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Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors (2016)

Chapter: Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
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Appendix E

Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis

A joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)–National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (“Academies”) meeting was held July 27–29, 2015, at the IAEA in Vienna. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together nuclear research reactor experts from across the world to identify a list of civilian research and test reactors currently operating with highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel.

This meeting was motivated by the realization that the Academies and IAEA were conducting concurrent and similar efforts. This Academies committee was charged by the U.S. Congress to review the status of research reactor conversion from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel worldwide; one of the committee’s tasks was to develop a list of civilian research reactors using HEU fuel. At the same time, the IAEA continued its efforts to gather information on the operational and fuel status of research reactors to better assist its member states. The two organizations combined their efforts to extend the breadth of participating experts and to bring a unified focus to developing one list. The meeting was open to the public; this synopsis provides the public report of the meeting discussions and the finalized list of civilian research reactors currently operating with HEU. The meeting agenda can be found at the end of the synopsis.

Drs. Borio di Tigliole (head of the IAEA’s Research Reactor Section) and Phillips (chair of the Academies committee) welcomed the participants, both noting the importance of the meeting to generate a single, authoritative list.

Joanie Dix, the IAEA host, presented information on the scope and purpose of the meeting. The meeting objectives were to present, compare,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

discuss, and review publicly available data regarding international civilian facilities operating with HEU. The meeting participants were instructed to generate an agreed-upon list of civilian research reactors currently operating with HEU. Two important points were raised by participants: the list will not be a de facto list of candidates for conversion or shutdown, and it will be made publicly available.

The first day of the 3-day meeting introduced the participants, defined the criteria for a reactor to be included in the list, and allowed experts from different countries to provide briefings on the status of research reactors worldwide.1 At the conclusion of the first day, a draft list of reactors was produced based on presentations provided. Day 2 allowed participants to review the draft list at a detailed level. By applying the criteria developed the previous day, an updated draft list was produced. Day 3 included a review of the second draft list and acceptance of a final list.

Rules on the discussion of sensitive information were reviewed and agreed upon before the presentations and discussions began. Specific topics that were to be avoided, generally arising by virtue of the sensitivities surrounding HEU, were identified. It was noted that detailed discussion of reactors with a sole defense-related (or military-related) mission and details related to their use would not be discussed.2 The group also decided that percentages of enrichment and amounts of HEU at a given research reactor facility would also not be discussed.

CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION ON THE LIST

A set of criteria for a research reactor facility to be included on the list was developed following the scope and purpose presentation and evolved over the course of the 3-day meeting as the attendees applied the criteria. The decisions on criteria appearing below in Table E.1 are the final criteria agreed upon by the participants.

The list has the following columns:

“Country”: the country in which the research reactor facility is operated
“City”: closest city to the facility operating the reactor

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1Experts from the countries with the largest number of research reactors currently using HEU fuel (France, Russia, and the United States) were in attendance, but not all countries were represented. To review worldwide research reactors not discussed by individual experts, Dr. James (Jim) Matos provided a summary. The content of his list was further verified by publicly available documents.

2 Reactors with mixed civilian and military missions were to be included in the list and are discussed further below.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

TABLE E.1 Criteria for Inclusion or Exclusion from the List

  Included in the List Excluded from the List
Type of research reactor facilities

Steady state reactors

Critical assemblies

Subcritical assemblies

Pulsed reactors

Accelerator-driven sources

Propulsion reactors (ice breakers, naval propulsion reactors)

Plutonium-fuel reactors

Naval prototypes

Tritium production reactors

Mission of reactor

Sole civilian use

Mixed civilian/military use (“dual use”)a

Sole military use
Operational status

Currently operating reactors

Reactors not currently operating but with HEU fuel on site that is currently licensed

Decommissioning or decommissionedb

Not currently operating with HEU fuel on site that no longer is licensed

a See “Discussions on Complicated Issues,” below.

b By definition of a decommissioning/decommissioned facility, all fuel has been removed from the site.

“Facility”: name of the facility that operates the reactor, including its acronym
“Name”: name of the reactor, including its acronym (if applicable)
“Reactor type”: shortened for “research reactor facility type” (see Table E.1 for the list of included reactor types)
“Power”: if listed as steady state, then the nominal power level (the maximum power level for which the reactor was designed to operate) is shown; the group agreed to make no entry for power level for pulsed reactors or critical and subcritical assemblies
“Notes”: additional information related to an expected imminent change in status (e.g., if reactor status is expected to change within the next 2 years) or operating conditions of the reactor (e.g., reactors that are currently operating at power levels that differ from the nominal value)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
“IAEA RRDB number”: a unique identifier applied by the IAEA Research Reactor Database (RRDB) administrators; “N/A” was used when an IAEA RRDB number does not exist for a given facility

It was acknowledged, based on imminent conversions and shutdowns, that the list from the 2015 consultancy meeting will be a snapshot in time and will soon be out of date. The attendees agreed that it would be useful to hold periodic consultancies (approximately every 2 years) to update the list (e.g., the IAEA has held two previous consultancies, one in 2006 and the other in 2008, to generate similar lists).

DISCUSSIONS ON COMPLICATED ISSUES

The criteria and definitions determined above were applied to all of the research reactor facilities presented by the speakers as well as additional research reactor facilities identified by other meeting participants. Several complicated topics, for which the criteria were insufficient, arose and generated repeated discussion throughout the 3-day meeting. These topics presented difficult issues for determining whether or not to include a reactor on the list. The topics and discussions included the following.

Dual-Use Facilities

Dual-use reactors, used for both civilian and military applications, are a challenging topic because of sensitivities related to the details of military use. Therefore it was proposed that the designation of “civilian” would include both sole civilian and dual civilian and military use; participants decided to remove the “dual-use” designation to avoid the release of sensitive information. As such, the list does not include a heading that indicates civilian or dual use for each reactor.

Participants agreed that the designation of “civilian use” would be determined by experts of the country owning the reactor presenting at this meeting and would be further validated by the identification of the regulating and/or operating body and through publicly available information. However, the expert participants were not considered as officially representing member states. Therefore, the information supplied by their presentations is not considered official correspondence from the member states. These ground rules were applied consistently across the research reactor facilities of all countries.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

Plutonium (Pu)-Fueled Reactors

Plutonium-fueled reactors were excluded from the final list, but participants acknowledged the proliferation risks associated with Pu-fueled reactors. Experts cited several examples including the IBR2M and IREN reactors in Russia or the JOYO and MONJU mixed oxide (MOX)-fueled reactors in Japan, but did not attempt to produce a comprehensive list.

Critical Assemblies

Critical assemblies (CAs) or subcritical assemblies with sets of cores containing different fuels (including both LEU and HEU) are challenging, because the cores can be easily reconfigured. Adding to the complexity is the fact that HEU can be inserted into the critical or subcritical assembly as a test object. To determine whether a specific critical or subcritical assembly should be on the list, the participants decided to consider whether or not the licensed cores contained HEU. The group agreed that an HEU test element was not a fuel element and therefore would not be the determining factor for inclusion on the list.

As an example, Chaika and Filin are critical assemblies that are no longer operating and have no active licenses, but HEU fuel remains stored on site. Neither is included in the list, because there are no active licenses. These types of assemblies would be included in a minimization effort but excluded in a list of currently operating reactors.

Final examples are not critical assemblies but are still relevant to this topic: the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) and the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) reactor. Although JHR is expected to initially use HEU fuel until a qualified high-density LEU fuel is available, it is not currently operating, and there is no HEU on site. Therefore, JHR is not on the list. Alternatively, TREAT, a U.S. research reactor, is also not operational, but HEU fuel is on site. TREAT is on the list.

SUMMARY OF PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

Presentations and related discussions occurring throughout the 3-day meeting are summarized below. For consistency and clarity, all of the summaries follow the same format and structure: an accounting of the number and type of reactors identified for each country or countries followed by an overview of the discussions on specific research reactors associated with specific countries. The topic of the first presentation, an overview of the content of the IAEA Research Reactor Database, did not lend itself to that format.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

IAEA Research Reactor Database (RRDB)—Information on HEU Research Reactors and Critical Facilities

The current IAEA RRDB contains information on more than 770 reactors worldwide. Information contained in the database has been provided to the IAEA by a number of sources. Data may have been provided by the facility operator, official agencies or organizations (e.g., the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Russian State Atomic Energy Corporation [Rosatom]) for facilities under their purview, public government releases, and public documents.3 Other official documents, for example, the results from this meeting, may be used to update the IAEA RRDB, if the member states agree to the changes identified.

Information contained in the database is divided into two major parts: the reactor section (publicly accessible) and the fuel section (limited access). The reactor section may be accessed by the general public; edits can only be made by someone designated by the facility (an IAEA database administrator). At the request of member states, the IAEA restricted details on fuel type and amounts (and other information) from public access. Therefore, fuel section details can only be accessed and edited by one designated Fuel Data Provider (FDP) for each member state.4 The fuel section of the database contains details on core data, fuel and inventory, storage, concerns, and fuel-cycle management planning.

Some information within the database may be out of date and potentially inaccurate. For example, some of the more than 700 reactors have a sole military mission, and as such they should not be included in the IAEA database. Several participants noted that the inclusion of these reactors is creating confusion, and therefore they should not be listed. The IAEA database administrators agreed that some information is potentially out of date, but that changes to the database could only be accepted from the sources listed above. They encourage member states to correct these inaccuracies and provide regular updates to ensure the accuracy of the IAEA RRDB.

United States

Summary

8 (total) research reactor facilities currently using HEU fuel

6 high performance research reactors (HPRRs)

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3 See, for example, the Directory of Research Reactors Worldwide, IAEA, STI/PUB/1071, 1998 or N. V. Arkhangelsky, I. T. Tretiyakov, and V. N. Fedulin, Nuclear Research Facilities in Russia, OJSC NIKIET, Moscow, 2012.

4 The IAEA RRDB administrators have access to all of the member states’ fuel section details; these details cannot be (and are not) shared with other member states.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

2 research reactors

U.S. military reactors are not included in these totals

The U.S. conversion program has recently been reorganized under the new Office of Material Management and Minimization (M3). The three main activities, or pillars, of the M3 office are conversion, removal, and disposal (“disposal” replacing the “secure” pillar from the Global Threat Reduction Initiative [GTRI], the previous home of the conversion program). The Office of Conversion includes research reactor conversion and molybdenum-99 (99Mo) production.

A total of 28 U.S. civilian research reactors have been candidates for HEU to LEU conversion; 20 have converted and/or shut down. Of the 8 remaining, 6 await conversion until a new high-density LEU fuel is qualified.5 The M3 Office of Conversion is working to develop the UMo monolithic fuel needed to convert these reactors while maintaining performance. The first conversions are expected in 2025 (see Chapter 4, MITR-II [Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor] and NBSR [Neutron Beam Split-core Reactor]). The conversion of High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) will take the longest because of the complexity of its fuel design; its conversion is scheduled to take place in 2032.

Two additional U.S. research reactors currently using HEU fuel are the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT, Idaho National Laboratory) and General Electric Nuclear Test Reactor (GE-NTR, California). The TREAT reactor is currently not operational, but is expected to restart by 2018 with HEU fuel (a graphite-based fuel type that requires new LEU fuel to be developed). TREAT will convert after a new LEU has been developed and tested. TREAT will be used to test accident-tolerant fuels (no military applications). Until recently, conversion discussions between the conversion program and the GE-NTR reactor operators have not been able to proceed. However, after initial discussions earlier this year, GE-NTR reactor operators have expressed interest in conversion.

The M3 Office of Conversion maintains a list of research reactors worldwide that currently use HEU fuel and are under consideration for conversion. Recently, changes to the scope of M3’s conversion list have been proposed (including the removal of Russian military reactors). This meeting was expected to further help to define the scope of M3’s list.

M3’s definition of conversion was discussed. M3 considers a reactor “converted” if it meets three criteria: licensing for LEU fuel has been

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5 They are Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATR-C), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II), Neutron Beam Split-core Reactor (NBSR), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

completed, a clear commitment by country and operators has been made, and the first LEU assembly has been inserted. The IAEA research reactor database administrators noted their definition for conversion is a full (completely converted) core of LEU fuel.

Russia

Summary

71 civilian research reactor facilities

43 HEU civilian research reactor facilities (currently using or previously used HEU fuel)

Of the 43 facilities, 24 are steady state or pulsed reactors, 18 are critical assemblies, and 1 is a subcritical assembly. Some of these reactors were originally military reactors, but their use has changed over the years to include civilian applications (per agreements on the discussion of sensitive information, the ratio of the mix between civilian and military use was not discussed). Additionally, these reactors are now considered “civilian” because they are regulated by Rostechnadzor (the civilian nuclear regulatory agency). Also, 9 of the 43 civilian research reactor facilities that previously used HEU fuel are undergoing decommissioning, and as such, the HEU fuel has been removed.

Steady State and Pulsed Reactors

A total of 24 steady state and pulsed research reactors are eligible for the list: 16 operating reactors, 7 undergoing decommissioning, and 1 under construction but beginning operations. BARS-4 and BARS-6 (pulsed reactors) were originally military reactors but are now used for civilian applications. The reactors undergoing decommissioning are listed for completeness (even though some of them are considered propulsion reactors): Argus, BR-10, 27/VM, 27/VT, TVR, Gamma, and MR.6 Of these seven reactors, the Gamma reactor was originally used as a military reactor but became a civilian facility before it was decommissioned. The Argus reactor converted to LEU fuel in 2014. The PIK reactor, the one reactor that is under construction, is currently licensed to operate and is operating at low power (100 W) but is expected to operate up to 100 MW in the future.

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6 As mentioned previously in the synopsis, decommissioned reactors or reactors undergoing decommissioning should not be included in the list of operating reactors, as all fuel has been removed.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

Critical Assemblies

Eighteen civilian critical assemblies (CAs) are currently operating with HEU fuel: 15 operating/operational, 2 undergoing decommissioning, and 1 undergoing modernization. From this list of critical assemblies, Rosatom manages seven operational CAs and one undergoing modernization. The number of critical assemblies managed by Rosatom has significantly decreased over the past several years. Ten years ago, there were more than 10 CAs in Obnisnk; now there are only 3. Improvements to computer simulation codes have obviated the need for many of these CAs.

Some of the CAs have both LEU and HEU cores; they remain on the list because they are currently licensed for HEU use (e.g., ST-659 and ST-1125, and see “Discussions on Complicated Topics”). Additionally, ST-659 and ST-1125 were used in development of military reactors. They are now managed by Rosatom and are used for civilian applications including investigations of fuel for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and testing of KLT-40 reactors (civilian icebreaker reactors).

Ten operational civilian CAs (with two undergoing decommissioning) are not managed by Rosatom. Of these, SF-1 and SF-7 were developed for propulsion systems but were later used for civilian purposes. Aksamit was also originally a military reactor but is now used for civilian applications. Aksamit uses the RP-50 assembly (which is an HEU assembly).

Highlights from further discussions on specific Russian reactors included the following:

  • The licensing of the facility defines the assemblies and cores that may be used. For example, RP-50 is not licensed separately, but it is included in Aksamit’s license. If Aksamit is not licensed, then RP-50 cannot be used. Similarly, the license for Filin research reactor facility in Belarus would include its associated assemblies (Chaika, for example).
  • Joint Stock Company State Scientific Center—Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (JSC “SSC RIAR’s”) RBT-6 and -10/2 should be counted as two additional facilities separate from SM-3 (even though both use irradiated fuel from SM-3), because they are licensed separately.
  • Propulsion reactors can have a variety of missions, including naval prototype testing, space propulsion, training, research facilities used to test fuel, and different categories of propulsion-related research. The last item is relevant to the list. For example, NARCISS-M2 performs research on space propulsion and appears on the list.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

France

Summary

France has constructed a total of 38 civilian research reactor facilities of which:

16 were constructed initially using LEU fuel

22 were constructed initially using HEU fuel

Of the 16 civilian facilities that started up with LEU fuel, 14 have shut down and 2 remain (Eole and Masurca), and one uses HEU fuel (Masurca). Of the 22 civilian facilities initially using HEU fuel, 16 have shut down, 3 have converted to LEU fuel, and 3 remain operational with HEU fuel (Orphée, Minerve, and Neutronographie Phénix). Not included in this accounting is the Réacteur à Haut Flux/Institut Laue-Langevin (RHF/ILL) in Grenoble that uses HEU fuel. In total, five civilian research reactor facilities are currently operating with HEU fuel in France.

Highlights from further discussions on specific French reactors included the following:

  • Masurca and Eole are critical assemblies. Masurca uses an HEU core. The Eole critical assembly generated a discussion on the availability and type of cores used for experiments. Eole currently uses an LEU core, and French experts attending the meeting have asked that Eole be removed from the list. However, it remains unclear whether a licensed HEU core remains on site.
  • One reactor (the Jules Horowitz Reactor under construction) is expected to begin operations in 2020 with HEU fuel (enriched to 27 percent), but it will convert when a high-density LEU fuel becomes qualified. Because JHR is not yet operational and there is no fuel on site, it was not included in the list. Participants asked whether JHR operators would consider using a high-density LEU silicide fuel. The option would have to be thoroughly investigated, because a 10 percent loss in performance was estimated if this path were followed.
  • Several participants had questions about the ZEPHYR reactor, which is in an early design stage and does not yet exist.

The high-density LEU uranium molybdenum (UMo) dispersion fuel was also discussed. The LEU fuel development program has cost approximately €160 million in Europe, and it is estimated that it will cost several tens of millions more to qualify the fuel. There is some concern about the future price of the high-density LEU fuel, because it is not expected to be equiva-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

lent to or cheaper than the HEU fuel. In 15 years, when the fuel is likely to be qualified, several existing reactors may be closed, which makes the economic argument for new fuel fabrication increasingly difficult. Another participant noted that the U.S. perspective on the economics of LEU fuel development and commercialization (the United States is pursuing UMo monolithic LEU fuel) is that it is not a business venture but for the public good to be paid for by the government.7

United Kingdom

Summary

No operating civilian research reactors are currently using HEU fuel in the United Kingdom (U.K.).

The last civilian HEU research reactor facility, CONSORT, was shut down in 2012, its fuel was removed and transported to Sellafield in 2014, and decommissioning is expected to be completed in 2021.

The U.K. remains a strong supporter of nonproliferation efforts to convert research reactors and remove HEU fuel by providing international assistance through its Global Threat Reduction Program (GTRP). Recent projects with other nations include the Ukraine (linear accelerator project) and Uzbekistan (Institute of Nuclear Physics VVR-SM research reactor and defueling of Joint Stock Company Foton’s IIN-3M research reactor).

Other Countries8

Summary

A total of 24 civilian research reactors using HEU fuel exist outside of the United States, Russia, France, and the United Kingdom. After conclusion of the meeting, two reactors were declared as being shut down with HEU fuel removed (the Safe Low-Power Kritical Experiment [SLOWPOKE] reactor in Jamaica and the reactor in Basel, Switzerland). The current total numbers of civilian research reactors operating in each continent are:

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7NRC. 2012. Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities for Converting U.S. and Russian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

8 Dr. Matos, an internationally recognized expert on conversion of reactors and the status of currently operating facilities, was invited to provide a summary of the remaining civilian research reactors still operating with HEU fuel throughout the world.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

16 are in Asia (including the Middle and Far East)

1 is in North America, excluding the United States

5 are in Europe, excluding France

2 are in Africa

Highlights from further discussions on specific Asian reactors included the following:

  • Within Asia, four research reactors are operating in the Middle East: one each in Iran, Pakistan, Syria, and Israel. The Israeli research reactor (IRR-1) is expected to be shut down; a new facility is planned to take over the functions of IRR-1. The other three reactors are Chinese-supplied Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSRs).
  • Twelve research reactors are in the Far East. China operates four reactors using HEU fuel; two of the four are MNSRs, of which one is scheduled to convert in 2015.9 The China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR)10 is considered a prototype fast power reactor. Although it is connected to grid, it is considered a research reactor using HEU. The Zero Power Fast (ZPR Fast) reactor at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is a fast critical assembly.11
  • Japan operates four research reactors using HEU fuel.12 Japan’s Tokai plans to use an accelerator-driven source using LEU fuel to burn fuels with high-actinide content. The current plan is for the fast critical assembly facility at Tokai to ship its HEU fuel to the United States and to construct a critical facility for the accelerator-driven system (ADS) using LEU fuel. The Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) facility generated a long discussion. The facility operates a total of three separate reactors with two cores (one wet, the other dry). Because there is fuel for only two reactors (the two dry-core reactors share the same fuel), it was agreed that the list would show two reactors: the KUCA Wet Core13 and the KUCA Dry Core. The participants justified separating the facilities

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9 See the following links for more information: https://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/Technical-Areas/RRS/mnsr.html and http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/P1575_CD_web/datasets/abstracts/E3RoglansRibas.html.

10 See http://www.ciae.ac.cn/eng/cefr/index.htm.

11 Feng Shen, The Present Status and Future Potential Applications of RRs in CIAE, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Frontiers of Plasma Physics and Technology, IAEA TECDOC (CD-ROM) 1713, Singapore, April 18–22, 2011.

12 See http://www.nti.org/analysis/articles/civilian-heu-japan/.

13Wet core means water moderated.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
  • because conversion of these reactors could potentially take place separately. It was noted that the IAEA and Japan count KUCA as one facility.14

  • Kazakhstan has three reactors using HEU fuel: IGR and IVG-1M in Kurchatov and WWR-K at Almaty. The IGR reactor is a graphite-fuel-based reactor (similar to TREAT in the United States).15 At the time of the meeting, the WWR-K reactor had recently defueled in preparation for conversion to LEU fuel.16
  • Two North Korean (DPRK) research reactors generated a short discussion on their origin; both appear on the list despite significant uncertainties.17 The DPRK’s steady state reactor (DPRK-IRT) uses fuel similar to Libya’s reactor, which has converted to LEU fuel. The status of the critical assembly (DPRK-IRT CA) is not known; it was decided to keep this reactor on the list until it can be confirmed as decommissioned or converted. The DPRK-IRT CA may be DPRK designed. It is currently not clear whether it is using HEU or LEU fuel. Although it is known that this facility existed previously, it is also not clear whether it still exists.

Highlights from further discussions on specific North American research reactors, excluding those in the United States, included the following:

  • In North America, two operating research reactors currently use HEU fuel in Canada. Canada is seeking funding to complete its conversions. The SLOWPOKE research reactor in Jamaica recently converted with assistance from the M3 Office of Conversion.18

Highlights from further discussions on specific European research reactors, excluding those located in France, included the following:

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14 H. Unesaki, T. Misawa, T. Sano, K. Nakajima, and J. Roglans-Ribas, On the Feasibility Study for Utilization of Low Enriched Uranium Fuel at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), Proceedings of the 33rd International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR 2012), Santiago, Chile, October 23–27, 2011.

15 See http://www.nnc.kz/en/O-predpriyatii/experimental_units/igr.html.

16 Y. Goncharov, A. Enin, I. Zaporozhets, P. Chakrov, S. Gizatulin, F. Arinkin, and Y. Cherepnin, Low Enriched Uranium Fuel for VVR-K Reactor, Proceedings of the 2013 European Research Reactor Conference (RRFM 2013), St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, April 21–25, 2013.

17 See also the following links: http://www.nti.org/facilities/767/ or http://cns.miis.edu/archive/country_north_korea/nuc/chr4789.htm.

18 Shortly after the IAEA–Academies meeting, the NNSA announced the conversion and removal of the SLOWPOKE reactor and that the Caribbean was HEU-free. See http://nnsa.energy.gov/mediaroom/pressreleases/nnsa-removes-u.s.-origin-heu-jamaica-makes-caribbean-heu-free.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
  • Within Europe, there are six research reactors: two in Belarus, two in Belgium, and one each in Germany and Italy (a research reactor in Switzerland recently shut down and its HEU fuel has been removed19).
  • A participant asked about the fuel from the Kristal facility in Belarus. The Kristal reactor has been shut down, but the fuel remains in Belarus. There is technical “buy-in” from the Belarussians for HEU removal, but progress toward fuel removal remains stalled because of political issues.
  • The VENUS reactor is one of the two reactors in Belgium currently operating with HEU fuel. The VENUS reactor uses HEU fuel on loan from Masurca in France. The Belgians plan to return the HEU fuel to France upon completion of the VENUS experiments (expected in 2022 or 2023). Belgian Reactor II (BR2), a high performance research reactor, is the other Belgium reactor currently using HEU fuel.
  • The researchers at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz-II (FRM-II) reactor in Germany are studying ways to reduce the fuel enrichment percentages while maintaining reactor performance.20 The TAPIRO reactor in Italy is difficult to convert to LEU (conversion feasibility is being studied at Argonne National Laboratory),21 because the core is composed of a small stack of UMo disks. The core and size (approximately the size of a small water pitcher) make conversion difficult, because current available options would increase the size of the core by a factor of five to six times, which would require a facility redesign. In addition, the spectrum of neutrons is important to maintain in order to meet its mission.
  • Finally, the two research reactors in Africa are Chinese-designed MNSRs and are located in Ghana and Nigeria.22

_________________________

19 See http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/RS-Swiss-research-reactor-fuel-returned-to-USA-1609154.html.

20 See https://www.frm2.tum.de/en/the-neutron-source/reactor/fuel-development/faq-heu/.

21 J. Roglans, GTRI Reactor Conversion Program Scope and Status, presented at the Academies Committee Meeting, October 23, 2014, Washington, DC, USA.

22 A short discussion on the feasibility of conversion of many of the reactors is not included, because it is out of scope of the consultancy.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

LIST OF CIVILIAN RESEARCH REACTORS CURRENTLY USING HEU FUEL

Based on the criteria established by the meeting participants as noted above, a list of 72 civilian research reactor facilities currently operating with HEU fuel is provided in Table E.2.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

TABLE E.2 Civilian Reactor Facilities Operating on HEU Fuel, Alphabetical by Country

  Country City Site Reactor
1 Belarus Minsk Sosny Hyacinth/Giacint
2 Belarus Minsk Sosny Yalina B
3 Belgium Mol SCK·CEN BR2
4 Belgium Mol SCK·CEN VENUS
5 Canada Alberta University of Alberta SLOWPOKE AB
6 Canada Saskatoon Saskatchewan Research Council SLOWPOKE SK
7 China Beijing CIAE CEFR
8 China Beijing CIAE MNSR-IAE
9 China Shenzhen Shenzhen University MNSR-SZ
10 China Beijing CIAE Zero Power Fast
11 DPRK Yongbyon Nuclear Research Institute Yongbyon IRT-DPRK
12 DPRK Yongbyon Nuclear Research IRT-DPRK CA
      Institute Yongbyon  
13 France Cadarache CEA Cadarache Masurca
14 France Cadarache CEA Cadarache Minerve
15 France Marcoule CEA Marcoule Neutronographie Phénix
16 France Saclay CEA Saclay Orphée
17 France Grenoble ILL RHF
18 Germany Garching TUM Garching FRM-II
19 Ghana Accra National Nuclear Research Institute Accra GHARR-1 (MNSR)
20 Iran Esfahan Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center ENTC (MNSR)
21 Israel Yavne Soreq Nuclear Research Center IRR-1
22 Italy Casaccia ENEA Casaccia TAPIRO
23 Japan Tokai-mura JAEA Tokai FCA
 
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
Nominal P, kW Reactor Type Notes IAEA #
  Critical Assembly   BY-0009
  Subcritical Assembly   BY-0003
100,000 Steady State Typically operated at 50,000-70,000 kW BE-0002
  Fast Critical Assembly Material on loan from Masurca BE-0006
20 Steady State Expected to shut down (applied for shutdown license) CA-0011
20 Steady State   CA-0012
65,000 Prototype Fast Power Reactor   CN-0018
27 Steady State To be converted to LEU by end of 2015 CN-0006
27 Steady State   CN-0013
  Fast Critical Assembly   CN-0003
8,000 Steady State   KP-0001
  Critical Assembly Status and fuel type unknown N/A
  Fast Critical Assembly   FR-0016
  Critical Assembly Expected to shut down in 2019 FR-0003
  Critical Assembly Expected to shut down in 2015 N/A
14,000 Steady State Expected to shut down in 2019 FR-0022
58,000 Steady State   FR-0017
20,000 Steady State   DE-0051
27 Steady State Conversion to LEU expected in 2016 GH-0001
27 Steady State   IR-0005
5,000 Steady State   IL-0001
5 Steady State   IT-0008
  Fast Critical Assembly   JP-0014
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
  Country City Site Reactor
24 Japan Osaka KURRI KUCA (Dry Cores)
25 Japan Osaka KURRI KUCA (Wet Core)
26 Japan Osaka AERI Kinki University UTR Kinki
27 Kazakhstan Kurchatov City NNC-IAE IGR
28 Kazakhstan Kurchatov City NNC-IAE IVG-1M
29 Kazakhstan Almaty INP-Alatau WWR-K
30 Nigeria Zaria Ahmadu Bello University (CERT) NIRR-1 (MNSR)
31 Pakistan Islamabad PINSTECH PARR-2 (MNSR)
32 Russia Moscow NRC KI AKSAMIT
33 Russia Moscow NRC KI ASTRA
34 Russia Lytkarino NIIP BARS-4
35 Russia Obninsk IPPE BARS-6
36 Russia Obninsk IPPE BFS-1
37 Russia Obninsk IPPE BFS-2
38 Russia Dimitrovgrad RIAR BOR-60
39 Russia Dimitrovgrad RIAR CA MIR.M1
40 Russia Moscow NRC KI DELTA
41 Russia Moscow NRC KI EFIR-2M
42 Russia Gatchina NRC KI FM PIK
43 Russia Obninsk IPPE FS-1M
44 Russia Moscow NRC KI GIDRA
45 Russia Moscow NRC KI IR-8
46 Russia Moscow MEPhI IRT-MEPhI
47 Russia Tomsk TPU IRT-T
48 Russia Zarechny IRM IVV-2M
49 Russia Obninsk IPPE K-1
50 Russia Moscow NRC KI KVANT
51 Russia Moscow ITEP MAKET
52 Russia Dimitrovgrad RIAR MIR.M1
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
Nominal P, kW Reactor Type Notes IAEA #
  Critical Assembly 1 facility with 3 reactors and  
  Critical Assembly 2 sets of fuel (one for wet core, one for dry cores) JP-0018
0.001 Steady State   JP-0003
  Pulsed reactor   KZ-0002
72,000 Steady State Sometimes listed as EWG-1 KZ-0003
6,000 Steady State Conversion to LEU expected in 2016 (LEU fuel is on site). Sometimes listed as VVR-K. KZ-0001
27 Steady State   NG-0001
27 Steady State   PK-0002
  Critical Assembly RP-50 is part of AKSAMIT RU-0026
  Critical Assembly   RU-0073
  Pulsed Reactor   RU-0046
  Pulsed Reactor OKUYAN is part of BARS-6 RU-0040
  Fast Critical Assembly   RU-0063
  Fast Critical Assembly   RU-0064
60,000 Fast Reactor Expected to shut down in 2020 RU-0027
  Critical Assembly   RU-0082
  Critical Assembly   RU-0079
  Critical Assembly   RU-0078
  Critical Assembly   RU-0025
  Critical Assembly   RU-0054
  Pulsed reactor Sometimes listed as HYDRA RU-0017
8,000 Steady State   RU-0004
2,500 Steady State   RU-0005
6,000 Steady State   RU-0014
15,000 Steady State   RU-0010
  Critical Assembly Being refurbished N/A
  Critical Assembly   RU-0072
  Critical Assembly Research on special reactors RU-0053
100,000 Steady State Typically operated at 30,000-60,000 kW RU-0013
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
  Country City Site Reactor
53 Russia Moscow NRC KI NARCISS-M2
54 Russia Moscow NRC KI OR
55 Russia Gatchina NRC KI PIK
56 Russia Dimitrovgrad RIAR RBT-10/2
57 Russia Dimitrovgrad RIAR RBT-6
58 Russia Dimitrovgrad RIAR SM-3
59 Russia Dimitrovgrad RIAR SM-3 CA
60 Russia Nizhniy Novgorod OKBM ST-1125
61 Russia Nizhniy Novgorod OKBM ST-659
62 Russia Gatchina NRC KI WWR-M
63 Russia Obninsk Karpov Institute WWR-Ts
64 Syria Damascus Dar al-Hajar Nuclear Research Center SRR-1 (MNSR)
65 United States Idaho Falls, ID INL ATR
66 United States Idaho Falls, ID INL ATR-C
67 United States Pleasanton, CA GE Vallecitos GE-NTR
68 United States Oak Ridge, TN ORNL HFIR
69 United States Cambridge, MA MIT MITR-II
70 United States Columbia, MO University of Missouri MURR
71 United States Gaithersburg, MD NIST NBSR
72 United States Idaho Falls, ID INL TREAT

SOURCE: See text in Appendix E.

LIST OF ACRONYMS FOR TABLE E.2

AERI Atomic Energy Research Institute
CA Critical assembly
CEA Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
CEFR China Experimental Fast Reactor
CERT Centre for Energy Research and Training
CIAE China Institute of Atomic Energy
DPRK Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
ENEA Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development
FCA Fast critical assembly
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
Nominal P, kW Reactor Type Notes IAEA #
  Critical Assembly Research on space propulsion RU-0081
300 Steady State   RU-0002
100,000 Steady State Being commissioned, RU-0016
    Designed for 100MW,  
    Currently licensed for 100 W  
10,000 Steady State Uses spent fuel from SM-3 RU-0021
6,000 Steady State Uses spent fuel from SM-3 RU-0022
100,000 Steady State Typically operated at 90,000 kW RU-0024
  Critical Assembly   RU-0083
  Critical Assembly   RU-0097
  Critical Assembly   RU-0094
18,000 Steady State Also called VVR-M RU-0008
15,000 Steady State Also called VVR-Ts RU-0019
27 Steady State   SY-0001
250,000 Steady State Typically operated at 110,000-160,00 kW US-0070
  Critical Assembly   US-0071
100 Steady State   US-0052
100,000 Steady State Operation currently limited to 85,000 kW US-0137
6,000 Steady State   US-0120
10,000 Steady State   US-0204
20,000 Steady State   US-0126
  Pulsed Reactor Expected to restart by 2018 US-0018
GE General Electric
ICENS International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences
IGR [name of a reactor]
ILL Institut Laue-Langevin (Grenoble)
INL Idaho National Laboratory
INP Institute of Nuclear Physics
IPPE Institute of Physics and Power Engineering
IRM Institute of Reactor Materials
IRT In-Reactor Thimble (Fast Test Reactor)
ITEP Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics
IVG.1M [name of a reactor]
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
JAEA Japan Atomic Energy Agency
KURRI Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute
MEPhI Moscow Engineering Physics Institute
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MNSR-IAE Miniature Neutron Source Reactor–Institute of Atomic Energy
MNSR-SZ Miniature Neutron Source Reactor–Shenzhen University
NIIP Scientific Research Institute for Instruments
NIRR Nigeria Research Reactor
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NNC-IAE National Nuclear Center–Institute of Atomic Energy
NRC KI National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”
OKBM [full name: “I.I. Afrikantov OKB Mechanical Engineering”]
ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory
PARR Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor
PINSTECH Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology
RHF Réacteur à Haut Flux (Grenoble)
RIAR Research Institute of Atomic Reactors
SCK·CEN Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie·Centre d’Etudes Nucléaire
TPU Tomsk Polytechnic University
TUM Technische Universität München
UTR-KINKI Kinki University Reactor
UWI University of West Indies
WWR-K [name of a reactor]
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

AGENDA

Meeting on “Updating and Optimizing a List of Civilian Research and Test Reactors That Operate Using HEU Fuel”

Vienna, Austria
27–29 July, 2015
Vienna International Center (VIC), Meeting Room MOE100

Monday, 27 July

08:30 – 09:00 Arrival at VIC
09:00 – 09:20 Opening
09:20 – 09:25 Introduction of Participants
09:25 – 09:45 Discussion and Ground Rules for Handling of Sensitive Information
09:45 – 10:30 Purpose & Scope of Meeting Presentation by National Academies and IAEA
10:30 – 11:45
IAEA
Presentations:
“IAEA Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) Information on HEU Research Reactors and Critical Facilities” (30 minutes + 5 minutes of discussion)
United States “Status of U.S. HEU Facilities and DOE/NNSA Conversion Activities” (30 minutes + 5 minutes of discussion)
11:45 – 13:00 Lunch
13:00 – 14:30 Presentations:
Russia “Status of Russian HEU Facilities” (1 hour including discussion)
France “Status of French HEU Facilities” (30 minutes)
14:30 – 15:00 Coffee Break
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
15:00 – 15:45 Presentations:  
  United Kingdom: “Status of UK HEU Facilities” (15 minutes)
Other countries: “Civilian Reactor Facilities That Operate Using HEU Fuel” (30 minutes)
15:45 – 16:00 Summary and Adjourn

Tuesday, 28 July

09:00 – 12:00

General Discussion on Combining the Lists and Identifying Discrepancies (discussion guided by location)

  • North America
  • South America
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Russia
  • Asia

For each location, discussions will start with research reactors and then move to additional civilian HEU facilities (critical assemblies, subcritical assemblies, etc.). There will be a package and presentation to guide discussion.

12:00 – 13:15 Lunch
13:15 – 14:45 Resolve Disputed HEU Facilities
14:45 – 15:15 Coffee Break
15:15 – 17:30 Revise/Draft Final List

Wednesday, 29 July

09:00 – 10:30 Final Review of List and Discussion on Any Remaining Items
10:30 – 12:00 Next Steps and Closure of the Meeting
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

PARTICIPANT LIST

Last Name First Name
Adelfang Pablo
Arkhangelsky Nikolay
Chamberlin Jeffrey
Dix Joan
Glaser Alexander
Hardiman Richard
Heimberg Jennifer
Izhutov Alexey
Lemoine Patrick
Marshall Frances
Matos Jim
Phillips Julia
Podvig Pavel
Ridikas Danas
Roglans Jordi
Thro Pierre-Yves
Voronov M.
Waud Brian
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

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×
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×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Joint International Atomic Energy-Academies Meeting Synopsis." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
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Next: Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study »
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The continued presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian installations such as research reactors poses a threat to national and international security. Minimization, and ultimately elimination, of HEU in civilian research reactors worldwide has been a goal of U.S. policy and programs since 1978. Today, 74 civilian research reactors around the world, including 8 in the United States, use or are planning to use HEU fuel. Since the last National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report on this topic in 2009, 28 reactors have been either shut down or converted from HEU to low enriched uranium fuel. Despite this progress, the large number of remaining HEU-fueled reactors demonstrates that an HEU minimization program continues to be needed on a worldwide scale. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors assesses the status of and progress toward eliminating the worldwide use of HEU fuel in civilian research and test reactors.

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