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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

Index

A

Address lists

checking programs and, 194-195; see
also
Advance Post Office Check;
Casing and Time of Delivery
Checks; Post-Enumeration Post
Office Check; Precanvass; Prelist;
Update list/leave enumeration
procedure

development of, for 1980 census, 78-80

Adjustment of census figures, 24-28, 245-281

and carrying down to small areas, 26, 27, 28, 102, 256, 261, 266, 268-271, 273, 275-276

and combining estimates from different programs, 266

and error estimates, 9, 24-28, 44, 246, 257-258

factors affecting, 25-26, 249-251

fast matching algorithms in, 291-292

and fund allocations, 8, 12, 14, 17, 25, 32, 38, 41, 43, 44-45, 57-60, 248-250, 294

hierarchical Bayesian method in, 256-257, 267-268, 279-280

and impact of census errors, 25, 28, 43, 44, 46, 48, 57-60

imputation in, 26-27, 245, 261, 266, 270, 273

and internal consistency of census figures, 26-27, 107, 259-262

and iterative proportional fitting, 84, 85, 102-103, 261, 268, 269-270

and loss functions, 25-26, 249-255, 257-259, 272-273, 277-278

and modification of estimates within one program, 267-268

need for, 25, 245-248

procedures for, 25, 264-271

protection against extreme adjustments, 256-257, 270-271

recommendations for, 25, 26-28, 247-248, 251, 255, 259, 262, 263-264, 274, 276

regression techniques in, 243, 267-268, 270-271, 273, 275, 280

research and testing of plans for, 16, 27, 45, 77, 93, 253-255, 271-276

synthetic estimation in, 25, 45, 58, 59, 103, 107, 254-255, 257, 258, 268-269, 270-271, 273, 275, 281

time constraints in, 48, 137, 262-264, 306

and use of domains, 267-268, 270, 275

weighting in, 247, 251-252, 253, 261, 265-266, 267-268, 269, 271, 278, 279-280

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

Administrative records, 9, 13, 132-136, 144-148, 283

for content collection and improvement, 35, 91-92, 93-94, 216, 232-235

from driver’s license records, 9, 83, 116, 144, 175-176, 287

effectiveness of, 35-36, 149-150, 194-195

for hard-to-count groups, 92, 287-288

for housing items, 16, 24, 35-36, 90, 98, 234-235, 242-243

from Immigration and Naturalization Service records, 113, 175-176, 287, 314

from Internal Revenue Service records, 35, 91, 132-133, 144, 287

matched to census data, 9, 10, 19, 83, 107, 108, 116, 132-136, 144-148, 149-150, 287-288

from Medicare records, 35, 107, 116, 132, 144

in New York City case, 83, 134-136, 146, 175-176

in Nonhousehold Sources Program, 83, 172, 175-176, 177, 178, 194-195, 223

recommendations for, 24, 233-234

research plans for, 24, 91-92, 287-288

for small areas, 35

from Social Security records, 35, 91, 112, 144

in test program for 1990, 178

from welfare records, 83, 175-176

Advance Post Office Check

in census of 1970, 165, 166, 169, 174

in census of 1980, 80, 171-174

in test program for 1990, 178

See also Address lists

Age category, undercounts in, 8, 45, 112, 118, 119-120, 156, 157, 161-163, 199, 202, 209-210, 245, 261, 266, 275, 293-294, 316

Aliens; see Immigrants

American Housing Survey, 35, 74

American Statistical Association, 5, 11

review of 1980 census coverage plans, 12-13

Apportionment of congressional seats; see Reapportionment

Area samples, in post-enumeration surveys, 109-110, 111-112

Assumption of independence, in dual-system estimation, 121-122, 134, 138, 141, 146, 148, 302, 304-306

Australia, census procedures in, 88

Automation technologies, 134, 151, 224, 306, 307-308

and computer editing of census data, 84-85

testing of, 91-92, 93, 95, 96, 98, 178, 195

B

Basic counts for small areas, 34-38

uses of, 17, 34-38

Bayesian hierarchical method, in adjustments, 256-257, 267-268, 279-280

Benchmarking, and combining information from different programs, 36, 220-221, 266, 286, 295, 296

Bias

and error estimates, 257, 258, 259, 273, 292

See also Correlation bias; Dual-system estimation; Independence, assumption of

Birth registration records, 142, 186, 187, 290, 294

completeness of, 117, 118-119, 120, 121, 130, 132, 142, 293

Black population; see Race, coverage errors in and estimates of; Race and ethnicity questions

Blocking, and matching process, 150-151, 275, 301, 303

Business planning uses

of basic counts for small areas, 37

of characteristics data in, 39-40

C

Canada, 7-8

census procedures in, 88, 128

reverse record checks in, 29, 108, 112, 114-115, 140, 159, 265, 283-284, 291, 295

tracing methods in, 140, 288, 296

Capture-recapture methodology; see Dual-system estimation

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

Casing and Time of Delivery Checks

in census of 1970, 165-168, 169

in census of 1980, 80, 172, 174

in test program for 1990, 178

Casual Count

operation in 1980, 83, 172, 175, 176

in test program for 1990, 98, 178, 195

See also Missed persons campaign in 1970

Census of 1920, race and ethnicity questions in, 181

Census of 1930, 118

race and ethnicity questions in, 181

Census of 1940

demographic analysis in, 109, 118-119

race and ethnicity questions in, 181, 182

sampling for content in, 215, 227

Census of 1950, 86

coverage evaluation in, 109-111

demographic analysis in, 118-119, 155

housing coverage in, 163-164, 212

overenumerations in, 212

and post-enumeration surveys, 86, 109-111, 115, 161, 163-164, 204-209, 212

race and ethnicity questions in, 181

sampling for content in, 228

undercounts in, 112, 154, 155, 161, 163-165, 203-209

Census of 1960, 86-87

coverage evaluation in, 111-116

demographic analysis in, 119-120, 155, 161-163

housing coverage in, 213-214

matched to Current Population Survey, 204-205

overenumerations in, 212

and post-enumeration surveys, 111-112, 212, 204-209

race and ethnicity questions in, 181

record check studies in, 112

reverse record check in, 112-114

sampling for content in, 228

undercounts in, 154, 155, 161-163, 164-165, 204-209

Census of 1970, 79, 80, 102

coverage evaluation in, 106, 107, 108, 115-116, 117-118, 120-121, 137, 284

coverage improvement

programs in, 83-84, 87, 164-170, 174, 226, 227

cost and effectiveness of, 98, 137, 166, 168-169, 171, 175, 176, 227

demographic analysis in, 117-118, 120-121, 155, 161-163, 212, 284, 294

gross omissions in, 116, 213-214

gross overenumerations in, 212

housing coverage in, 83, 106, 164, 169-170, 174, 187-189, 213-214, 226

matched to Current Population Survey, 108, 115-116, 209, 212

race and ethnicity questions in, 180, 181, 182, 185, 187

record check studies in, 116

sampling for content in, 194, 227, 228, 230-231

undercounts in, 8, 48, 59, 121, 154, 155, 161-163, 209, 226, 284, 294, 305

Census of 1980

address list development in, 78-80

coverage improvement

programs in, 82-84, 171-177, 188-189

cost and effectiveness of, 176-177, 189

data processing in, 84-85

demographic analysis in, 85, 129-132, 142, 155-160, 157, 284

enumeration in, 80-81

follow-up in, 81-82, 225

and formation of 12 estimates of undercoverage, 126-129

hard-to-count groups in, 154-161

housing coverage in, 78-79, 213, 214

matched to Current Population Survey, 108, 123-128, 197, 198, 202

matching with Internal Revenue Service records, 78-86, 160-161, 202-203

methodology in, 77-86

overenumerations in, 154, 210-212

and Post-Enumeration Program, 85-86, 108, 121-129, 197-198; see also Post-Enumeration Program in census of 1980

and protest by New York City, 108-109, 134-136, 146

race and ethnicity questions in, 181, 182

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

recommendation for review of data in 1990 census planning, 18, 99

sampling for content in, 228

undercount in, 154, 156-161, 197-203

Census of 1990

administrative records in, 178

automation technologies in, 307-308

demographic analysis in, 266, 284, 293-295

evaluation programs for, 283-317

and Post-Enumeration Program, 297-308

and pre-enumeration survey, 306-307

reverse record check in, 295-297

time factors in, 306

and variance estimation in matching process, 308

Central cities, undercounts in; see Urban areas

Characteristics data

for comparative studies, 39-41

restrictions on, 40-41

for small areas and subgroups, 38-42

Compact area cluster samples, in post-enumeration surveys, 95, 289-290, 299

Comparative studies

analysis of data across time periods, 42

characteristics data in, 39-41

Composite list formation, 108, 133-134, 141, 283, 287

in New York City case, 134-136, 146

Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, fund allocations for, 60

Computer use; see Automation technologies

Congressional representation, and need for census data; see Reapportionment

Consistency of data, adjustments affecting, 26-27, 107, 259-262

Content items, 94, 98

accuracy improvement with administrative records, 35, 91-92, 93-94, 153, 216, 232-235

decisions for inclusion of, 41-42, 180-193, 228-229, 230-231

errors in, 41, 44-45, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 117, 153, 233-234

problems with, 16, 185, 233-234

sampling for, 91, 110, 115-116, 194, 215-216, 217-218, 227-235

Conventional enumeration, 79, 81, 82-83, 87, 88-89, 93, 159, 160, 168, 170, 174, 175, 178-179, 199, 201, 211-212, 213, 214, 280

See also Post-Enumeration Post Office Check

Cooperation with census programs, 83-84, 165, 171, 220, 250, 300

pre-enumeration survey affecting, 307

Correlation bias, 111, 122, 146

See also Dual-system estimation; Independence, assumption of

Costs

of census of 1980, 7, 176-177, 189

of coverage evaluations, 137

of coverage improvement programs, 15, 19-20, 166-169, 171-176, 194

and efficacy of programs, 15, 168-169, 171, 174-177, 189

programs for reduction of, 9, 15, 153, 221-226, 236-238, 240

sampling affecting, 7, 9, 13, 15-16, 153, 170, 175, 217, 218-219, 221-226, 236-238

of systematic observation, 317

County data and estimates, errors in, 61-62

See also Adjustment of census figures; Small-area data and estimates

Coverage

errors in, 105-106; see also Errors

evaluation of, 105-152; see also Evaluation programs

improvement measures for; see Improvement programs

and need for mid-decade census, 14, 17, 42

review of problems in, 11-14

and role of estimation, 9-10

in sample census, 220-221

See also Overcount; Undercount

Coverage Questions and Dependent Roster Check, 82, 172-173, 175, 178

Criticisms of censuses, 5

Cross-product ratio, 146

See also Correlation bias; DuaI-system estimation; Independence, assumption of

Cross-tabulation of data, and confidentiality considerations, 39, 41, 84

Curbstoning, 105-106, 124, 159, 299

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

Current Population Survey, 35

matching to 1960 census, 204-205

matching to 1970 census, 108, 115-116, 209, 212

matching to 1980 census, 108, 123-128, 197, 198, 202

use for 1990 census, 306-307

D

Data processing, for census of 1980, 84-85

See also Imputation; Iterative proportional fitting

Death registration records, 117, 119, 130, 186, 187, 193

completeness of, 29, 42, 131, 142, 294

Demographic analysis, 29-30, 107, 117-121

in census of 1950, 118-119, 155

in census of 1960, 119-120, 155, 161-163

in census of 1970, 117-118, 120-121, 155, 161-163, 212, 284, 294

in census of 1980, 85, 129-132, 142, 155-160, 157, 284

components of, 139, 142

and estimates of net undercount, 112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 121, 154, 155, 156, 157, 161-163, 186, 212, 284

plans for 1990 census, 266, 284, 293-295

of population over age 65, 131

of population under age 65, 130-131

prior to 1950, 118

problem areas in, 10, 114, 117, 131-132, 156, 161, 163, 265, 284, 294

See also Immigrants; Medicare data

Denmark, census procedures in, 90-91

Differential coverage errors; see Errors; Overcount; Undercount

Direct estimate coverage

estimation programs, 106-107, 138, 139-141, 296, 313-314

Driver’s license records; see Administrative records

Dual-system estimation, 116, 121-129, 132, 141, 144-146, 298, 299

and inclusion probabilities, 145, 304-305

stratification in, 122-123, 146, 302-305

See also Correlation bias; Independence, assumption of

Duplications in the census; see Overcount

E

E Sample; see Evaluation programs

Education programs, fund allocations for, 33, 39, 51-52, 67-68

Educational status, and gross omission rates, 205-206, 207

Emigration, estimates of, 114, 117, 121, 131, 142, 293, 294, 295, 296

Employment, 60

equal opportunity programs for, and state uses of census data, 43, 66-67, 69, 74-75, 263

fund allocations for, 52, 171

Employment status, and gross omission rates, 163, 206, 208, 209

Enumeration process, in census of 1980, 80-81

Errors

and adjustment of counts, 9, 10, 24-28, 44, 246, 257-258

in census of 1980, 8, 38, 46, 47, 48-49, 61

in content, 41, 44-45, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 117, 153, 233-234

in county population estimates for 1980, 61-62

in coverage, 19, 25, 38, 44, 45-47, 48, 57, 60, 65-66, 105-106, 110-111, 117, 119; see also Overcount; Undercount

criticisms of, 5

estimations of, 26, 107, 119, 124, 257-259

and evaluation of coverage, 105-152; see also Evaluation programs

factors in, 19

in hard-to-count groups, 21, 67

impact of, 8, 14, 17, 25, 38, 43-60, 65-66, 67

in income reporting, 41, 58-59, 67, 233

and profiles for coverage evaluation methods, 136-137, 138-143

in sampling, 216-217

in subcounty population estimates for 1980, 61, 62, 63

Estimation

of census errors, 26, 257-259

compared with coverage improvement, 9-10

dual-system; see Dual-system estimation

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

errors affecting, 60-64

multiple list methods in, 132-134, 144-148

synthetic, 25, 45, 58, 59, 103, 107, 254-255, 257, 258, 268-269, 270-271, 273, 275, 281

triple-system, 287, 305

Ethnicity; see Race and ethnicity questions

Evaluation programs, 10, 105-152

administrative records used in, 132-136, 283

in census of 1950, 109-111

in census of 1960, 111-116

in census of 1970, 106, 107, 108, 115-116, 117-118, 120-121, 137, 284

composite list formation, 108, 132-134, 146

cost of, 137

criteria for, 25

Current Population Survey samples in; see Current Population Survey

demographic analysis in, 118-121, 284

direct estimates in, 139-141

E sample in, 107, 108, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 141, 210, 212, 214, 298, 299, 302-303

error profile for methods in, 136-137, 138-143

and formation of 12 estimates of undercoverage in 1980, 126-129

and independent estimates for population groups, 116-117

macro-level methods in, 19, 107, 109

prior to 1980, 116-121

megalist method, 108, 134

methods of, 107-109

micro-level methods in, 19, 107-108, 109-116, 137

multilist methods, 133-134, 147-148

multiple list estimation methods in, 132-134, 144-152

need for, 13

P sample in, 107-108, 109, 121, 123-124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 139-140, 141, 197, 199, 298, 299, 300, 302-303

and Post-Enumeration Program in census of 1980, 85-86, 108, 121-129, 197-198

post-enumeration surveys in, 28-30, 108; see also Post-enumeration surveys

prior to 1980, 109-121

recommendations for 1990 census, 28-30, 283-317

assessment of methods in, 283-285

and balancing of undercount with overcount, 302-304

demographic analysis in, 293-295

and improvements in Post-Enumeration Program, 299-308

and inclusion probabilities for two lists, 304-306

level of nonresponses in, 299-300

percentage of unresolved matches in, 308

and position paper by Wolter, 272-273, 289-283

pretest plans in, 285-293

reverse record check in, 295-297

resident observation in, 310

systematic observation in, 310-312

time factors in, 306-308

and variance estimation in matching process for, 308

record check studies in; see Administrative records

research on, 16

reverse record checks in; see Reverse record checks

timing considerations in, 137, 306-308

F

Focus group method

for development of coverage improvement procedures, 22, 190, 195-196, 312

for development of questions, 20, 98, 185-186

Follow-on survey considered for 1990 census, 16, 23, 94, 216, 229-230

one-form census with, 231

Follow-up procedures, 94, 82-84

in census of 1980, 81-82, 225

sampling in, 15-16, 22-23, 221-225, 301-302

telephone use in, 2-3, 22-23, 81, 94, 225

Forward Trace Study, 30, 140, 288, 290, 296-297

See also Reverse record checks

Fractional matching, 301-302

France, census procedures in, 88-89

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

Fund allocations

and adjustments for income and population, 8, 12, 14, 17, 25, 32, 41, 43, 44-45, 57-60, 248-250, 294

characteristics data in, 38

for education, 33, 39, 51-52, 67-68

for employment and training, 52, 171

errors in count affecting, 38, 49-60

formula-based programs in, 49-60

for housing, 53-54

and income reporting errors, 41, 58-59, 67, 233

loss functions affecting, 248-250, 253-254

and need for census data, 6, 12, 33, 36, 66

for public assistance, 54

for recreation, 54

for revenue sharing, 53

for social services, 54-55

for transportation, 56

G

Geocoding, 48, 94, 124, 126, 298, 299, 300, 303

avoidance of, 140, 301

Geographic regions

gross omissions in, 208-209

and housing coverage omissions, 213

Germany, census procedures in, 89

Government planning uses of characteristics data, 39

Government uses for census data, 6-7

by federal government, 51-56, 67

by local governments, 68-69

by states, 66-68

Grant programs, data needed for, 36

See also Fund allocations

Great Britain, census procedures in, 88

Gross omissions; see Undercount

Gross overenumerations; see Overcount

H

Hard-to-count groups, 154-164, 207-208

experience in 1980, 154-161, 171

experience from previous censuses, 161-163, 212

focus groups in, 22, 185-186, 195, 196

and procedures to improve coverage, 21, 29, 83-84, 153, 165, 171, 190-192, 203, 215

proposals for, 21, 191-192, 195, 231

research on, 92, 94, 179, 287-288

Health Interview Survey, 35, 36, 120, 209

Hierarchical Bayesian method in adjustments, 256-257, 267-268, 279-280

Hispanics; see Race, coverage errors in and estimates of; Race and ethnicity questions

Historical aspects of censuses, 1-2

in centennial census of 1890, 2, 3

and criticisms of data, 5

in first census of 1790, 2, 109

review from 1950 to 1980, 17-18

and uses of data, 33

Hot-deck imputation, sequential; see Imputation

Household coverage, 165, 183

in census of 1970, 83, 106, 164, 169-170, 174, 187-189, 213-214, 226

in census of 1980, 78-79, 213, 214

and children living elsewhere, 21, 96, 108, 189, 191, 192

gross omission rates in, 212-214

and mail delivery problems in multiunit structures, 94, 159, 179, 195

in program for 1990, 178

resident observer studies in, 163, 183, 209-210, 310

Household relationships

and gross omissions, 205, 207

and gross overenumerations, 210-211

Housing, fund allocations for, 53-54

Housing structure data

and data from administrative records, 16, 24, 35-36, 90, 98, 234-235, 242-243

recommendations for improvement in, 242-243

I

Immigrants, 40

illegal, estimates of, 29, 113, 114, 117, 122, 129-130, 131-132, 139, 142, 154, 155-156, 199, 264-265, 284, 294, 296, 304, 313-316

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

legal, records of, 29, 108, 113, 117, 130-131, 293

Improvement programs, 19-22, 93-94, 153-214

for accuracy of count, 24

in census of 1970, 83-84, 87, 164-170, 174, 226, 227

costs and effectiveness of, 98, 137, 166, 168-169, 171, 175, 176, 227

in census of 1980, 82-84, 171-177, 188-189

costs and effectiveness of, 176-177, 189

for children not part of household, 189, 191, 192

costs of, 15, 19-20, 166-169, 171-176, 194

for hard-to-count groups, 21, 29, 83-84, 153, 165, 171, 190-192, 203, 215

for household roster, 21, 82, 175, 178, 187-188, 189, 190, 194

for movers or groups with second homes, 111, 127-128, 168, 170, 189, 217

need for, 13

and needed research on undercount and overcount, 21, 179-180

priorities for research and testing in, 193-194

proposals for, 9-11

race and ethnicity information in, 180-187

recommendations for 1990, 177-179, 193-196

and resident observer studies, 209-210

sampling in, 225-227

recommendations for 1990, 226

Imputation

and adjustments, 26-27, 245, 261, 266, 270, 273

multiple, 101

sequential hot-deck, 18-19, 84-85, 100-101, 136

Inclusion probabilities for two lists, 304-306

Income

and fund allocations, 31, 41, 44-45, 51, 53, 54, 57-60, 67, 219, 228, 233, 248-250, 294

and gross omission rates, 202-204, 206-208, 209

reporting errors, 24, 41, 43, 58-59, 67, 233

Independence, assumption of, 121-122, 134, 138, 141, 146, 148, 302, 304-306

See also Correlation bias; Dual-system estimation

Independent estimates for population groups, 116-117

Independent observers, use of, 29

See also Systematic observation

Independent surveys, 289, 290, 303

matched to census data, 108

Indian reservations, coverage of, 93

Infant Enumeration Study, 119

Internal Revenue Service records, 35-36

matching with census of 1980, 78-86, 160-161, 202-203

Iterative proportional fitting, 84, 85, 102-103, 268, 269-270

and consistency of data, 261

See also Adjustment of census figures

J

Jersey City, census pretest in, 92, 96

K

“K” parameter; see Correlation bias; Dual-system estimation; Independence, assumption of

L

Legal aspects

of data for reapportionment and redistricting, 27, 36

of deadlines for census data, 27, 262

of mid-decade census, 49

of race and ethnicity questions, 180

of sampling, 218

List samples, in post-enumeration surveys, 95, 109-110, 111-112

Local agency uses of census data, 68-69

Local area data and estimates; see Small-area data and estimates

Local lists, use of, 108-109, 141

Local review of preliminary data for 1980, 83, 93-94, 108-109, 172, 174-175, 176, 178

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

Long-form/short-form questionnaires, 228-229

alternatives to, 230-231

experience with short form, 16, 21, 228

related data in, 84-85, 102-103

Loss functions, and adjustment procedures, 25-26, 249-255, 257-259, 272-273, 277-278

relative squared error in, 252

squared relative error in, 252

M

Macro-level coverage evaluation, 19, 107, 109, 116-121

Mail delivery problems, in multiunit structures, 94, 159, 179, 195

Mail nonreturn rates, 159, 200-202

Mailing lists, use of, 4, 78-79, 80, 174, 176

Mailout-mailback enumeration, 3, 80, 178

coverage errors in, 160, 199-200, 214

use in 1970, 87, 165-167

use in 1980, 78, 80-81, 173-174

Maryland, fund allocations in, 58-59, 60

Matching, 141

of administrative records to census data, 9, 10, 19, 83, 107, 108, 116, 132-136, 144-148, 149-150, 287-288

automated procedures in, 149, 307-308

blocking used in, 150-151, 275, 301, 303

of Current Population Survey to census records; see Current Population Survey

fractional, 301-302

general algorithm of, 150

of independent surveys to census data, 108

mathematical model for, 151-152, 301

operational difficulties of, 149-150

three-way match with Census/CPS/IRS, 292

variable selection in, 151

variance estimation in, 308

Medicare data, 131

for demographic estimates of elderly population, 117, 120, 131, 137

for estimates of elderly population, 108, 120, 121, 130, 132, 142, 293

matched to 1970 census records, 116

Megalist method, 108, 134

Merging of lists; see Composite list formation

Methodology

in Australia, 88

balance of procedures in, 14-15

in Canada, 88, 128

in census of 1950, 86

in census of 1960, 86-87

in census of 1970, 87

in census of 1980, 77-86

in coverage evaluation, 107-109

in coverage improvement, 153-214

in Denmark, 90-91

in France, 88-89

in Germany, 89

in Great Britain, 88

independent reviews of, 11-14

in Netherlands, 89

and plans for 1990, 9-11

and review of pretest plans, 96-99

in Sweden, 89-90

Micro-level coverage evaluation, 19, 107-108, 109-116, 137

Mid-decade census

advantages of, 63-64

legal aspects of, 49

need for, 14, 17, 42

Missed persons campaign in 1970, 166, 168, 175

See also Casual Count

Movers, 189

checked in 1970, 168, 177

effectiveness of, 170

proposed coverage of, 189-190

Multilist methods, 133-134, 147-148

Multiple list estimation methods, 132-134, 144-148

composite lists in, 108, 133-134, 146-147

covariate information in, 148

dual system; see Dual-system estimation

hazards of, 148

multilists in, 147-148

Multiplicity surveys, 108, 190, 192-193, 195, 295

N

National Center for Health Statistics, 20-21, 73, 187

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

National Content Test of 1976, 185

planned for 1986, 98

National Research Council Advisory Committee on Problems of Census Enumeration, 11-12, 309

National Research Council Panel on Decennial Census Plans, 12

National Vacancy Check of 1970, 87, 106, 116, 166-167, 168, 170, 177, 226

effectiveness of, 169

See also Vacant/Delete Check

Native-American enumeration techniques, 93, 184

Net coverage errors; see Overcount; Undercount

Netherlands, census procedures in, 89

Network coverage improvement questions, 108, 190-191

New Jersey

census data use in, 60, 70-75

fund allocations in, 58-59, 74-75

Jersey City census pretest, 92, 96

New York City

administrative records used in 1980, 83, 134-136, 146, 175-176

protest of 1980 census, 108-109, 134-136, 146

Nonhousehold Sources Program; see Administrative records

Nonresponses

reduction in, 30, 299-300

and unresolved matches, 30, 126, 127, 139-140

O

Oakland pretest in 1977, 108, 190-191

Omissions of data; see Undercount

One-form census with follow-on survey, 231

Overcount, 210-212

balancing with undercount, 141, 302-304

in census of 1980, 8, 154, 210-212

findings from earlier censuses, 212

findings from Post-Enumeration Program of 1980, 160, 212

research needed on, 179-180

sources of, 124

P

P Sample; see Evaluation programs

Participant observer studies; see Resident observer studies; Systematic observation

Planning cycle for 1990 census, 3-5, 97-98, 99

Postal Service checking of address lists

in census of 1970, 106, 116, 166, 226

effectiveness of, 170

in census of 1980, 174

Postcensal estimates, errors affecting, 60-64

Post-Enumeration Post Office Check

in 1970, 87, 106, 116, 166, 168, 170, 213, 226

in 1980, 83, 172, 174, 178-179

Post-Enumeration Program in census of 1980, 85-86, 108, 121-129

blocking in, 150-151

cost of, 137

E sample in, 108, 124, 299

gross omissions in, 156-159, 197-198

gross overenumerations in, 159-160, 210-212

matching with Current Population Survey, 108, 123-128, 197, 198, 202, 298

P sample in, 108, 123-124, 298-299

possible improvements in, 299-308

problem areas in, 264-265

procedures in, 298-299

and state population estimates, 46-47

Post-Enumeration Program planned for 1990, 297-308

Post-enumeration surveys, 28-30, 108

in census of 1950, 86, 109-111, 115, 161, 163-164, 204-209, 212

in census of 1960, 111-112, 212, 204-209

pretest in 1985, 285-286

problems with, 28, 291

See also Area samples, in post-
enumeration surveys; Compact area cluster samples, in post-enumeration surveys; List samples, in post-enumeration surveys; Pre-enumeration surveys

Precanvass

in census of 1970, 165, 166-167, 168, 169, 170

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

in census of 1980, 80, 171-174, 176

in test program for 1990, 178

Pre-enumeration surveys, 28, 29, 93, 85, 202, 272, 306-307

Preferred estimates of undercounts, 119, 120, 129

Prelist

enumeration areas in 1970, 165, 168, 174

enumeration areas in 1980, 79, 80, 93, 214

recanvass in 1980, 83, 172, 174, 175, 177, 178

Pretests

in Oakland in 1977, 108, 190-191

plans for 1985, 4, 92, 96-99, 192-193, 224, 225, 285-286

plans for 1986, 4, 21, 22, 28, 92, 93-95, 97-99, 177-179, 190, 191, 193, 196, 216, 221, 224, 225, 226, 230, 271-272, 274, 307

plans for 1990, 92-93, 179, 194, 271-272, 285-293, 310

in Tampa in 1985, 92, 96, 186, 285-286

Public assistance, fund allocations for, 54

Public cooperation with census, 83-84, 165, 171, 220, 250, 300

pre-enumeration survey affecting, 307

Public planning uses

of basic counts for small areas, 17, 36-37

of census data in, 33

Purposes or uses of census, 2, 6-7, 17, 31-75

and basic counts for small areas, 17, 34-38

and changes in time periods, 27, 42

characteristics data in, 38-41

distinguishing features of, 34-42

by federal government, 51-56

historical uses in, 33

and impact of errors, 43-64

by local agencies, 68-69

reassessment of, 37-38

by states, 65-68, 70-75

Q

Questionnaire design and content, 40, 41, 94, 180-193, 227-233

See also Content items; Short-form/long-form questionnaires

R

Race, coverage errors in and estimates of, 8, 45-46, 57, 59, 60, 110, 118-121, 131-132, 154-164, 197-203, 207, 208-209

Race and ethnicity questions, 180-187

in census of 1980, 182, 183

comparability of data from, 20-21, 186-187

considerations for 1990, 20, 180-181, 182-185

development of, 185-186

in earlier censuses, 2, 5, 181

and focus group methods, 185-186, 195-196

and mail nonreturn rates, 159, 200-202

and overenumeration rates, 160, 210-211

prescribed categories in, 181-182

problems with, 294

and undercount rates, 45-46, 155-157

Raking ratio estimation, 103

See also Iterative proportional fitting

Reapportionment

deadlines for data in, 27, 36

errors affecting, 8, 38, 42, 43-47

loss functions affecting, 250, 253-254

and need for census data, 5-6, 8

Record checks

administrative records in; see Administrative records

reverse; see Reverse record checks

Record linkage for automated matching, 91-92, 151-152

Recreation, fund allocations for, 54

Redistricting

deadlines for data in, 27, 36

errors affecting, 47-49

and state uses of census data, 66

Refusals for interviews, rate of, 125, 126, 225, 299-300

Regions, undercounts in, 110, 158-159, 199-200, 208-209, 213-214

Regression techniques in adjustments, 243, 267-268, 270-271, 273, 275, 280

Representation in Congress and need for census data; see Reapportionment

Research

on adjustments, 16, 27, 45, 77, 93, 253-255, 271-276

on coverage evaluation, 16

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

on coverage improvement programs, 193-194

on hard-to-count groups, 92, 94, 179, 287-288

on impact of errors, 43-60

on loss functions and adjustment, 253-255

plans for 1990, 18, 91-96

priorities for 1986, 18, 96-99, 193-196

on responses to content items, 233-234

and review of pretest plans, 97-99

on sampling, 224-225

testing schedule in, 3-4, 95-96

on undercount and overcount, 21, 179-180

Residence rules, 92

Resident observer studies, 163, 183, 209-210, 310

See also Systematic observation

Revenue sharing, fund allocations for, 31, 36, 41, 51, 53, 57-59, 60, 66, 107, 219, 228, 233, 250, 251, 254, 273

Reverse record checks, 29, 108

in Canada, 108, 112, 114-115, 140, 159, 265, 283-284, 291, 295

in census of 1960, 112-114

plans for 1990 census, 295-297

problems with, 290-291

Reviews of census plans by independent sources, 11-14

Rural areas

enumeration procedures, 3, 83, 87, 92, 93, 178, 267

gross omissions in, 110, 208-209, 213

housing coverage studies in, 192, 213, 214

S

Sampling procedures, 9, 13, 15-16, 22-24, 215-243

for census enumeration, 215-221

for content items, 91, 110, 115-116, 194, 215-216, 217-218, 227-235

costs of, 7, 9, 13, 15-16, 153, 170, 175, 217, 218-219, 221-226, 236-238

coverage deficiency in, 219-221

for coverage improvement, 9, 13, 15-16, 225-227

recommendations for 1990, 226, 230

errors in, 216-217

feasibility of, 217, 224

in follow-up studies, 13, 15-16, 22-23, 221-225, 301-302

recommendations for, 22-23, 221, 224-225, 227

and reduction of respondent burden, 217-218

research on, 15, 91, 219, 224-225

rolling samples in, 219, 221

and time required for field work, 217

for unresolved cases, 302

See also Post-enumeration surveys

Second-home groups, proposed coverage of, 189-190

Sequential hot-deck imputation, 18-19, 84-85, 100-101, 136

Sex category, undercounts in, 8, 45, 112, 118, 119-120, 155-156, 157, 160, 161, 203, 206, 207, 208, 245, 266, 275, 294, 309, 316

Short-form/long-form questionnaires, 228-229

alternatives to, 230-231

experience with short form, 16, 21, 228

related data in, 84-85, 102-103

Small-area data and estimates

adjustment in, 26, 27, 28, 102, 256, 261, 266, 268-271, 273, 275-276

administrative records in, 35

basic counts for, 17, 34-38

characteristics data in, 38-42

comparison and ranking of, 36, 37, 39-41

sampling affecting, 35, 219-220, 221

See also County data and estimates; State data and estimates

Social Security Administration records, 35, 91, 112, 144

Social services, fund allocations for, 54-55

Socioeconomic research uses of characteristics data, 40

Standard metropolitan statistical areas, undercounts in; see Urban areas

State data and estimates, 8, 45-47, 61, 32, 253-254, 262-263, 267, 268, 277-278, 284, 285, 294

See also Adjustment of census figures; Small-area data and estimates

State government uses of census data, 65-68

and case study of data use in New Jersey, 60, 70-75

for classification of local governments, 65-66

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

for equal employment opportunity programs, 43, 66-67, 69, 74-75, 263

for fund allocations, 66

for implementation of federal programs, 67

for planning purposes, 67-68

for redistricting, 65

Stratification in dual-system estimation, 122-123, 146, 302-305

Subcounty population estimates for 1980, errors in, 61, 62, 63

Subgroup characteristics data, 38-42

Subject items; see Content items

Supplemental forms operation in 1970, 166-167

effectiveness of, 168, 170

Sweden, census procedures in, 89-90

Synthetic estimation, and adjustments, 25, 45, 58, 59, 103, 107, 254-255, 257, 258, 268-269, 270-271, 273, 275, 281

Systematic observation, 310-312

variance and cost estimates for, 317

T

Tampa pretest in 1985, 92, 96, 186, 285-286

Tape Address Register Enumeration Areas

in 1970, 165-169, 174

in 1980, 79, 80, 174, 178

Telephone follow-up procedures, 2-3, 22-23, 81, 94, 225

Testing programs; see Pretests

Time-series character of census, 27, 42

Timing considerations

in adjustments, 48, 137, 262-264, 306

in automation, 307-308

in coverage evaluation, 137, 306-308

in pre-enumeration surveys, 306-307

in sampling, 217

Tracing methods, in Forward Trace Study, 30, 140, 288, 290, 296-297

Transportation, fund allocations for, 56

Triple-system estimation, 287, 305

Two-stage enumeration procedure

testing of, in 1985, 92, 96

use in 1960 census, 86

U

Undercount

balance with overcount, 141, 302-304

in census of 1980, 154, 156-161, 197-203

and coverage evaluation, 105-152; see also Evaluation programs

findings from previous censuses, 8, 48, 59, 112, 121, 154, 155, 161-163, 164-165, 203-209, 226, 284, 294, 305

and fund allocations, 59-60

gross omissions in, 197-210

in housing coverage studies, 212-214

and reapportionment, 45-47

research needed on, 21, 179-180

sources of, 105-106, 125

and values assigned to missing responses, 18-19

Update list/leave enumeration procedure, 81, 91, 94, 179, 195

Urban areas

housing coverage studies in, 213-214

undercounts in, 110, 139, 199-202, 208-209

Uses for census data; see Purposes or uses of census

V

Vacant/Delete Check

in census of 1980, 82-83, 172-173, 174, 223

effectiveness of, 172-173, 174, 175, 177, 226, 227

and recommended use of sampling, 23, 177, 178, 194, 216, 226, 227, 239-240

See also National Vacancy Check of 1970

Variance estimation, 258-259, 317

in matching process, 308

Vital statistics records, 36

birth registration, 117, 118-119, 120, 121, 130, 132, 142, 186, 187, 290, 293, 294

death records, 29, 42, 117, 119, 130, 131, 142, 186, 187, 193, 294

race and ethnicity definitions in, 20-21, 186-187

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×

W

Weighting

and adjustments, 247, 251-252, 253, 261, 265-266, 267-268, 269, 271, 278, 279-280

of long-form records, iterative proportional fitting in, 84, 102-103

Were You Counted program, 83, 168, 172-173, 176, 194

See also Supplemental forms operation in 1970

Whole Household Usual Home Elsewhere Program, 82, 176, 177, 178, 190

Wolter paper on coverage evaluation and adjustment, 95, 271-273, 276, 289-293, 300, 306

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
×
Page 346
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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Page 347
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990: 30th Anniversary Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21728.
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In 1982 the Census Bureau requested the Committee on National Statistics to establish a panel to suggest research and experiments, to recommend improved methods, and to guide the Census Bureau on technical problems in appraising contending methods with regard to the conduct of the decennial census. In response, the panel produced an interim report that focused on recommendations for improvements in census methodology that warranted early investigation and testing. This report updates and expands the ideas and conclusions about decennial census methodology.

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