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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Brazil-U.S. Workshop on
Strengthening the Culture of
Nuclear Safety and Security

Summary of a Workshop

Benjamin Rusek and Micah Lowenthal, Rapporteurs

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

In cooperation with
Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares
São Paulo, Brazil

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS     500 Fifth Street, NW     Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Grant No. S-LMAQM-11-GR-0057 between the National Academy of Sciences and the United States Department of State. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-37586-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-37586-X

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

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Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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The National Academies of
SCIENCES · ENGINEERING · MEDICINE

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

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The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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BRAZIL-U.S. WORKSHOP ON STRENGTHENING THE CULTURE OF NUCLEAR SAFETY AND SECURITY PLANNING COMMITTEE

Robert A. Bari, Chair, Senior Physicist and Senior Advisor, Brookhaven National Laboratory

Matthew G. Bunn, Professor of Practice, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

Michael L. Corradini, Wisconsin Distinguished Professor of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison

James O. Ellis, Annenberg Distinguished Visiting Fellow and Member, Arctic Security Initiative at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University

Alan S. Hanson, Executive Director, International Nuclear Leadership Education Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Nancy Jo Nicholas, Associate Laboratory Director, Los Alamos National Laboratory

CNEN Organizers

Ivan Salati, Director for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety and Member of the Deliberative Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN)

Claudio Almeida, Advisor to the Director of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, CNEN

IPEN Organizer

Antonio Barroso, Professor and Senior Researcher, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN)

National Academy of Sciences Staff

Benjamin J. Rusek, Senior Program Officer

Micah D. Lowenthal, Program Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Preface and Acknowledgments

On August 25–26, 2014, the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN, the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research) and the National Research Council1 of the U.S National Academy of Sciences (NAS) convened the Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security. The workshop, held on the IPEN Campus in São Paulo, Brazil, examined how a culture of nuclear safety and security is built and maintained within the nuclear science, technology, and industrial sectors. Participants identified opportunities for cooperation to strengthen that culture. To host the workshop, IPEN received financial support from Eletrobras Eletronuclear, Banco do Brasil, and Santander. U.S. participation was sponsored by the Partnership for Nuclear Security at the U.S. Department of State.

Statement of Task: An ad hoc NRC [National Research Council] committee will work with counterparts in Brazil to convene a Brazil-U.S. workshop to examine how a culture of nuclear safety and security is built and maintained within the nuclear science, technology, and industrial sectors and to look for opportunities for U.S.-Brazil cooperation to strengthen that culture.

IPEN and NAS staff worked with Brazilian officials and academics from IPEN, the Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN, the National Nuclear Energy Commission), the University of São Paulo, Eletrobras Eletronuclear, the Ministério da Ciência Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI, the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation), and the Governo do Estado de São Paulo (the Government of the State of São Paulo), and other groups in Brazil to plan and host the workshop. While no single workshop could cover nuclear safety and security culture comprehensively, the agenda was designed to address some of the most important ideas, and issues, and included sessions on

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1Effective July 1, 2015, the institution is called the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. References in this report to the National Research Council are used in an historic context identifying programs prior to July 1.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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  • The relationship between safety culture and security culture;
  • Safety analysis, vulnerability assessment, and the design of integrated solutions;
  • Performance assessment and improvement of safety and security culture;
  • Training and education for safety and security culture;
  • The “lessons-learned” processes and implementing change; and
  • The influence of leadership and hierarchy on safety and security culture.

About a dozen experts each from Brazil and the United States spoke at the workshop, presenting talks, moderating panels, or serving as rapporteurs. The workshop was well attended by Brazilian experts: approximately 80 attended during the course of the 2 days. Participants included scientists, engineers, and officials who have managed and worked on complex projects in the nuclear sector, as well as graduate-level students from IPEN. IPEN webcast the workshop and took questions from the Internet during the sessions.2 After the sessions, IPEN leadership demonstrated the capabilities of IPEN’s research reactor and IPEN’s radiopharmaceutical production facility for the U.S. group. NAS is especially grateful to IPEN staff members Arnaldo Andrade, Anderson Andrade, Afonso R. Aquino, Jamil M. S. Ayoub, Margarete L. Bustos, Edvaldo R. P. Fonseca, Rafael H. L. Garcia, Katia Itioka, Francisco Luiz Lemos, Mario O. Menezes, Roseli dos Reis Orsini, Tereza Cristina Salvetti, Glaucia Regina T. Santos, Walkiria G. Santos, Jorge Sarkis, Fábio Fumio Suzuki, and Antonio Vaz for their assistance in organizing the workshop.

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Robert Bari, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Antonio Barroso, IPEN; Togzhan

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2More information about the workshop, including the agenda and all presentations and video recordings of the sessions, is available on the workshop website: http://gescon.ipen.br/workshop.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Kassenova, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Nancy Jo Nicholas, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonam dos Santos Guimarães, Eletrobras Eletronuclear; and Jorge Spitalnik, World Federation of Engineering Organizations.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Ahearne, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society; appointed by the Academies, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academy of Sciences. 2015. Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21761.
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On August 25-26, 2014, the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) and the National Research Council of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences convened the Brazil-U.S. Workshop on Strengthening the Culture of Nuclear Safety and Security. The workshop, held on the IPEN Campus in São Paulo, Brazil, examined how a culture of nuclear safety and security is built and maintained within the nuclear science, technology, and industrial sectors. Participants identified opportunities for cooperation to strengthen that culture and shared research, perspectives, and practices. This report summarizes the presentation and discussion of that event.

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