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Fostering Transformative Research in the Geographical Sciences (2019)

Chapter: Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fostering Transformative Research in the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21881.
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Appendix A

Acronyms and Abbreviations

BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics
CBO Congressional Budget Office
CGIS Canada Geographic Information System
CGS Council of Graduate Schools
CREATIV Creative Research Awards for Transformative Interdisciplinary Ventures [program, NSF]
CRO contract research organization
EAGER Early-Concept Grants for Exploratory Research [program, NSF]
EHR Education and Human Resources [directorate, NSF]
ERC European Research Council
ERTS Earth Resources Technology Satellite
ESRC Economic and Social Research Council [UK]
FY fiscal year
GBF/DIME Geographic Base File/Dual Independent Map Encoding
GDP gross domestic product
GIS geographic information system
GPS Global Positioning System
GSS Geography and Spatial Sciences [program, NSF]
HRHR high risk, high reward
IBM International Business Machines
INSPIRE Integrated NSF Support Promoting Interdisciplinary Research and Education [program, NSF]
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ISSC International Social Science Council
LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fostering Transformative Research in the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21881.
×
MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCGIA National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis
NIH National Institutes of Health
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NRC National Research Council
NSB National Science Board
NSF National Science Foundation
PCAST President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology
PI principal investigator
R&D research and development
RAPID Rapid Response Research [program, NSF]
RET Research Experiences for Teachers [program, NSF]
REU Research Experiences for Undergraduates [program, NSF]
SBIR Small Business Innovation Research [program]
STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing
UC University of California
UK United Kingdom
UN United Nations
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
U.S. United States
USGCRP U.S. Global Change Research Program
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fostering Transformative Research in the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21881.
×
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Fostering Transformative Research in the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21881.
×
Page 68
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The central purpose of all research is to create new knowledge. In the geographical sciences this is driven by a desire to create new knowledge about the relations between space, place, and the anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic features and processes of the Earth. But some research goes beyond these modest aims and creates new opportunities for further research, or affects the process of knowledge acquisition more broadly, or changes the way other researchers in a domain think about the world and go about their business.

Due to its positive impacts, transformative research can be regarded as inherently having greater value than more conventional research, and funding agencies clearly regard transformative research as something to be encouraged and funded through special programs. Assessments of transformative research funding initiatives are few and provide a mixed picture of their effectiveness. The challenge is whether transformative research can be identified at the time it is proposed rather than after it has been conducted, communicated, and its influence on the discipline has become clear. Fostering Transformative Research in the Geographical Sciences reviews how transformative research has emerged in the past, what its early markers were, and makes recommendations for how it can be nurtured in the future.

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