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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Examining a
Developmental Approach
to Childhood Obesity

The Fetal and Early Childhood Years

Workshop Summary

Leslie A. Pray, Rapporteur

Food and Nutrition Board

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
             OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This activity was supported by Contract No. 10002193 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Contract No. 10001718 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture—Agricultural Research Service, with additional support from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Additional support for this activity was provided by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation Fund. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the activity.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-37695-2
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-37695-5

Additional copies of this workshop summary are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2015 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2015. Examining a developmental approach to childhood obesity: The fetal and early childhood years: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
×

Knowing is not enough; we must apply.
Willing is not enough; we must do.
”      

                                                —Goethe

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INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
              OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMIC
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, AND
EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT ON RISK OF OBESITY1

SHARI BARKIN (Chair), William K. Warren Family Foundation Chair in Medicine, Professor of Pediatrics, Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital at Vanderbilt

LEANN L. BIRCH, William P. (Bill) Flatt Professor, Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia

STEPHEN R. DANIELS, Chairman and Pediatrician-in-Chief, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine

ESA DAVIS, Assistant Professor, Center for Research on Health Care, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

MATTHEW W. GILLMAN, Professor of Medicine and Director, Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Professor of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health

DEBRA HAIRE-JOSHU, Professor and Associate Dean for Research, and Director, Center for Obesity Prevention and Policy Research and the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research, George Warren Brown School of Social Work–Public Health, Washington University in St. Louis

KAREN A. LILLYCROP, Professor of Epigenetics, Centre for Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Southampton

______________

1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Reviewers

This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the workshop summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary:

Rachel Ballard-Barbash, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute

Sandra Hassink, Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight, American Academy of Pediatrics

James Ntambi, University of Wisconsin–Madison

Catherine Spong, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Joanne Lupton, Texas A&M University. Appointed by the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, she was respon-

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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sible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 2015. Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity: The Fetal and Early Childhood Years: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21782.
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Recent scientific evidence points to the origins of childhood obesity as an outcome of the dynamic interplay of genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors throughout early development, with a compelling body of evidence suggesting that both maternal and paternal nutritional and other exposures affect a child's risk of later obesity. The burgeoning field of epigenetics has led researchers to speculate that many of the observed associations between early developmental exposures and later risk of childhood obesity are mediated, at least in part, through epigenetic mechanisms.

To explore the body of evolving science that examines the nexus of biology, environment, and developmental stage on risk of childhood obesity, the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council convened a workshop in February 2015. The workshop focused on the prenatal period, infancy, and early childhood and addressed evidence from both animal and human studies. Workshop objectives were to (1) identify epigenetic-mediated relationships between exposure to risk factors during sensitive periods of development (gestation through age 3) and subsequent obesity-related outcomes; (2) explore the science around periods of plasticity and potential reversibility of obesity risk in the context of early childhood development; and (3) examine the translation of epigenetic science to guide early childhood obesity prevention and intervention to reduce obesity risk. This report summarizes the information presented and discussed at the workshop.

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