. Program Example
  • On what gaps in knowledge has the program focused? How were these gaps determined?
  • What challenges and opportunities have emerged during development and execution of the program?
 

MICHAEL SPRINGER

Assistant Professor of Systems Biology

Department of Systems Biology

Harvard Medical School

4:30 p.m. Discussion with Speakers, Panelists, and Participants
  • How could enhanced teaching of statistical methods bolster research?
  • How could programs be designed to enhance the abilities of current and future researchers to meet the challenges and develop an inter- and multidisciplinary research enterprise?
    • What are priority components of such programs?

SESSION III: TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE

Session Objectives: Identify current gaps in neuroscience expertise around translational science. Explore the impact of greater understanding and knowledge in furthering innovative therapeutic development. Examine current programs focused on improving translational neuroscience research. Consider potential strategies for creating and/or updating training of both current and future researchers.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Session Moderator:

ATUL PANDE

President

Verity BioConsulting

4:55 p.m. Defining the Gap in Expertise Around Translational Science Knowledge
 

FRANK YOCCA

Vice President

Neuroscience iMed

AstraZeneca Neuroscience

5:15 p.m. Addressing the Gaps Through Cross-Training and Collaboration
  • How could disciplines outside the neurosciences help address this gap?
  • Which disciplines would provide the greatest value-add?
 

HOWARD FEDEROFF

Executive Dean

School of Medicine

Georgetown University

5:35 p.m. Program Example
  • What challenges and opportunities have emerged during development and execution of the program?
 

ANTHONY RICCI

Edward C. and Amy H. Sewall Professor

Stanford School of Medicine

5:55 p.m. Discussion with Speakers, Panelists, and Participants
  • What fields outside the sciences (e.g., regulatory) might also be included in programs designed around developing translational neuroscientists?
  • How could programs be designed to enhance the abilities of current and future researchers to meet the challenges and develop an inter- and multidisciplinary research enterprise?
    • What are priority components of such programs?
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
6:15 p.m. Day One Wrap-Up and ADJOURN
 

HUDA AKIL, Co-Chair

STEVIN ZORN, Co-Chair

DAY TWO

8:30 a.m. Opening Remarks
 

HUDA AKIL, Co-Chair

STEVIN ZORN, Co-Chair

SESSION IV: EXPERIMENTAL RIGOR AND QUANTITATIVE SKILLS

Session Objectives: Identify current gaps in neuroscience expertise to improve experimental rigor and quantitative skills. Explore the impact of greater expertise in this area on the neuroscience research enterprise. Examine innovative programs addressing these gaps. Consider potential strategies for creating and/or updating training for both current and future researchers.

Session Moderator:

RICHARD BORN

Professor

Department of Neurobiology

Harvard Medical School

8:40 a.m. Defining the Gap in Expertise Around Experimental Rigor and Quantitative Skills
  • Are there challenges in these areas specifically related to neuroscience research?
 

EMERY BROWN

Professor of Computational Neuroscience

Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
8:55 a.m. Addressing the Gaps Through Cross-Training and Collaboration
  • How could disciplines outside the neurosciences help address this gap?
  • Which disciplines would provide the greatest value-add?
 

MARK COHEN

Professor

Department of Bioengineering

University of California, Los Angeles

9:15 a.m. Program Example
  • What challenges and opportunities have emerged during development and execution of the program?
 

JAMES BARRETT

Professor and Chair

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology

College of Medicine, Drexel University

9:35 a.m. Discussion with Speakers and Participants
  • Which quantitative tools might provide the most benefit?
  • How could greater skills in these areas improve the reproducibility of scientific results?
  • How could programs be designed to enhance the abilities of current and future researchers to meet the challenges and develop an inter- and multidisciplinary research enterprise?
    • What are priority components of such programs?
10:00 a.m. BREAK

SESSION V: EMERGING TOOLS, TECHNOLOGIES, AND TECHNIQUES

Session Objectives: Explore challenges and opportunities for integrating emerging tools, technologies, and techniques into current neuroscience research practice. Examine innovative programs training neuroscience

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×

researchers to use and incorporate new and emerging tools, technologies, and techniques into current research programs. Consider potential strategies for developing a neuroscience research enterprise that seamlessly disseminates and incorporates new and innovative tools, technologies, and techniques.

Session Moderator:

JOHN MORRISON

Professor

Department of Neuroscience

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

10:15 a.m. Challenges and Opportunities in Neuroscience Research for Real-Time Integration of Emerging Tools, Technologies, and Techniques
 

DOUGLAS WEBER

Program Manager

Biological Technologies Office

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

10:35 a.m. Mechanisms for Integrating Emerging Tools, Technologies, and Techniques
  • How are emerging and new tools, technologies, and techniques being integrating in real-time into research programs?
 

MARIE-FRANCOISE CHESSELET

Charles H. Markham Professor of Neurology

Reed Neurological Research Center

University of California, Los Angeles

10:55 a.m. Discussion with Speakers, Panelists, and Participants
  • What skills might provide the greatest benefit to researchers when preparing to integrate new tools, technologies, and techniques into research programs?
  • Is there an opportunity related to the BRAIN Initiative?
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
  • How could programs be designed for both current and future researchers to meet the challenges and develop an inter- and multidisciplinary research enterprise?

SESSION VI: DEVELOPING A DIVERSE NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH ENTERPRISE THROUGH COLLABORATION

Session Objectives: Explore challenges and opportunities associated with developing a diverse neuroscience research enterprise with greater incorporation of collaborative science approaches. Consider the role of cross-disciplinary training of future scientists in increasing collaborative and innovative science.

Session Moderator:

WALTER KOROSHETZ

Acting Director

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

11:30 a.m. Challenges and Opportunities in Neuroscience Research for Collaborative and Diverse Science
 

DENNIS CHOI

Director

Neurosciences Institute

Stony Brook University

11:50 a.m. What role can the Big Data Projects (BRAIN, Human Brain Project, Allen Institute) play in developing new opportunities to enhance cross-disciplinary training, and boost the likelihood and ease of future novel collaborations in neuroscience?
 

JANE ROSKAMS

Executive Director, Strategy and Alliances

Allen Institute for Brain Science

12:10 p.m. LUNCH
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
1:10 p.m. Increasing Innovative Neuroscience Research Through Collaboration
  • How has the collaboration(s) advanced innovative science?
  • What challenges and opportunities have emerged during development of the collaboration?
 

DAVID LOPES CARDOZO

Associate Dean for Graduate Studies

Director, Division of Medical Sciences

Harvard Medical School

1:30 p.m. Discussion with Speakers, Panelists, and Participants
  • What are potential mechanisms for training?
    • Can collaboration be taught?
  • What impact would concerns about career development have on encouraging collaborative research?
  • How could programs be designed to enhance the abilities of current and future researchers to meet the challenges and develop an inter- and multidisciplinary research enterprise?
1:55 p.m. BREAK

SESSION VII: DEVELOPING AND EXECUTING REVISED TRAINING PROGRAMS

Session Objectives: Examine the roles of neuroscience training program funders, administrators, mentors, and mentees in developing and executing revised training programs focused on diverse expertise in the areas identified in previous sessions. Consider specific challenges and opportunities related to the potential training program components outlined.

Session Moderator:

NANCY DESMOND

Associate Director

Division of Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science

National Institute of Mental Health

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
2:10 p.m. Developing and Executing New Neuroscience Training Programs
 

OSWALD STEWARD

Director, Reeve-Irvine Research Center

Senior Associate Dean for Research

University of California Irvine School of Medicine

2:30 p.m. Perspectives and Panel Discussion: Integrating New Training Components
  • Given the potential new expertise identified, describe current and potential mechanisms for integration. Consider potential challenges for integration.
  • Consider how training programs could be different for future researchers vs. current investigators (e.g., postdoctoral fellows, principal investigators)
  • Explore new and/or alternative training mechanisms that might facilitate training (e.g., online courses)
  • Discuss additional skills that might be critical for researchers to possess (e.g., critical thinking, management, administrative, communication)
 

Training Program Funder

 

THOMAS INSEL

Director

National Institute of Mental Health

 

Department Administrator

 

RICHARD TSIEN

Druckenmiller Professor of Neuroscience

Director, Neuroscience Institute

Chair, Department of Physiology and Neuroscience

New York University Langone Medical Center

 
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×

Mentor

 

INDIRA RAMAN

Professor

Department of Neurobiology and Physiology

Northwestern University

3:15 p.m. Mentor and Mentee Response Panel
  • What are the potential challenges and opportunities for integration of new topics into current and future training programs?
 

DIANE LIPSCOMBE

Professor of Neuroscience

Center for Neurobiology of Cells and Circuits Brown University

 

KATHERINE PRATER

Graduate Student

University of Michigan

 

SOFIA JURGENSEN

Postdoctoral Researcher

Laboratory of Pablo E. Castillo

Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

 

MARGUERITE MATTHEWS

Postdoctoral Fellow

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience

Oregon Health & Science University

4:00 p.m. Discussion with Speakers, Panelists, and Participants
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×

SESSION VIII: NEXT STEPS FOR NEUROSCIENCE RESARCH

Session Objectives: Explore priority areas for updating the knowledge and expertise of current and future scientists in an effort to address future neuroscience workforce needs. Identify tangible next steps for developing and integrating new concepts and expertise into current and future training programs. Discuss the role of funders, administrators, mentors, and mentees in this process.

4:50 p.m. Panel Discussion
 

Session Moderators

5:30 p.m. Final Comments
  HUDA AKIL, Co-Chair
STEVIN ZORN, Co-Chair
5:45 p.m. ADJOURN
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 82
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 84
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 86
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 87
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21697.
×
Page 88
Next: Appendix C: Registered Attendees »
Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce: Workshop Summary Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $47.00 Buy Ebook | $37.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

From its very beginning, neuroscience has been fundamentally interdisciplinary. As a result of rapid technological advances and the advent of large collaborative projects, however, neuroscience is expanding well beyond traditional subdisciplines and intellectual boundaries to rely on expertise from many other fields, such as engineering, computer science, and applied mathematics. This raises important questions about to how to develop and train the next generation of neuroscientists to ensure innovation in research and technology in the neurosciences. In addition, the advent of new types of data and the growing importance of large datasets raise additional questions about how to train students in approaches to data analysis and sharing. These concerns dovetail with the need to teach improved scientific practices ranging from experimental design (e.g., powering of studies and appropriate blinding) to improved sophistication in statistics. Of equal importance is the increasing need not only for basic researchers and teams that will develop the next generation of tools, but also for investigators who are able to bridge the translational gap between basic and clinical neuroscience.

Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders on October 28 and 29,2014, in Washington, DC, to explore future workforce needs and how these needs should inform training programs. Workshop participants considered what new subdisciplines and collaborations might be needed, including an examination of opportunities for cross-training of neuroscience research programs with other areas. In addition, current and new components of training programs were discussed to identify methods for enhancing data handling and analysis capabilities, increasing scientific accuracy, and improving research practices. This report highlights the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!