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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE
Fukushima Nuclear Accident
FOR IMPROVING SAFETY AND SECURITY OF
U.S. Nuclear Plants

PHASE 2

Committee on Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident
for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants

Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Grant No. NRC-HQ-12-G-03-0002 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-38888-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-38888-0
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/21874

Cover images: (Front) Satellite image of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station taken on March 14, 2011, while the accident was still in progress. The Unit 1 reactor building (lower-left corner of image) was damaged by a hydrogen explosion at 15:36 (3:36 P.M.) Japan Standard Time on March 12. The Unit 3 reactor building (building with steam plume near center of image) was damaged by a hydrogen explosion at 11:01 the day the image was recorded. The Unit 4 reactor building, which is still intact in this image, would be damaged by a hydrogen explosion at 06:14 the next day (March 15). (Back) Satellite image of the harbor-front of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station showing extensive damage from the tsunami. Also shown is a seismogram of the Great East Japan Earthquake recorded at the Oshika K-Net Station (MYG011) in Miyagi Prefecture. Satellite image courtesy of DigitalGlobe©2014.

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×
image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

COMMITTEE ON LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT FOR IMPROVING SAFETY AND SECURITY OF U.S. NUCLEAR PLANTS

JOSEPH E. SHEPHERD, Chair, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

ROBERT A. BARI, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

PERCY M. BEARD, JR., Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (retired), Atlanta, Georgia1

JAN BEYEA, Consulting in the Public Interest, Lambertville, New Jersey

M. QUINN BREWSTER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign2

MICHAEL L. CORRADINI, University of Wisconsin–Madison

VIJAY K. DHIR, University of California, Los Angeles

MICHAEL W. GOLAY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

BARBARA L. HAMRICK, University of California, Irvine Medical Center

PAUL A. LOCKE, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

THOMAS G. MOSER, Independent Consultant, Wilmington, North Carolina

ARTHUR T. MOTTA, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

JOHN A. ORCUTT, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla

EMILIE M. ROTH, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Menlo Park, California

ELIZABETH Q. TEN EYCK, ETE Consulting, Inc., Great Falls, Virginia

FRANK N. VON HIPPEL, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey

LORING A. WYLLIE, JR., Degenkolb Engineers, San Francisco, California

Staff

KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Study Director

TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate

DARLENE GROS, Senior Program Assistant

___________________

1 Resigned from committee on January 7, 2015.

2 Resigned from committee on February 6, 2015.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

NUCLEAR AND RADIATION STUDIES BOARD

ROBERT C. DYNES, Chair, University of California, San Diego

BARBARA J. MCNEIL, Vice Chair, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

DAVID J. BRENNER, Columbia University, New York

MARGARET S. Y. CHU, M.S. Chu & Associates, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico

MICHAEL L. CORRADINI, University of Wisconsin–Madison

TISSA H. ILLANGASEKARE, Colorado School of Mines, Golden

CAROL M. JANTZEN, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina

MARTHA S. LINET, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

FRED A. METTLER, JR., New Mexico VA Health Care System, Albuquerque

NANCY JO NICHOLAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

DANIEL O. STRAM, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

SERGEY V. YUDINTSEV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Staff

KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Director

JENNIFER HEIMBERG, Senior Program Officer

OURANIA KOSTI, Senior Program Officer

TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate

LAURA D. LLANOS, Administrative and Financial Associate

DARLENE GROS, Senior Program Assistant

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

Acknowledgments

The successful completion of this study would not have been possible without the cooperation and assistance of many organizations and individuals. The committee would especially like to acknowledge and thank the following organizations and individuals for their support:

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Eric Bowman, Greg Bowman, Paul Clifford, Donald Helton, Steven Jones, Christiana Lui, Jose Pires, Bill Reckley, Susan Stuchell, Glenn Tuttle, Jennifer Uhle, Sandra Wastler, Ralph Way, and Kevin Witt. Mr. Witt ably served as the agency’s liaison to the committee.

Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO): Kenji Tateiwa and Takashi Hara of TEPCO’s Washington, DC, office.

Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN): Franck Bigot, Laurent Gilloteau, Trégourès Nicolas, and Axelle Portier.

Japanese Embassy in the United States: Takashi Toyota.

Nuclear Energy Institute: Steven Kraft, David Kline, and Kristopher Cummings.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

The committee also wishes to thank the following individuals for providing technical and policy information for this study:

Phil Amway, Exelon Corporation

Allen Croff, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired)

Michal I. Freedhoff, Office of Senator Edward J. Markey

Edwin Lyman, Union of Concerned Scientists

Nick Pappas, Arizona Public Service

The committee also thanks staff at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for organizing and facilitating this study. Study Director Kevin Crowley organized the committee meetings, assisted the committee with report writing and review, and provided valuable technical and policy insights. Program Assistant Darlene Gros managed the logistics of the meetings, report review, and publication. Office of Program Security Staff, especially Detra Bodrick and Enita Williams, assisted the committee with accessing and managing the security-related information used in this study.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

Reviewer Acknowledgments

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Research Council in making this published report as sound as possible and will ensure that this report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:

Peter L. Andresen, GE Global Research Center

George E. Apostolakis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (emeritus)

M. Quinn Brewster, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Randall Gauntt, Sandia National Laboratories

Robert E. Henry, Fauske & Associates, LLC (retired)

Richard T. Lahey, Jr., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (emeritus)

David Lochbaum, Union of Concerned Scientists

Richard A. Meserve, Carnegie Institution for Science (emeritus)

Craig Sawyer, General Electric Company (retired)

Lynn R. Sykes, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (emeritus)

Dean Wang, University of Massachusetts-Lowell

Christopher G. Whipple, ENVIRON (retired)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations of this report, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Marvin L. Adams, Texas A&M University, and Ali Mosleh, University of California, Los Angeles. Appointed by the National Research Council, Drs. Adams and Mosleh were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were considered carefully. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants: Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21874.
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The U.S. Congress asked the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a technical study on lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident for improving safety and security of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. This study was carried out in two phases: Phase 1, issued in 2014, focused on the causes of the Fukushima Daiichi accident and safety-related lessons learned for improving nuclear plant systems, operations, and regulations exclusive of spent fuel storage. This Phase 2 report focuses on three issues: (1) lessons learned from the accident for nuclear plant security, (2) lessons learned for spent fuel storage, and (3) reevaluation of conclusions from previous Academies studies on spent fuel storage.

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