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Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors (2016)

Chapter: Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
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Appendix F

HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study

A s part of the effort to identify the civilian reactors operating on highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel listed in Table 2.2, the committee also collected information on operational reactors that are considered outside the scope of this study (Arkhangelsky et al., 2012; Chamberlin, 2015; IAEA, 2000). This appendix lists reactors that are out of scope in Tables F.1 and F.2 including 30 defense-oriented (research) reactors and 9 civilian propulsion reactors. These lists may not be complete and should be considered noncomprehensive because publicly available information may be incomplete or out of date (e.g., with regard to the operational status of particular facilities).

The 2009 Academies study (NRC, 2009, p. 162) recommended that:

DOE-NNSA [Department of Energy–National Nuclear Security Administration], in cooperation with IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency], make an effort to maintain an up-to-date and comprehensive database of the research and test reactors of the world, including . . . reactors with a defense-oriented mission, [but not including (military) naval propulsion reactors]. . . . these reactors should be investigated to determine if it is feasible to convert them to LEU [low enriched uranium]; if so, they should become in-scope for the [GTRI (Global Threat Reduction Initiative), now M3 (Material Management and Minimization)] program.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

TABLE F.1 Operational Defense-Oriented (military) Reactors Using HEU Fuels

IAEA IDa Country Name Power (MW) Reactor Type Date of Criticality
GB-0011 United Kingdom VIPER 0 PR 1967
RU-0032 Russia BARS-5 0 PR 1986
RU-0033 Russia IGRIK 0 PR 1975
RU-0034 Russia YAGUAR 0 PR 1988
RU-0035 Russia EBR-L (= FBR-L) 0 PR 1981
RU-0052 Russia BIGR 0 PR 1977
RU-0054 Russia BR-1M 0 PR 1979
RU-0063 Russia BR-K1 0 PR 1995
RU-0084 Russia VIR-2M 0 PR 1980
RU-0103 Russia GIR-2 0 PR 1993
RU-0104 Russia IKAR-S 0 CA 2004
RU-0105 Russia FKBN-2M 0 CA 1997
RU-0106 Russia FKBN-2 0 CA 2000
  Russia KV-1   NV 1975
  Russia KV-2   NV 1995
  Russia Ruslanb ~ 800 DUAL 1979
  Russia Lyudmila (LF-2)b ~ 800 DUAL 1983
  Russia FKBN-I 0 CA  
  Russia Priz (=Impulse-1)   PR  
US-0106 United States Godiva (IV) 0 CA 1951
US-0107 United States Flattop 0 CA 1958
US-0108 United States Comet 0 CA 1952
US-0167 United States ACRR 4 SS 1967
US-0228 United States Planet 0 CA 1984
US-0238 United States S8G Prototype   NV 1978
US-0242 United States MARF   SS 1976
US-0245 United States Fast Burst (FBR) 0 PR 1964
  United States MTS-626   NV 1993
  United States MTS-635   NV 1989
  United States TACS 0 CA  

a The column labeled “IAEA ID” shows the IAEA’s Research Reactor Database (RRDB) numbering, if it exists for a listed reactor. If an IAEA ID is not known, then the cell is blank.

b Two dual-use reactors, Ruslan and Lyudmila (LF-2), are tritium production reactors that produce isotopes for the civilian market.

NOTE: Key to acronyms in table for “Type” of reactor: CA = critical assembly; NV = naval reactor; PR = pulsed reactor; SS = steady-state; DUAL = both military and civilian use; and IB = icebreaker.

SOURCE: IAEA (2000); Arkhangelsky et al. (2012); IPFM (2013); Chamberlin (2015).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

TABLE F.2 Operational Civilian Propulsion Reactors Using HEU Fuels

IAEA IDa Country Name Power (MW) Reactor Type Date of Criticality
  Russia SEVMORPUT 135 IB/TS 1988
  Russia TAYMYR 170 IB 1989
  Russia SOVETSKIY SOYUZ-1 170 IB 1990
  Russia SOVETSKIY SOYUZ-2 170 IB 1990
  Russia VAYGACH 170 IB 1990
  Russia YAMAL-1 170 IB 1993
  Russia YAMAL-2 170 IB 1993
  Russia 50 LET POBEDY-1 170 IB 2007
  Russia 50 LET POBEDY-2 170 IB 2007

a The column labeled “IAEA ID” shows the IAEA’s Research Reactor Database (RRDB) numbering, if it exists for a listed reactor. If an IAEA ID is not known, then the cell is blank.

NOTES: Key to acronyms in table for “Type” of reactor: IB = icebreaker, TS = transport ship.

SOURCE: IAEA (2000); Arkhangelsky et al. (2012); IPFM (2013); Chamberlin (2015).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
Page 185
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
Page 186
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
Page 187
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: HEU-Fueled Reactors Outside the Scope of the Study." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21818.
×
Page 188
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The continued presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian installations such as research reactors poses a threat to national and international security. Minimization, and ultimately elimination, of HEU in civilian research reactors worldwide has been a goal of U.S. policy and programs since 1978. Today, 74 civilian research reactors around the world, including 8 in the United States, use or are planning to use HEU fuel. Since the last National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report on this topic in 2009, 28 reactors have been either shut down or converted from HEU to low enriched uranium fuel. Despite this progress, the large number of remaining HEU-fueled reactors demonstrates that an HEU minimization program continues to be needed on a worldwide scale. Reducing the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Research Reactors assesses the status of and progress toward eliminating the worldwide use of HEU fuel in civilian research and test reactors.

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