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Suggested Citation:"A-- Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
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A

Acronyms

ACEP

American College of Emergency Physicians

ACLS

advanced cardiac life support

AED

automated external defibrillator

AMI

acute myocardial infarction

ARREST

Amsterdam Resuscitation Study of North Holland

BLS

basic life support

CAD

coronary artery disease

CARES

Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival

CCU

critical care unit

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CMS

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

CNS

central nervous system

COCPR

compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPC

Cerebral Performance Category

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CQI

continuous quality improvement

CT

computed tomography

CTSA

Clinical and Translational Science Awards

DHS

U.S. Department of Homeland Security

DNAR

do-not-attempt-resuscitation status

DOT

U.S. Department of Transportation

DRG

diagnosis-related group

Suggested Citation:"A-- Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×
ECC

emergency cardiac care

ECMO

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

ECPR

extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation

ED

emergency department

EGDT

early goal-directed therapy

EKG

electrocardiogram

EMDPRS

emergency medical dispatch protocol reference system

EMS

emergency medical services

EMT

emergency medical technician

ERC

European Resuscitation Council

EuPSF

European Patient Safety Foundation

EuReCa

European Registry of Cardiac Arrest

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FDA

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FICEMS

Federal Interagency Committee on EMS

FRP

first responder program

FRR

first recorded cardiac rhythm

GCS

Glasgow Coma Scale

GWTG-R

Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation

IAEMSC

International Association of EMS Chiefs

ICD

International Classification of Diseases

ICU

intensive care unit

IHCA

in-hospital cardiac arrest

ILCOR

International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation

IOM

Institute of Medicine

MAUDE

Manufacturer and User Device Experience

MET

medical emergency team

mRS

Modified Rankin Scale

NAEMSP

National Association of EMS Physicians

NAS

National Academy of Sciences

NASEMSO

National Association of State EMS Officials

NATA

National Athletic Trainers’ Association

NCAC

National Cardiac Arrest Collaborative

NEMSAC

National EMS Advisory Council

Suggested Citation:"A-- Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×
NEMSIS

National Emergency Medical Systems Information System

NG911

Next Generation 911

NHLBI

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

NHTSA

National Highway Transportation Safety Administration

NICHHD

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NINDS

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

NRC

National Research Council

NRCPR

National Registry for CPR

OHCAR

National Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Register Project

OHCA

out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

OPALS

Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support Study

OR

odds ratio

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

PAD

public access defibrillation

PALS

pediatric advanced life support

PAROS

Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study

PATH

Penn Alliance for Therapeutic Hypothermia

PCI

percutaneous coronary intervention

PCNASR

Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry

PCORI

Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute

PEA

pulseless electrical activity

PEWS

Pediatric Early Warning Score

PMA

premarket approval

PSAP

public safety answering point

PSHSB

Public Safety & Homeland Security Bureau

pVT

pulseless ventricular tachycardia

QALY

quality-adjusted life-year

ROC

Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium

ROSC

return of spontaneous circulation

RRT

rapid response team

Suggested Citation:"A-- Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×
SCAR

Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register

SES

socioeconomic status

SHARE

Save Hearts in Arizona Registry and Education

SIREN

Strategies to Innovate EmeRgeNcy Care Clinical Coordinating Center

STEMI

ST segment elevation myocardial infarction

T-CPR

telecommunicator-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation

THAPCA

Therapeutic Hypothermia After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest

TOR

termination of resuscitation

TTM

targeted temperature management

VA

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

VACAR

Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry

VF

ventricular fibrillation

VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol

VT

ventricular tachycardia

WFSA

World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists

Suggested Citation:"A-- Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
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Page 399
Suggested Citation:"A-- Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×
Page 400
Suggested Citation:"A-- Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
×
Page 401
Suggested Citation:"A-- Acronyms." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21723.
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Page 402
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Cardiac arrest can strike a seemingly healthy individual of any age, race, ethnicity, or gender at any time in any location, often without warning. Cardiac arrest is the third leading cause of death in the United States, following cancer and heart disease. Four out of five cardiac arrests occur in the home, and more than 90 percent of individuals with cardiac arrest die before reaching the hospital. First and foremost, cardiac arrest treatment is a community issue - local resources and personnel must provide appropriate, high-quality care to save the life of a community member. Time between onset of arrest and provision of care is fundamental, and shortening this time is one of the best ways to reduce the risk of death and disability from cardiac arrest. Specific actions can be implemented now to decrease this time, and recent advances in science could lead to new discoveries in the causes of, and treatments for, cardiac arrest. However, specific barriers must first be addressed.

Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival examines the complete system of response to cardiac arrest in the United States and identifies opportunities within existing and new treatments, strategies, and research that promise to improve the survival and recovery of patients. The recommendations of Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival provide high-priority actions to advance the field as a whole. This report will help citizens, government agencies, and private industry to improve health outcomes from sudden cardiac arrest across the United States.

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