National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
×

OVERCOMING BARRIERS
TO DEPLOYMENT OF PLUG-IN
ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

and

Transportation Research Board

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                     OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was supported by Contract DE-EE0004436 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-37217-6
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-37217-8

Library of Congress Control Number: 2015939639

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
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COMMITTEE ON OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO ELECTRIC-VEHICLE DEPLOYMENT

JOHN G. KASSAKIAN, Chair, NAE,1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

DAVID BODDE, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina

JEFF DOYLE, D’Artagnan Consulting, Olympia, Washington

GERALD GABRIELSE, NAS,2 Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

KELLY SIMS GALLAGHER, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts (until June 2014)

ROLAND HWANG, Natural Resources Defense Council, San Francisco, California

PETER ISARD, Consultant, Washington, D.C.

LINOS JACOVIDES, NAE, Michigan State University, East Lansing

ULRIC KWAN, IBM Global Business Services, Palo Alto, California

REBECCA LINDLAND, King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

RALPH MASIELLO, NAE, DNVGL, Inc., Chalfont, Pennsylvania

JAKKI MOHR, University of Montana, Missoula

MELISSA SCHILLING, New York University, Stern School of Business, New York

RICHARD TABORS, Across the Charles, Cambridge, Massachusetts

THOMAS TURRENTINE, University of California, Davis

Staff

ELLEN K. MANTUS, Project Codirector

K. JOHN HOLMES, Project Codirector

JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Board Director

JOSEPH MORRIS, Senior Program Officer

LIZ FIKRE, Senior Editor

MICHELLE SCHWALBE, Program Officer

ELIZABETH ZEITLER, Associate Program Officer

IVORY CLARKE, Senior Program Assistant

LINDA CASOLA, Senior Program Assistant

_____________

1 NAE, National Academy of Engineering.

2 NAS, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
×

BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS

ANDREW BROWN, JR., Chair, NAE,1 Delphi Corporation, Troy, Michigan

DAVID T. ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin

W. TERRY BOSTON, NAE, PJM Interconnection, LLC, Audubon, Pennsylvania

WILLAM BRINKMAN, NAS,2 Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

EMILY CARTER, NAS, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

CHRISTINE EHLIG-ECONOMIDES, NAE, Texas A&M University, College Station

NARAIN HINGORANI, NAE, Independent Consultant, San Mateo, California

DEBBIE NIEMEIER, University of California, Davis

MARGO OGE, McLean, Virginia

MICHAEL OPPENHEIMER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

JACKALYNE PFANNENSTIEL, Independent Consultant, Piedmont, California

DAN REICHER, Stanford University, Stanford, California

BERNARD ROBERTSON, NAE, Daimler-Chrysler (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan

DOROTHY ROBYN, Washington, D.C.

GARY ROGERS, Roush Industries, Livonia, Michigan

ALISON SILVERSTEIN, Consultant, Pflugerville, Texas

MARK THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego

ADRIAN ZACCARIA, NAE, Bechtel Group, Inc. (retired), Frederick, Maryland

MARY LOU ZOBACK, NAS, Stanford University, Stanford, California

Staff

JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Board Director

DANA CAINES, Financial Associate

ALAN CRANE, Senior Scientist

K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer/Associate Director

MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer

ELIZABETH ZEITLER, Associate Program Officer

LANITA JONES, Administrative Coordinator

LINDA CASOLA, Senior Program Assistant

ELIZABETH EULLER, Program Assistant

JONATHAN YANGER, Research Associate

_____________

1 NAE, National Academy of Engineering.

2 NAS, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2014 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE1

KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing, Chair

DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Vice Chair

ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR., Transportation Research Board, Executive Director

VICTORIA A. ARROYO, Executive Director, Georgetown University Climate Center, Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes, Professor from Practice, and Environmental Law Program Director, Georgetown Law, Washington, D.C.

SCOTT E. BENNETT, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock

JAMES M. CRITES, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, Texas

MALCOLM DOUGHERTY, Director, California Department of Transportation, Madera

A. STEWART FOTHERINGHAM, Professor, University of St. Andrews, United Kingdom

JOHN S. HALIKOWSKI, Director, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix

MICHAEL W. HANCOCK, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort

SUSAN HANSON, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts

STEVE HEMINGER, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, California

CHRIS T. HENDRICKSON, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

JEFFREY D. HOLT, Managing Director, Bank of Montreal Capital Markets, and Chairman, Utah Transportation Commission, Huntsville, Utah

GARY P. LAGRANGE, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, Louisiana

MICHAEL P. LEWIS, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence

JOAN MCDONALD, Commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany

ABBAS MOHADDES, President and Chief Executive Officer, ITERIS, Inc., Santa Ana, California

DONALD A. OSTERBERG, Senior Vice President, Safety and Security, Schneider National, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin

STEVE PALMER, Vice President of Transportation (retired), Lowe’s Companies, Inc., Mooresville, North Carolina

HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri

KUMARES C. SINHA, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

GARY C. THOMAS, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, Texas

PAUL TROMBINO, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames

PHILLIP A. WASHINGTON, General Manager, Denver Regional Council of Governments, Denver, Colorado

_____________

1 Membership as of October 2014.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
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Preface

The plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) holds much promise—from reducing dependence on imported petroleum to decreasing greenhouse gas emissions to improving urban air quality. However, there are many barriers to its mainstream adoption regardless of incentives and enticing promises to solve difficult problems. Such vehicles have some limitations owing to current battery technology, such as restricted electric driving range and the long times required for battery charging. Furthermore, they cost more than conventional vehicles and require an infrastructure for charging the battery. Given those concerns, the U.S. Congress asked the Department of Energy to commission a study by the National Research Council (NRC) that would investigate the barriers and recommend ways to overcome them.

In this final comprehensive report, the Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment first discusses the current characteristics of PEVs and charging technologies. It then briefly reviews the market-development process, presents consumer demographics and attitudes toward PEVs, and discusses the implications of that information and other factors on PEV adoption and diffusion. The committee next explores how federal, state, and local governments and their various administrative arms can be more supportive and implement policies to sustain beneficial strategies for PEV deployment. It then provides an in-depth discussion of the PEV charging-infrastructure needs and evaluates the implications of PEV deployment on the electricity sector. Finally, the committee discusses incentives for adopting PEVs.

The current report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following people for their review of this report:

Ron Adner, Dartmouth College,

William F. Brinkman, NAS, Princeton University,

Yet-Ming Chiang, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

George Eads, Charles River Associates,

Gregory A. Franklin, University of Alabama at Birmingham,

John D. Graham, Indiana University,

Christopher T. Hendrickson, NAE, Carnegie Mellon University,

Jeremy J. Michalek, Carnegie Mellon University,

John O’Dell, Edmunds.com,

Margo Tsirigotis Oge, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (retired),

Karl Popham, Austin Energy, and

Mike Tamor, Ford Motor Company.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by the review coordinator, Maxine Savitz, NAE, Honeywell Inc. (retired), and the review monitor, M. Granger Morgan, NAS, Carnegie Mellon University. Appointed by NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the committee and the institution. The committee gratefully acknowledges the following for their presentations during open sessions of the committee meetings:

Ali Ahmed, Cisco Systems, Inc.,

Marcus Alexander, Electric Power Research Institute,

Menahem Anderman, Advanced Automotive Batteries,

Greg Brown, Serra Chevrolet,

Allison Carr, Houston-Galveston Area Clean Cities Coalition,

William P. Chernicoff, Toyota Motors North America, Inc.,

Mike Cully, Car2Go,

Tammy Darvish, DARCARS Automotive Group,

Patrick B. Davis, U.S. Department of Energy,

Katie Drye, Advanced Energy,

Rick Durst, Portland General Electric,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
×

Alexander Edwards, Strategic Vision,

James Francfort, Idaho National Laboratory,

Linda Gaines, Argonne National Laboratory,

Camron Gorguinpour, U.S. Department of Defense,

David Greene, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,

Doug Greenhaus, National Automobile Dealers Association,

Britta K. Gross, General Motors,

Jonna Hamilton, Electrification Coalition,

Steve Hanson, Frito-Lay,

Jack Hidary, Hertz,

John H. Holmes, San Diego Gas and Electric,

Dana Jennings, Lynda.com, Inc.,

Donald Karner, ECOtality North America,

Elise Keddie, California Air Resources Board,

Ed Kim, AutoPacific,

Neil Kopit, Criswell Automotive,

Michael Krauthamer, eVgo,

Richard Lowenthal, ChargePoint,

Brewster McCracken, Pecan Street Inc.,

John Miller, JNJ Miller plc,

Russ Musgrove, FedEx Express,

Michael Nicholas, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis,

Nick Nigro, Center for Climate and Energy Solutions,

Sarah Olexsak, U.S. Department of Energy,

John Rhow, Kleiner Perkins,

Paul Scott, Downtown Los Angeles Nissan,

Chuck Shulock, Shulock Consulting,

Lee Slezak, U.S. Department of Energy,

John Smart, Idaho National Laboratory,

Suresh Sriramulu, TIAX LLC,

Mark Sylvia, Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources,

Mike Tamor, Ford Motor Company,

Joseph Thompson, Nissan,

Chris Travell, Maritz Research,

Jacob Ward, U.S. Department of Energy,

Jason Wolf, Better Place, and

Tracy Woodard, Nissan.

The committee also wishes to express its gratitude to Tomohisa Maruyama, Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, Tokyo, Japan, and Sumiyo Hirano, Next Generation Vehicle Promotion Center, Tokyo, Japan, for arranging an informative visit to Japan and accompanying the members as they traveled through Japan. The committee also wishes to thank the following for providing valuable information and extending hospitality to the committee during its visits to Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, and Texas:

Austin Energy, Austin, Texas,

Berlin Agency for Electric Mobility (eMO), Berlin, Germany,

Charging Network Development Organization, Tokyo, Japan,

Climate Change Policy Headquarters, City of Yokohama,

Federal Government Joint Unit for Electric Mobility (GGEMO), Berlin, Germany,

German Institute for Transportation Research (DLR), Berlin, Germany,

Innovation Centre for Mobility and Societal Change, Berlin, Germany,

Japan Charge Network, Co., Kanagawa, Japan,

Kanagawa Prefectural Government, Kanagawa, Japan,

Kyoto Prefectural Government, Kyoto, Japan,

Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, Tokyo, Japan,

Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment and Netherlands School of Public Administration, The Hague, The Netherlands,

MRA-Elektrisch, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,

Nissan Motor Co., Yokohama, Japan,

NRG eVgo, Houston, Texas,

Okayama Vehicle Engineering Center, Okayama, Japan,

Osaka Prefectural Government, Osaka, Japan,

Pecan Street Research Institute, Austin, Texas,

Technical University of Eindhoven and BrabantStad, Eindhoven, The Netherlands,

Tesla, The Netherlands,

Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kanagawa, Japan,

Urban Development Group, City of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and

Vattenfall, Berlin, Germany.

The committee is also grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in preparing this report. Staff members who contributed to the effort are Ellen Mantus and K. John Holmes, Project Codirectors; James Zucchetto, Director of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems; Joseph Morris, Senior Program Officer for the TRB; Liz Fikre, senior editor; Michelle Schwalbe, Program Officer; Elizabeth Zeitler, Associate Program Officer, and Ivory Clarke and Linda Casola, Senior Program Assistants.

I especially thank the members of the committee for their efforts throughout the development of this report.

John G. Kassakian, Chair
Committee on Overcoming Barriers
to Electric-Vehicle Deployment

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
×

Contents

SUMMARY

1 INTRODUCTION

Historical and Policy Context

The Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Current Sales

Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Benefits and Trade-offs

The Committee and Its Task

The Committee’s Approach to Its Task

Organization of This Report

References

2 PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND CHARGING TECHNOLOGIES

Types of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

High-Energy Batteries

Relative Costs of Plug-in Electric and ICE Vehicles

Vehicle Charging and Charging Options

References

3 UNDERSTANDING THE CUSTOMER PURCHASE AND MARKET DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FOR PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Understanding and Predicting the Adoption of New Technologies

Demographics and Implications for Adoption and Diffusion of Vehicles

The Mainstream Consumer and Possible Barriers to Their Adoption of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Vehicle Dealerships: A Potential Source of Information?

Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Federal Government Efforts to Familiarize Consumers with Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Clean Cities Coalition

Fleet Purchases

References

4 GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR DEPLOYMENT OF PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Federal Government Research Funding to Support Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Institutional Support for Promoting Plug-in Electric Vehicle Readiness

Transportation Taxation and Financing Issues Related to Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Streamlining Codes, Permits, and Regulations

Ancillary Institutional Issues Related to Support for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

References

5 CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE FOR PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Charging Infrastructure and Effects on Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles and on Electric Vehicle Miles Traveled

Models for Infrastructure Deployment

References

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
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6 IMPLICATIONS OF PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES FOR THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR

The Physical and Economic Structure of the Electricity Sector

Generation and Transmission

Physical Constraints in the Distribution Infrastructure

Potential Economic Constraints or Impediments within the Delivery System

Electricity Sector Regulatory Issues for Operating a Public Charging Station

The Utility of the Future

References

7 INCENTIVES FOR THE DEPLOYMENT OF PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Vehicle Price and Cost of Ownership

Price and Cost Competitiveness of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Possibilities for Declines in Production Costs for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Incentives

Price of Conventional Transportation Fuels as an Incentive or a Disincentive for the Adoption of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Past Incentives on Other Alternative Vehicles and Fuels

Recommendations

References

APPENDIXES

A BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ON THE COMMITTEE ON OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO ELECTRIC-VEHICLE DEPLOYMENT

B MEETINGS AND PRESENTATIONS

C INTERNATIONAL INCENTIVES

BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES

BOXES

1-1 Statement of Task

3-1 Calculating Electricity or Fuel Costs for Plug-in Electric and Other Vehicles

5-1 Some Hypothetical Economics for Providers of Public Charging

7-1 Derivation of Petroleum Equivalent for a Battery Electric Vehicle

7-2 Financial Incentives

FIGURES

1-1 U.S. BEV monthly sales data from 2010 to 2014

1-2 U.S. PHEV monthly sales data from 2010 to 2014

1-3 World PEV sales in 2012, 2013, and 2014

1-4 The rate of PEV market growth in its first 34 months superimposed on the rate of HEV market growth during its first 34 months

1-5 Projected annual light-duty PEV sales as a percentage of total light-duty vehicle sales

2-1 The volume energy density and the mass energy density for various battery types

2-2 Representation of a lithium-ion battery that shows lithium ions traveling between the anode and the cathode and electrons traveling through the external circuit to produce an electric current

2-3 Effect of ambient temperature on battery capacity on a 20 kWh battery in a PHEV

2-4 Change in the sales price of NiMH, Li-ion, and NiCd battery cells from 1999 to 2012

2-5 For AC level 1, a vehicle is plugged into a single-phase 120 V electric socket through a portable safety device called an electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)

2-6 The SAE J1772 plug that connects all PEVs to AC level 1 and level 2 is an agreed-on universal standard for 120 V and 240 V ac charging

2-7 For AC level 2 charging, a vehicle is plugged into a split-phase 240 V electric circuit like those used by electric dryers, stoves, and large air conditioners through a wall- or post-mounted safety device called an electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)

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2-8 Four plugs and control protocols are now being used for DC fast charging

2-9 DC fast charging a Nissan Leaf

2-10 As of February 2015, Tesla had installed 190 units in the United States

3-1 Years needed for fastest growing consumer technologies to achieve penetration (0-50 percent or 51-80 percent)

3-2 Distribution of adopter categories

3-3 Women’s rate of participation in the markets for all vehicles and for PEVs

3-4 Projected 2014 light-duty PEV volume in the 100 largest MSAs

3-5 Worldwide growth of car sharing in terms of vehicles and members

3-6 Clean Cities coalitions funded for community-readiness and planning for PEVs and PEV charging infrastructure

3-7 Fleet sales for passenger vehicles for 2012 by fleet purchase agency

4-1 Corporate Average Fuel Economy requirements by year

4-2 Sources of revenue for the federal Highway Trust Fund, FY 2010

4-3 U.S. annual light-duty fuel consumption and VMT

4-4 Annual transportation-related taxes paid by Washington state drivers

4-5 Historic and forecast gasoline-tax revenue for Washington state, FY 1990 to FY 2040

4-6 PEV-specific measures for transportation funding

5-1 PEV charging infrastructure categories, ranked by their likely importance to PEV deployment, with the most important, home charging, on the bottom, and the least important, interstate DC fast charging, at the top

5-2 Vehicle locations throughout the week on the basis of data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey

6-1 U.S. electricity demand growth, 1950-2040

6-2 Schematic of U.S. electric power delivery system

6-3 Hourly demand for electricity at a substation in a residential distribution system

6-4 Residential charging behavior in NES and PG&E service territories, as measured in the EV Project

6-5 States that have regulations regarding who can own or operate a PEV charging station

7-1 Japan’s clean energy vehicles promotion program

7-2 U.S. HEV and PEV sales overlaid with U.S. gasoline prices

TABLES

S-1 Four Classes of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

S-2 Effects of Charging Infrastructure by PEV Class and Entities Motivated to Install Infrastructure Categories

2-1 Definitions and Examples of the Four Types of Plug-in Electric Vehicles

2-2 Properties of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Four Plug-in Electric Vehicles on the U.S. Market

2-3 Estimates of Dollars per Kilowatt-hour for a 25 kWh Battery

2-4 Summary of Estimated Costs of Total Energy from Various Sources (2013 U.S. $/kWh)

3-1 Categories and Descriptions of Adopters

3-2 Comparison of New BEV Buyers, PHEV Buyers, and ICE-Vehicle Buyers

3-3 Comparison of All New-Vehicle Buyers to Buyers of Specific Plug-in Electric Vehicles

3-4 Factors That Affect Adoption and Diffusion of Innovation

3-5 Consumer Questions Related to Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) Ownership

3-6 Ratings of Dealer Knowledge about Various Topics

3-7 Websites with Information on Plug-in Electric Vehicles

3-8 Information Resources for Fleet Managers

4-1 Factors Determining PEV Readiness and Organizations Involved

4-2 Comparison of Unrealized Revenue from Battery Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

4-3 Types of Equity and Examples in the Transportation Tax System

4-4 Variation in Residential Electric Permit Fees by City or State

5-1 Effect of Charging-Infrastructure Categories on Mainstream PEV Owners by PEV Class

5-2 Charging Patterns for Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts

5-3 Entities That Might Have an Incentive to Install Each Charging Infrastructure Category

5-4 Costs of Installing Public DC Fast-Charging Stations for the West Coast Electric Highway Project

6-1 Definitions, Advantages, and Disadvantages of Various Types of Electric Rates

7-1 MSRPs and 5-year Cumulative Cost of Ownership for Selected Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Comparative Vehicles (dollars)

7-2 Incentives for Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) by Country and State

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Transportation Research Board and National Research Council. 2015. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21725.
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Next: Summary »
Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Get This Book
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In the past few years, interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has grown. Advances in battery and other technologies, new federal standards for carbon-dioxide emissions and fuel economy, state zero-emission-vehicle requirements, and the current administration's goal of putting millions of alternative-fuel vehicles on the road have all highlighted PEVs as a transportation alternative. Consumers are also beginning to recognize the advantages of PEVs over conventional vehicles, such as lower operating costs, smoother operation, and better acceleration; the ability to fuel up at home; and zero tailpipe emissions when the vehicle operates solely on its battery. There are, however, barriers to PEV deployment, including the vehicle cost, the short all-electric driving range, the long battery charging time, uncertainties about battery life, the few choices of vehicle models, and the need for a charging infrastructure to support PEVs. What should industry do to improve the performance of PEVs and make them more attractive to consumers?

At the request of Congress, Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles identifies barriers to the introduction of electric vehicles and recommends ways to mitigate these barriers. This report examines the characteristics and capabilities of electric vehicle technologies, such as cost, performance, range, safety, and durability, and assesses how these factors might create barriers to widespread deployment. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles provides an overview of the current status of PEVs and makes recommendations to spur the industry and increase the attractiveness of this promising technology for consumers. Through consideration of consumer behaviors, tax incentives, business models, incentive programs, and infrastructure needs, this book studies the state of the industry and makes recommendations to further its development and acceptance.

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