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Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary (2016)

Chapter: Appendix E: Speaker Biographies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Appendix E

Speaker Biographies

Rodrigo Almeida, Ph.D., is an associate professor in ecology of emerging infectious diseases at the University of California, Berkeley. His research focuses on insect-borne plant pathogens, addressing questions on what allows these organisms to be successful in causing disease, how they interact with vectors and host plants, and how they spread in time and space. An ultimate goal of his interdisciplinary research is to generate information that will assist in the development of practices that can reduce the impact of emerging diseases. He is a Fulbright and Marie Curie fellow, and received the American Phytopathological Society’s Early Career Award in 2012, among other awards.

Luke Alphey, Ph.D., is a leader in the emerging field of genetic pest management, focusing particularly on mosquitoes. He is a nonexecutive director of Oxitec Ltd, a spin-out company from Oxford University that he cofounded in 2002; he was the research director from 2002 to 2014. Oxitec aims to control insect pests by use of engineered sterile males of the pest insect species (RIDL males). Oxitec successfully conducted the world’s first outdoor experiments with a genetically modified insect in the United States in 2006, and in 2010 showed that a wild mosquito population could be suppressed by this genetics-based method. Dr. Alphey’s earlier career focused on basic science, using Drosophila as a model system, latterly at Oxford University. After 11 years at Oxitec he moved to The Pirbright Institute in February 2014. Alphey was selected as a Technology Pioneer of the World Economic Forum in 2008 and BBSRC Innovator of the Year 2014.

Barry Beaty, Ph.D., is a professor of microbiology, immunology, and pathology at the University of Colorado. His current research efforts have involved

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
×

understanding the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases; arbovirus maintenance in nature and transmission to humans; development of rapid, clinically relevant diagnostic tests for improved arbovirus surveillance, prevention, and control strategies; and for improving patient care. For the past 20 years, he has investigated dengue virus epidemiology and molecular epidemiology in the Yucatan, dengue molecular determinants of severe disease, dengue virus–Aedes aegypti associations and interactions, differential diagnosis of Flavivirus infections in Mexico (e.g., differential diagnosis of dengue and West Nile virus [WNV] infections), and development of rapid clinically relevant tests for Flavivirus surveillance (e.g., a blocking ELISA test for WNV infections, which is now widely used in Latin America). Current research efforts include development of (1) a metabolomicsbased LC-MS/MS approach for identification of small molecular biomarkers in acute phase serum, urine, and saliva for diagnosis of dengue virus infections and for prognosis of severe disease outcomes (dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome; (2) molecular mosquitocides (a novel RNAi-nanoparticle, target-specific approach) for control of insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors; and (3) novel casa segura-based approaches for protecting the domicile from hematophagous arthropods and pathogen transmission.

Luis Gerardo Castellanos, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., was born in the Republic of Guatemala where he started his university studies to receive a degree in medicine from the University of San Carlos of Guatemala. Later he worked as a professor at the medical school of the same university until 1990 when he began his graduate studies in the United States. In 1991 he received the title of Master of Public Health from the University of Puerto Rico, and in 1994 he also received his Ph.D. in epidemiology from the School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina. Between 1994 and 1996, Dr. Castellanos completed the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) training program in field epidemiology of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with particular focus on outbreak investigation, prevention, and control. In 1997, he joined the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) as a consultant for disease prevention and control, serving in Honduras, Brazil, Mexico and the Mexico–United States Border Office, based in El Paso, Texas. Since 2011, Dr. Castellanos has assumed the role of senior advisor and chief of the Neglected Tropical and Vector-borne Diseases Unit at PAHO headquarters in Washington, DC. During his career Dr. Castellanos has published scientific articles, and assisted many countries in the Americas, both in routine training and research activities, as well as technical support in the investigation, prevention, and control of outbreaks, emergencies, and natural disasters.

James Hadler, M.D., M.P.H, is currently clinical professor of epidemiology and public health at the Yale University School of Public Health and a consultant to the New York City Department of Health and to the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). Recently, he was the lead consultant for CSTE

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
×

for a national arbovirus surveillance capacity assessment in 2013, a member of the CDC’s Infectious Disease Board of Scientific Counselors, his term ending several months ago, and an original member of CDC’s Biosurveillance Advisory Subcommittee (term ending 2012). Dr. Hadler was the state epidemiologist and director of the Infectious Diseases Division at the Connecticut Department of Public Health for nearly 25 years before leaving full-time state service in 2008. As part of his responsibilities, he was involved in development of the Connecticut response to a wide range of emerging infectious disease issues, including HIV, tuberculosis, and Lyme disease in the 1980s; West Nile virus in 1999; anthrax in 2001; and SARS in 2003. He also was the principal investigator for the Connecticut Emerging Infections Program from 1995–2007 and responsible for public health preparedness activities relating to infectious diseases. He has an M.D. from Columbia (1972) and an M.P.H. from Yale (1982).

William Karesh, D.V.M., is the executive vice president for Health and Policy for EcoHealth Alliance. He is also the president of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Working Group on Wildlife Diseases and chairs the International Union for the Conservation of Nature SSC Wildlife Health Specialist Group. From 2009, he has served as the technical director for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Emerging Pandemic Threats PREDICT program. Mr. Karesh has pioneered initiatives focusing attention and resources on solving problems created by the interactions among wildlife, people, and their animals. He coined the term “One Health” and created the “One World–One Health” initiative to encourage linkages among public health, agriculture, and environmental health agencies and organizations around the world. He has lead programs and projects in more than 60 countries, covering terrain from Argentina to Zambia. Mr. Karesh is internationally recognized as an authority on the subject of animal and human health linkages and wildlife. He has published more than 160 scientific papers and numerous book chapters, and written for broader audience publications such as Foreign Affairs and The Huffington Post.

A. Marm Kilpatrick, Ph.D., is assistant professor in ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He has authored more than 60 publications on many aspects of disease ecology including papers in Science, Nature, PNAS, Lancet, PLoS Biology, and PLoS Pathogens. His work focuses on the drivers of pathogen transmission, including land use, host community composition, climate, the spread of pathogens to new regions, and the effects of disease on animal populations.

Kenneth J. Linthicum, Ph.D., is presently the director of the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service in Gainesville, Florida. He received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in zoology/biology from the University of California, Los

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
×

Angeles. He retired from the U.S. Army in 2001. Since 2004 he has directed a major Agricultural Research Service facility, consisting of four research units, employing 60 scientists and 150 support personnel. His scientific interests include vector and disease control, systematics, arbovirology, malaria, rickettsial diseases, and applications of geographic information systems and remote sensing to disease surveillance and epidemiology. His research findings have been published in 203 papers in the national and international scientific literature, and presented in more than 341 papers given at national and international scientific meetings. He was the recipient of the John I. Davidson Award for Practical Papers by the American Society for Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, the 2010 Federal Laboratory Consortium Lab Director of Year award, a 2013 Finalist for the Samuel J Heyman Service to America Awards National Security and International Affairs Medal, and is president-elect of the American Mosquito Control Association.

Alan Magill, M.D., is director of the malaria program at The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in Seattle, Washington. Magill is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He is a professor of medicine at the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington, and has dual appointments as associate professor of medicine and associate professor of preventive medicine and biometrics at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland. His primary research interests have been in malaria and leishmaniasis. His focus has been on new product development in vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics. Previous positions include program manager (2009–2012) at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency where he developed and enabled a plant-based vaccine production capability. He retired after 27 years active duty service in the U.S. Army in 2010. He was formerly the director of the Division of Experimental Therapeutics and the science director at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Washington, DC. Magill was previously the head of parasitology at the Naval Medical Research Center Detachment in Lima, Peru, and the head of clinical research for the Malaria Vaccine Development Unit of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. He is a faculty member for the Gorgas Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine in Lima, Peru, and a sought-after speaker on travel and tropical medicine-related topics. He participates in numerous national and international advisory committees and workshops. He is the current president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and a past president of their Clinical Group and a past president of the International Society of Travel Medicine. He is the lead editor of the 9th edition of Hunter’s Tropical Medicine, the premier clinical textbook of tropical medicine. He is also a medical editor of the CDC Health Information for International Travel (the yellow book) for 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016. He has authored more than 75 peer-reviewed publications, 135 abstracts, and 13 book chapters. He is a master of the American College of Physicians, a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and a fellow of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
×

James Maguire, M.D., M.P.H., is professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and senior physician at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. He is an infectious disease specialist who has conducted epidemiological and clinical research on parasitic diseases, primarily Chagas disease in Brazil, leishmaniasis in Brazil and Bangladesh, and malaria in Latin America and Thailand. He was clinical director of the Division of Infectious Disease at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and on the faculty of Harvard’s Schools of Medicine and Public Health until 2001, the chief of the Parasitic Diseases Branch at CDC until 2005, and later head of the Division of International Health at the University of Maryland School of Medicine before returning to Boston in 2008.

Harold S. Margolis, M.D., is chief of the Dengue Branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in San Juan, Puerto Rico. He is a graduate of the University of Arizona, College of Medicine, and completed a pediatric residency at the University of Colorado, Denver. In 1975, he joined CDC as an EIS officer and subsequently held several leadership positions, including director of the Division of Viral Hepatitis. In 2004, he became director of the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI), a program located at the International Vaccine Institute in Seoul, Korea, and funded by The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. While at PDVI, the program advanced five dengue vaccines into clinical trials, evaluated the performance of commercially available dengue diagnostic tests, established potential vaccine trial sites, and established regional public health networks to support introduction of dengue vaccines. Margolis is a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases Society of America. He is the author or coauthor of over 200 peer-reviewed publications.

Thomas P. Monath, M.D., is a consultant to the biotechnology industry. He is chief medical officer of Hookipa BioTech AG and chief technical officer of PaxVax Inc, where he is engaged in development of new vaccines. His expertise and experience cut across discovery research, process and analytical development, manufacturing, preclinical and clinical development, and regulatory affairs. Monath is also a venture partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and is a director of Sentinext plc, Rapid Micro Biosystems Inc, and US Biologics Inc. Between 1992 and 2012 he was adjunct professor, Harvard School of Public Health. Between 1992 and 2006, Monath was chief scientific officer and an executive director, Acambis Inc. (a publicly traded biopharmaceutical company recently acquired by Sanofi Pasteur) where he pioneered the development of ChimeriVax vaccines against dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis; vaccines against yellow fever, Clostridium difficile, and Helicobacter pylori; as well as a cell-based smallpox vaccine. Monath received his undergraduate degree and M.D. from Harvard and trained in internal medicine at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston. Col. Monath retired from the U.S. Army in 1992 after 24 years in the uniformed services (Army and U.S. Public Health Service). Between 1973

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
×

and 1988, he was director, Division of Vector-Borne Viral Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, Colorado, and from 1989 to 1992 chief, Virology Division, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. He has worked overseas in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Cameroun, Argentina, Ecuador, and elsewhere doing field research on arboviruses and hemorrhagic fevers. In 1972, he discovered the rodent reservoir of Lassa fever virus. He received the Nathanial A. Young Award (1984), the Richard M. Taylor Award (1996), and the Walter Reed Medal (2002) from the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and was president of that society (2004–2005). From 1998 to 2000, Monath was senior science advisor to the director of the Central Intelligence Agency. He has been a leader in the One Health initiative.

Christopher Paddock, M.D., M.P.H.T.M., is a rickettsiologist and pathologist at the CDC in Atlanta, Georgia. Paddock received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in entomology at the University of California, Davis, in 1981 and 1986, respectively, and his M.D. and M.P.H.T. M. degrees at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1990. He completed his residency in anatomic pathology and laboratory medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, in 1995. His employment with CDC began in 1996, as medical officer in the Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, where he worked until taking a position as staff pathologist with the Infectious Disease Pathology Branch from 2003 to 2014. He now serves as the team lead for the Reference Diagnostics and Microbiology Activity in the Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch at CDC. He has authored or coauthored approximately 160 scientific publications and 20 book chapters. His research interests include clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic aspects of rickettsial diseases, primarily newly recognized spotted fever group rickettsioses.

Lyle R. Petersen, M.D., M.P.H., has served as the director of the Division of Vector-borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, since 2004. Petersen began his training at the University of California, San Diego, where he received an undergraduate degree in biology. He then studied medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, where he was awarded a Regent’s Scholarship. After medical school, Petersen completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at Stanford University. He then joined Tulane University’s tropical medicine research efforts in Cali, Colombia before starting CDC’s EIS applied epidemiology training program in 1985. After his EIS training at the Connecticut State Health Department, he joined the CDC’s Division of HIV/AIDS where he worked until 1995. During that time, he completed CDC’s Preventive Medicine Residency Program, received an M.P.H. degree from Emory University, and served in several posts, including chief of the HIV Seroepidemiology Branch. From 1996 to February 2000, Dr. Petersen guided Germany’s efforts in creating a new national infectious disease epidemiology program at the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin. From 2000 to 2003, he served as

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
×

the deputy director for science of the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases. He is the author of more than 175 scientific publications. Dr. Petersen has been the recipient of several scientific awards including the Charles B. Shepard Science Award, the Alexander D. Langmuir Award, James H. Nakano Citation, and twice the HHS Secretary’s Award for Distinguished Service. Dr. Petersen’s current research focuses on the epidemiology of arboviral and bacterial vector-borne zoonoses.

Paul Reiter, Ph.D., has worked for his entire career on the natural history, biology, and control of mosquitoes and the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit. Dr. Reiter spent 22 years with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including several years working on Saint Louis encephalitis in Memphis, Tennessee, 14 years on dengue in Puerto Rico, and 2 years on West Nile virus at the Harvard School of Public Health. He has participated in a number of epidemic investigations, including yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Ebola hemorrhagic fever. In 2003, Dr. Reiter moved to the Institute Pasteur, Paris, to launch a new unit of Insects and Infectious Diseases. His research remains field-orientated with special attention to West Nile virus and chikungunya in Europe. He has also been a lead player in the debate on global warming and vector-borne disease and his two decades of efforts as a “skeptic” have been exonerated in the latest Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Rebecca R. Rico-Hesse, Ph.D., M.P.H., is a professor in the Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, in the section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine, and in the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. Prior to this, she was a scientist at the Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, and assistant/associate professor at Yale University School of Medicine. She received her doctoral degree from Cornell University in 1985 and trained as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the CDC. After being raised in a small city in northern Mexico, she was inspired to become a virologist after seeing the impact of rabies virus on animals and humans in the area and the extensive effects of an epidemic of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus on equids in Mexico and Texas. She did her theses research on equine encephalitis viruses, and worked on these, dengue, and other viral hemorrhagic fever viruses at the Yale Arbovirus Research Unit and in the BSL4 laboratory at TBRI. Her current research focuses on dengue virus transmission and pathogenesis in a mouse model of disease that mimics human infection, in “humanized” mice that can be infected by mosquito bites.

Jan C. Semenza, Ph.D., M.P.H., is the head of the Health Determinants Programme at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, where he directs the work on environmental and social determinants of infectious diseases. He is particularly interested in early warning systems for emerging infectious disease threats. He was an epidemic intelligence service officer at the CDC in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
×

1995, when he led the CDC response to the heat wave in Chicago for which he received a Certificate of Commendation. As part of his work with the regional offices of World Health Organization (WHO) including EURO, PAHO, and EMRO, he provided technical and scientific advice to the countries within their region, particularly on polio and measles eradication. He conducted public health projects in Uzbekistan, Sudan, Egypt, Denmark, Brazil, and Haiti through CDC, WHO, USAID, and nongovernmental organizations. Semenza was a faculty member at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, UC Irvine, Oregon Health and Science University, and at Portland State University where he taught in the Oregon Masters Program of Public Health. His research has been published in high-impact journals such as Cell, New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet ID, Science, Nature Climate Change, and in several books.

Susan Stramer, Ph.D., is the executive scientific officer at American Red Cross (ARC) and assistant laboratory director, National Testing Laboratories. Prior to joining ARC, Dr. Stramer worked for the Diagnostics Division of Abbott Laboratories. She also was a principal investigator for the ARC investigational new drug application for nucleic acid amplification testing and numerous other studies related to infectious disease testing. Dr. Stramer was the president of AABB in 2012–2013 and previously chaired or served on numerous committees of the AABB and serves on the editorial board of the journal Transfusion. She serves on advisory committees for blood centers internationally and diagnostic test kit manufacturers. She received numerous American Red Cross awards including the President’s Award. Along with collaborators, she also received the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Charles C. Shepard Science Award, and was nominated twice more for the same award. She also received the Herbert Perkins Scientific Lecture Award. Dr. Stramer has authored or coauthored more than 250 peer-reviewed articles and abstracts. She received her B.S. and M.S. degrees in biological sciences from Northern Illinois University and her doctorate in bacteriology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Stramer also was a postdoctoral research fellow at the hepatitis branch, CDC.

Matt Thomas, Ph.D., obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom. From 1991 to end of 2002 he worked as a postdoc and then research fellow at the Centre for Population Biology at Silwood Park, Imperial College London. He then took up a position as a senior lecturer and then reader in Population Biology and Biological Control at Imperial College. At the end of 2005 he joined CSIRO Entomology in Australia as a senior principal research scientist. In 2008 he moved to the United States as professor of entomology at Pennsylvania State University. He has interests in various aspects of the ecology and evolution of pests and diseases, with practical experience in a range of systems in both temperate and tropical settings. His current research focuses on the ecology and control of mosquito vectors.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
×

Anna E. Whitfield, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Plant Pathology at Kansas State University (KSU). Her research emphasis is the biology of plant–virus–vector interactions, and the long-term goal of her research is to develop biologically based strategies for controlling viruses and arthropod vectors in agricultural croplands and greenhouses. She specializes in negative-sense RNA viruses that are transmitted in a propagative manner by arthropod vectors. Her research aims are to (1) identify insect genes that are important for virus infection of the arthropod vectors using a functional genomics-based approach, (2) develop a better understanding of virus entry and the role of viral glycoproteins in this process, and (3) characterize ecological plant–virus–vector interactions at the molecular and field level. Recent work led by Dr. Whitfield has focused on expression of viral glycoproteins in plants as a method to prevent virus transmission. Other work focuses on using RNA interference (RNAi) as a control strategy and a functional genomics tool for arthropod vectors of plant pathogens. Dr. Whitfield was awarded an NSF-CAREER grant to study the molecular mechanisms of Rhabdovirus–vector interactions. She teaches graduate courses in plant virology and plant–virus–vector interactions, and in 2014, she was awarded the KSU College of Agriculture Award for Excellence in Graduate Teaching.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Speaker Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21792.
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Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop Summary Get This Book
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Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases – including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and plague – together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined. Over the past three decades, previously controlled vector-borne diseases have resurged or reemerged in new geographic locations, and several newly identified pathogens and vectors have triggered disease outbreaks in plants and animals, including humans.

Domestic and international capabilities to detect, identify, and effectively respond to vector-borne diseases are limited. Few vaccines have been developed against vector-borne pathogens. At the same time, drug resistance has developed in vector-borne pathogens while their vectors are increasingly resistant to insecticide controls. Furthermore, the ranks of scientists trained to conduct research in key fields including medical entomology, vector ecology, and tropical medicine have dwindled, threatening prospects for addressing vector-borne diseases now and in the future.

In June 2007, as these circumstances became alarmingly apparent, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the dynamic relationships among host, pathogen(s), vector(s), and ecosystems that characterize vector-borne diseases. Revisiting this topic in September 2014, the Forum organized a workshop to examine trends and patterns in the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in an increasingly interconnected and ecologically disturbed world, as well as recent developments to meet these dynamic threats. Participants examined the emergence and global movement of vector-borne diseases, research priorities for understanding their biology and ecology, and global preparedness for and progress toward their prevention, control, and mitigation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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