DIPLOMACY FOR THE
EMBEDDING A CULTURE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
THROUGHOUT THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Committee on Science and Technology Capabilities
at the Department of State
Development, Security, and Cooperation
Policy and Global Affairs
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was supported by Grant No. 10001479 from the Golden Family Foundation, Grant No. 10001474 from Carnegie Corporation of New York, Grant No. 10001582 from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and Contract/Grant No. 2013-8745 from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation supplemented by funds from the National Academies. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations that provided support for the project.
Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
This summary contains the summary and the findings, conclusions, and recommendations from the full report.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Thomas R. Pickering (Co-Chair), Vice Chairman, Hills and Company, and Former Undersecretary of State
Adel A. F. Mahmoud (Co-Chair), Professor at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and in the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton University
Catherine Bertini, Professor of Public Administration and International Affairs, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University
Kenneth C. Brill, Member of the Board of Directors at the Stimson Center and Ambassador (retired)
Thaddeus Burns, Senior Counsel for Intellectual Property and Trade, General Electric Company
Michael T. Clegg, Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of California, Irvine
Glen T. Daigger, President, One Water Solutions, LLC
Kent Hughes, Program Manager, The Woodrow Wilson Center
Cindy R. Jebb, Professor and Head, Department of Social Sciences, United States Military Academy
Michael T. Jones, Chief Technology Advocate, Google, Inc.
Robert M. Perito, Executive Director, The Perito Group
Brenda Pierce, Energy Resources Program Coordinator, U.S. Geological Survey
Emmy B. Simmons, Consultant, Former USAID Assistant Administrator for Economic Growth, Agriculture, and Trade (Committee member until November 2014)
Sten H. Vermund, Amos Christie Chair and Director, Vanderbilt University Institute for Global Health
David G. Victor, Professor; Director, Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, University of California at San Diego
Development, Security, and Cooperation Program Staff
Glenn E. Schweitzer, Study Director
Patricia Koshel, Senior Program Officer
Jacqueline Martin, Program Coordinator
Carolyn Mattick, Mirzayan Fellow
Christopher O’Donnell, Mirzayan Fellow
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Preface and Acknowledgments
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.
We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Rita Colwell, University of Maryland; Nina Fedoroff, Pennsylvania State University; Cutberto Garza, Boston College; Mark Giordano, Georgetown University; Judith Kimble, University of Wisconsin at Madison; Venkatesh Narayanamurti, Harvard University; Thomas Quinn, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease; Anthony Rock, Association of Science-Technology Centers; Vaughan Turekian, American Association for the Advancement of Science; and Ghebre Tzeghai, Proctor and Gamble Company.
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Enriqueta
Bond, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and Robert Frosch, Harvard University. Appointed by the National Academies, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.