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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21742.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Charac C cterization, Mode , eling, Monitoring, an Rem ation o nd media of FRA TUR D R CK AC RED ROC Com mmittee on Subsurface Characterizat S C tion, Modelin Monitor ng, ring, and Rem mediation of f Frac ctured Rock k Committee on Geologica and Geote C o al echnical Eng gineering Boa on Earth Sciences an Resources ard nd s Division on Earth and Lif Studies D E fe Prepublic cation – Subje to Further E ect Editorial Revis sions

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) under Grant No. NRC-04-09-167, the U.S. Department of Energy (NOE) under Contract No. DE- PI000010/DE-DT0002974 and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Grant No. NNX12AR45G. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this book are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Library of Congress Control Number: OR Cataloging-in-Publication Data Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Cover: Cover design by Eric Edkin. Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Prepublication – Subject to Further Editorial Revisions

The National Academy of Scien nces was est tablished in 1863 by an A of Congress, signed by Act President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernm s mental instit tution to adv vise the nati on issues ion s related to science an technology. Member are electe by their p t nd rs ed peers for out tstanding contribut tions to rese earch. Dr. Raalph J. Cice erone is pres sident. The National Academy of Engin neering was established in 1964 und the char d der rter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. f o p g g Members are elected by their pe s d eers for extr raordinary c contributions to enginee s ering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr. is president. ., The National Academy of Medic cine (formerly the Instit established in tute of Medicine) was e 1970 und the charter of the National Acad der demy of Scie vise the nati on medical ences to adv ion and health issues. Members are elected by their peers f distingui for ished contributions to medicine and health Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e h. p The three Academies work together as the National Ac cademies of Sciences, E f Engineering g, and Medicine to proovide indepe endent, objeective analys and advic to the na sis ce ation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform pub policy decisions. Th e d blic he Academies also encoourage educa ation and re esearch, rec cognize outst tanding contributions to o knowledg and incr ge, rease public understanding in matte of scienc engineer ers ce, ring, and medicine e. Learn mo about th National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medic ore he A o g, cine at www.national-academies.org. Prepublic cation – Subje to Further E ect Editorial Revis sions

COMMITTEE ON SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION, MODELING, MONITORING, AND REMEDIATION OF FRACTURED ROCKS DAVID E. DANIEL (Chair), University of Texas System LISA ALVAREZ-COHEN, University of California, Berkeley WILLIAM DERSHOWITZ, Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, Washington HERBERT H. EINSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge CARL GABLE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico FRANKLIN M. ORR, JR., Stanford University, California (resigned December 2014) DAVID REYNOLDS, Geosyntec Consultants, Kingston, Ontario, Canada J. CARLOS SANTAMARINA, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ALLEN M. SHAPIRO, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia KAMINI SINGHA, Colorado School of Mines, Golden National Research Council Staff SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Study Director ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant Prepublication – Subject to Further Editorial Revisions v

COMMITTEE ON GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING PATRICIA CULLIGAN (Chair), Columbia University, New York, New York JEAN-LOUIS BRIAUD, Texas A&M University, College Station JOHN R. CRAYNON, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden MARTIN W. McCANN, Jack R. Benjamin and Associates, Inc., Menlo Park, California PRISCILLA NELSON, Colorado School of Mines, Golden JUAN M. PESTANA, University of California, Berkeley JAMES R. RICE, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts GLENN RIX, Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., Kennesaw, Georgia National Research Council Staff SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate Prepublication – Subject to Further Editorial Revisions vi

BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES CORALE L. BRIERLEY (Chair), Brierley Consultancy LLC, Denver, Colorado CHRISTOPHER CAMERON, GeoLogical Consulting, LLC, Houston, Texas SUSAN L. CUTTER, University of South Carolina, Columbia CAROL P. HARDEN, The University of Texas, Knoxville T. MARK HARRISON, University of California, Los Angeles ANN S. MAEST, Buka Environmental, Boulder, Colorado DAVID R. MAIDMENT, University of Texas, Austin M. MEGHAN MILLER, UNAVCO, Inc., Boulder, Colorado ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, University of California, Davis HENRY N. POLLACK, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MARY M. POULTON, University of Arizona, Tucson JAMES M. ROBERTSON, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey PETER M. SHEARER, University of California, San Diego SHAOWEN WANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign GENE WHITNEY, Congressional Research Service (Retired, Washington, DC National Research Council Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director ANNE M. LINN, Scholar SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer MARK D. LANGE, Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant Prepublication – Subject to Further Editorial Revisions vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Michael Annable, University of Florida; Peter Cook, CSIRO Land and Water Russell Detwiler, University of California, Irvine Mark Harkness, GE Global Research Walter Illman, University of Waterloo Laura Pyrak-Nolte, Purdue University Kenneth Raven, Geofirma Engineering Ltd. Nicholas Sitar, University of California, Berkeley Jesse Yow, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. George Hornberger, Vanderbilt University. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution. Prepublication – Subject to Further Editorial Revisions ix

Contents CHAPTERS Summary 1 1 Introduction 11 The Context, 11 The Committee Task, 12 Previous Academies Studies, 15 The Heterogeneity of Fractured Rock, 15 Contaminants in Fractured Rock, 18 Fate and Transport, 19 Knowledge from Related Areas, 20 Report Organization, 21 2 Physical Characteristics of Fractured Rock Controlling Flow and Transport 23 Qualitative Fracture Description, 23 Quantitative Fracture Description, 24 Importance of Fracture Genesis, 28 3 Flow and Transport–Underlying Processes 31 Advection and Dispersion, 31 Hydro-Mechanical Coupling, 34 Chemical Processes: Diffusion and Reaction, 35 Biological Processes, 40 Mixed-Fluid Conditions, 42 Fines Migration and Entrapment: Emergent Transport Processes, 48 Heat Transport and Thermal Processes, 50 4 Conceptual and Numerical Model Development 53 Defining and Developing Hydrostructural Models, 54 Quantifying the Hydrostructural Model, 60 Scoping Calculations to Assess and Refine Models and Uncertainties, 64 Analysis Tools to Inform Modeling, 65 Types of Numerical Models, 68 Upscaling and Model Simplification, 70 Numerical Model Analysis, 72 Analysis and Resources, 75 Prepublication – Subject to Further Editorial Revisions xi

5 Methods for Site Characterization and Monitoring 77 Geomechanical Characterization, 78 Geometric Characterization, 79 Hydraulic Characterization of Fractured Rock, 81 Geophysical Characterization of Fractured Rock, 91 Geochemical Characterization of Fractured Rock Systems, 95 Biological Characterization of Fractured Rock, 101 6 Remediation of Fractured Rock 105 Difficulties of Remediation in Fractured Rock, 106 Potential Technologies to Remediate Organic Compounds, 111 Potentially Applicable Approaches for Radionuclides, 116 Natural Attenuation, 116 Important Considerations in Fractured Rock Remediation, 117 The Path Forward, 122 7 Decision Making 125 Decision Making and Updating in the Context of this Report, 127 Observational Method in Geotechnical Engineering, 127 Evolving the Observational Method to Geoenvironmental Engineering, 129 8 Synthesis of Recommendations 133 An Integrated Approach, 133 Interactions Between Rock Matrix and Fractures, 135 Processes and Coupled Processes, 135 Characterization Techniques and Tools, 137 Modeling, 138 Remediation and Monitoring, 140 The Observational Approach, 142 Final Thoughts, 142 References 143 APPENDICES A Committee Member Biographies 173 B Open Session Agendas 177 Prepublication – Subject to Further Editorial Revisions xii

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Fractured rock is the host or foundation for innumerable engineered structures related to energy, water, waste, and transportation. Characterizing, modeling, and monitoring fractured rock sites is critical to the functioning of those infrastructure, as well as to optimizing resource recovery and contaminant management. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock examines the state of practice and state of art in the characterization of fractured rock and the chemical and biological processes related to subsurface contaminant fate and transport. This report examines new developments, knowledge, and approaches to engineering at fractured rock sites since the publication of the 1996 National Research Council report Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow: Contemporary Understanding and Fluid Flow. Fundamental understanding of the physical nature of fractured rock has changed little since 1996, but many new characterization tools have been developed, and there is now greater appreciation for the importance of chemical and biological processes that can occur in the fractured rock environment.

The findings of Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock can be applied to all types of engineered infrastructure, but especially to engineered repositories for buried or stored waste and to fractured rock sites that have been contaminated as a result of past disposal or other practices. The recommendations of this report are intended to help the practitioner, researcher, and decision maker take a more interdisciplinary approach to engineering in the fractured rock environment. This report describes how existing tools -- some only recently developed -- can be used to increase the accuracy and reliability of engineering design and management given the interacting forces of nature. With an interdisciplinary approach, it is possible to conceptualize and model the fractured rock environment with acceptable levels of uncertainty and reliability, and to design systems that maximize remediation and long-term performance. Better scientific understanding could inform regulations, policies, and implementation guidelines related to infrastructure development and operations. The recommendations for research and applications to enhance practice of this book make it a valuable resource for students and practitioners in this field.

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