National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 4 Analytical Next Steps and Further Findings for Affordability Policy Options
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21848.
×

References

Armour, P., R.V. Burkhauser, and J. Larrimore. 2013. Levels and Trends in the United States Income and its Distribution: A Crosswalk from Market Income Towards a Comprehensive Haig-Simons Income Approach. Working Paper 19110. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Banerjee, S., A. E. Gelfand, J. R. Knight, and C. F. Sirmans. 2004. Spatial modelling of house prices using normalized distance-weighted sums of stationary processes. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 22:206-213.

Boskin, M. J. 1988. Issues in the Measurement and Interpretation of Saving and Wealth. Working Paper 2633. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Caro, J. J., A. H. Briggs, U. Siebert, and K. M. Kuntz. 2012. Modeling good research practices—overview: A report of the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force-1. ISPOR Task Force Reports. Value in Health 15:796-803.

Deason, J. P., G. E. Dickey, J. C. Kinnell, and L. Shabman. 2010. Integrated planning framework for urban river rehabilitation. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 136:688-696.

Dierauer, J., N. Pinter, and J. W. F. Remo. 2012. Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, middle Mississippi River, USA. Journal of Hydrology 450-451:1-8.

FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 2009a. Risk Mapping, Assessment and Planning (Risk MAP) Multi-Year Plan: Fiscal Years 2010-2014. Fiscal Year 2009 Report to Congress, March 16. Available at http://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do?id=3587 (accessed on September 10, 2015).

FEMA. 2009b. What Is Risk MAP? Available at http://www.fema.gov/media-librarydata/20130726-1731-25045-5094/what_is_risk_map.pdf (accessed on September 21, 2015).

FEMA. 2014. Flood Insurance Manual, Effective October 1, 2014. Available at http://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/97901 (accessed on September 20, 2015).

FEMA. 2015. NFIP Fiscal Year-End Statistics by State—Policy Growth Percentage Change. Available at https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/21061 (accessed on September 15, 2015).

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21848.
×

GAO (Government Accountability Office). 2011. FEMA: Action Needed to Improve the Administration of the National Flood Insurance Program. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO. 2012. Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Repsond and Recover on Its Own. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO. 2013. Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on Subsidized Properties. Report to Congressional Committees. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO. 2014a. Flood Insurance. Strategies for Increasing Private Sector Involvement. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO. 2014b. Flood Insurance Foregone Premiums. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO. 2014c. National Flood Insurance Program. Progress Made on Contract. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO. 2014d. Hurricane Sandy FEMA: FEMA Has Improved Disaster Aid Verification but Could Act to Further Limit Improper Assistance. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO. 2014e. Overview of GAO’s Past Work on the NFIP. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO. 2015a. Flood Insurance: Status of FEMA’s Implementation of the Biggert-Waters Act, as Amended. Washington, DC: GAO.

GAO. 2015b. High-Risk Series: An Update. Washington, DC: GAO.

Harrison, D. M., G. T. Smersh, and A. L. Schwartz, Jr. 2001. Environmental determinants of housing prices: The impact of flood zone status. Journal of Real Estate Research 21:3-20.

Hayes, T. L., and D. A. Neal. 2011. Actuarial Rate Review: In Support of the Recommended October 1, 2011, Rate and Rule Changes. Washington, DC: FEMA.

King, R. O. 2012. National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status. Congressional Research Service. Report for Congress. 7-5700. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

King, R. O. 2013. That National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Report for Congress. 7-5700. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

Kousky, C., and L. Shabman. 2012. The Realities of Federal Disaster Aid: The Case of Floods. RFF Issue Brief 12-02. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Kousky, C., and L. Shabman. 2015. Understanding Flood Risk Decision Making: Implications for Flood Risk Communication Program Design. RFF DP 15-01. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Kousky, C., and M. Walls. 2014. Floodplain conservation as a flood mitigation strategy: Examining costs and benefits. Ecological Economics 104:119-128.

McCarthy, F. X. 2010. FEMA Disaster Housing: From Sheltering to Permanent Housing. Congressional Research Service. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

NCFMP (North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program). 2015. North Carolina Flood Insurance Program Premiums in North Carolina: Case Study on Data Availability, Modeling and Analysis Supporting Premium and Affordability Discussions. Prepared by NCFMP, North Carolina Emergency Management.

NFIP (National Flood Insurance Program). 2013. Transaction Record Reporting and Processing (TRRP) Plan for the Write Your Own Program. October. Washington, DC: FEMA.

Nordhaus, W., and P. Sztorc. 2013. DICER: Introduction and User’s Manual, 2nd Edition. Available at http://www.econ.yale.edu/~nordhaus/homepage/documents/DICE_Manual_103113r2.pdf (accessed on November 16, 2015).

NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Improving Information for Social Policy Decisions. The Uses of Microsimulation Modeling. Volume 1: Review and Recommendations, edited by C. Citro and E. A. Hanushek. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1997. Assessing Policies for Retirement Income: Needs for Data, Research, and Models, edited by C. Citro and E. A. Hanushek. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21848.
×

NRC. 2007. Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2015a. Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums—Report 1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2015b. Tying Flood Insurance to Flood Risk for Low-Lying Structures in the Floodplain. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

OASPE (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation). 2012. Meeting on Demystifying Microsimulation Meeting Report. November 16, Washington, DC.

PwC (PricewaterhouseCoopers). 1999. Study of the Economic Effects of Charging Actuarially Based Premium Rates for Pre-FIRM Structures. Final Report, May 14.

Schirm, A. L., and A. M. Zaslavsky. 1997. Reweighting households to develop microsimulation estimates for states. Pp. 306-311 in Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.

Shilling, J. D., C. F. Sirmans, and J. D. Benjamin. 1989. Flood insurance wealth redistribution and urban property values. Journal of Urban Economics 26:43-53.

Stiglitz, J. E. 2015. The Measurement of Wealth: Recessions, Sustainability and Inequality. Working Paper 21327. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Stokey, E., and R. Zeckhauser. 1978. A Primer for Policy Analysis. New York: WW Norton & Company.

Walker, B., and D. Salt. 2006. Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21848.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21848.
×
Page 89
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21848.
×
Page 90
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21848.
×
Page 91
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21848.
×
Page 92
Next: List of Acronyms »
Affordability of National Flood Insurance Program Premiums: Report 2 Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $49.00 Buy Ebook | $39.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

When Congress authorized the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in 1968, it intended for the program to encourage community initiatives in flood risk management, charge insurance premiums consistent with actuarial pricing principles, and encourage the purchase of flood insurance by owners of flood prone properties, in part, by offering affordable premiums. The NFIP has been reauthorized many times since 1968, most recently with the Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012 (BW 2012). In this most recent reauthorization, Congress placed a particular emphasis on setting flood insurance premiums following actuarial pricing principles, which was motivated by a desire to ensure future revenues were adequate to pay claims and administrative expenses. BW 2012 was designed to move the NFIP towards risk-based premiums for all flood insurance policies. The result was to be increased premiums for some policyholders that had been paying less than NFIP risk-based premiums and to possibly increase premiums for all policyholders.

Recognition of this possibility and concern for the affordability of flood insurance is reflected in sections of the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2014 (HFIAA 2014). These sections called on FEMA to propose a draft affordability framework for the NFIP after completing an analysis of the efforts of possible programs for offering “means-tested assistance” to policyholders for whom higher rates may not be affordable.

BW 2012 and HFIAA 2014 mandated that FEMA conduct a study, in cooperation with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, which would compare the costs of a program of risk-based rates and means-tested assistance to the current system of subsidized flood insurance rates and federally funded disaster relief for people without coverage. Production of two reports was agreed upon to fulfill this mandate. This second report proposes alternative approaches for a national evaluation of affordability program policy options and includes lessons for the design of a national study from a proof-of-concept pilot study.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!