TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD
2016 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE*
Chair: James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, Texas
Vice Chair: Paul Trombino III, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames
Executive Director: Neil J. Pedersen, Transportation Research Board
Victoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center; Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director, Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C.
Scott E. Bennett, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock
Jennifer Cohan, Secretary, Delaware Department of Transportation, Dover
Malcolm Dougherty, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento
A. Stewart Fotheringham, Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe
John S. Halikowski, Director, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix
Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort
Susan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts
Steve Heminger, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, California
Chris T. Hendrickson, Hamerschlag Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Jeffrey D. Holt, Managing Director, Power, Energy, and Infrastructure Group, BMO Capital Markets Corporation, New York
Roger B. Huff, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, Michigan
Geraldine Knatz, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
Ysela Llort, Consultant, Miami, Florida
James P. Redeker, Commissioner, Connecticut Department of Transportation, Newington
Mark L. Rosenberg, Executive Director, The Task Force for Global Health, Inc., Decatur, Georgia
Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis
Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing (Past Chair, 2014)
Gary C. Thomas, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, Texas
Pat Thomas, Senior Vice President, State Government Affairs, UPS, Washington, D.C.
Katherine F. Turnbull, Executive Associate Director and Research Scientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station
Dean Wise, Vice President of Network Strategy, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, Fort Worth, Texas
Thomas P. Bostick (Lieutenant General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)
James C. Card (Vice Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard, retired), Maritime Consultant, The Woodlands, Texas, and Chair, TRB Marine Board (ex officio)
Alison Jane Conway, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, City College of New York, New York, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council (ex officio)
T. F. Scott Darling III, Acting Administrator and Chief Counsel, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)
Marie Therese Dominguez, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)
Sarah Feinberg, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)
LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)
John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)
Michael P. Huerta, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)
Paul N. Jaenichen, Sr., Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)
Therese W. McMillan, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)
Michael P. Melaniphy, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)
Gregory G. Nadeau, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)
Mark R. Rosekind, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)
Craig A. Rutland, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida (ex officio)
Reuben Sarkar, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy (ex officio)
Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, California (ex officio)
Gregory D. Winfree, Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)
Frederick G. (Bud) Wright, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)
Paul F. Zukunft (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (ex officio)
* Membership as of February 2016.
TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD
Special Report 319
and Private Mobility
Examining the Rise of Technology-Enabled
Committee for Review of Innovative Urban Mobility Services
Transportation Research Board
Transportation Research Board
Transportation Research Board Special Report 319
Policy; economics; data and information technology; public transportation; pedestrians and bicycles; society; passengers; law
Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or nationalacademies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 2023343213; fax 2023342519; or email TRBsales@nas.edu).
Copyright 2016, National Academies of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine.
This study was sponsored by the Transportation Research Board.
Cover and inside page design by Beth Schlenoff, Beth Schlenoff Design.
Cover photo credits (clockwise from top right): Yuko Hirao, Stocksy; Pung, Shutterstock; teddyleung, iStock; Robert Pernell, Shutterstock; egd, Shutterstock; narvikk, iStock
Typesetting by Circle Graphics, Inc.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board. Committee for Review of Innovative Urban Mobility Services, author. | National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board.
Title: Between public and private mobility : examining the rise of technologyenabled transportation services / Committee for Review of Innovative Urban Mobility Services, Transportation Research Board, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Other titles: Special report (National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board) ; 319.
Description: Washington, D.C. : Transportation Research Board,  | Series: Transportation Research Board special report ; 319
Identifiers: LCCN 2016000030 | ISBN 9780309369640
Subjects: LCSH: Local transit—Technological innovations. | Commuting—Technological innovations. | Ridesharing. | Transportation—Technological innovations. | Transportation—PlanningResearch. | Choice of transportation—Research. | Paratransit services—Research. | Transportation engineering—Research.
Classification: LCC HE151 .N354 2016 | DDC 388.3/2—dc23
LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2016000030
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.
The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.
The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.
Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.
The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation.
Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
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Committee for Review of Innovative Urban Mobility Services
Brian D. Taylor, UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs, Los Angeles, California, Chair
Ryan Chin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
Melanie Crotty*, San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission
Jennifer Dill, Portland State University, Oregon
Lester A. Hoel, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (emeritus)
Michael Manville, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
Steven Polzin, University of South Florida, Tampa
Bruce Schaller, Schaller Consulting, Brooklyn, New York
Susan Shaheen, University of California, Berkeley
Daniel Sperling, University of California, Davis
Marzia Zafar, California Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco
Susan Zielinski, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Transportation Research Board Staff
Katherine Kortum, Program Officer
*Resigned from committee as of June 14, 2015.
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This report was authored by the National Research Council’s (NRC) Committee for Review of Innovative Urban Mobility Services. It is the culmination of an 18month consensus study by a committee of 12 diverse individuals appointed by the NRC to carry out the study statement of task. The committee thanks the following individuals, who attended the committee’s public meetings as guest presenters, for helping to provide information necessary to address the study charge: Stephanie Box, LeighFisher; Steve Carroll, RideScout; Emily Castor, Lyft; Ashwini Chhabra, Uber; Sally Clark, Seattle City Council; Matthew Daus, International Association of Transport Regulators; Guy Fraker, get2Kno; Kevin Frederick, State Farm; Art Guzzetti, American Public Transportation Association; Sirisha Kothuri, Portland State University; Joel Laucher, California Department of Insurance; Ron Milam, Fehr & Peers; Ryan Morrison, True Mileage; Michael Pinckard, Total Transit; Walter Rosenkranz, car2go; Marco Soto, Los Angeles Yellow Cab; and Mary Lynne Tischer, Federal Highway Administration.
The project was managed by Katherine Kortum. Tim Devlin assisted with meeting arrangements and logistics for committee members. Melissa WelchRoss and Stephen Godwin assisted in completing the report. The project was overseen by Stephen Godwin, Director of Studies and Special Programs of the Transportation Research Board. Rona Briere edited the report; Alisa Decatur provided word processing support; Jennifer J. Weeks prepared the manuscript for prepublication web posting; and Juanita Green managed the design,
typesetting, and printing of the book, under the supervision of Javy Awan, Director of Publications.
A draft version of this report was reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with the procedures of the NRC’s Report Review Committee (RRC). The report review was managed by Karen Febey, Senior Report Review Officer for the Transportation Research Board. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the NRC in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets NRC institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The committee thanks the following individuals for their review of this report: Norm Abramson, Southwest Research Institute (retired); David Chia, The Collaborative; Carson Farmer, University of ColoradoBoulder; A. Stewart Fotheringham, Arizona State University; Kevin Frederick, State Farm Insurance; Susan Handy, University of California, Davis; Ray Mundy, University of MissouriSt. Louis; Stephen Schlickman, Urban Transportation Center at the University of IllinoisChicago; Kumares Sinha, Purdue University, Bloomington, IN; and Eric Spiegelman, Los Angeles Department of Transportation.
Although the above reviewers provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s conclusions and recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Susan Hanson, Clark University (emerita), and Robert F. Sproull, Oracle. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was conducted in accordance with NRC institutional procedures and that all review comments received full consideration. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC.