National Academies Press: OpenBook

A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies (2016)

Chapter: Appendix D - Request to Experiment Template

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Request to Experiment Template." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21929.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Request to Experiment Template." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21929.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Request to Experiment Template." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21929.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Request to Experiment Template." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21929.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Request to Experiment Template." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21929.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Request to Experiment Template." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21929.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Request to Experiment Template." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21929.
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181 D.1 Introduction At the time this guidebook was written, colored pavement markings specifically for use in transit-preferential lanes had not been included in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Until the FHWA has included colored pavement markings for transit-preferential lanes in the MUTCD, either through interim approval or an update of the MUTCD, agencies planning to install colored pavement markings for transit-preferential lanes must submit a Request to Experiment (RTE) to FHWA. The following template can be used by agencies planning to submit an RTE prior to installing colored pavement markings for transit-preferential lanes. The template addresses the information outlined in the MUTCD and required by FHWA for an RTE. However, each installation is unique, and agencies should modify the information provided to address their specific applications. Some of the text in this template is borrowed from a successful experimentation request by the City of San Francisco. Per guidance in Section 1A.10 of the 2009 MUTCD, the official request to FHWA should include a cover letter on agency letterhead. FHWA prefers requests to be submitted electronically through email to MUTCDofficialrequest@dot.gov. The applicable FHWA Division office should be copied. The flowchart shown in Figure D-1 from the MUTCD webpage outlines the steps and approx- imate schedule required for obtaining approval. Additional information on the experimentation process can be found at http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/condexper.htm. The following typographic conventions are used in the template: • Italic red text—A general description of information required in Paragraph 11 of Section 1A.10 of the 2009 MUTCD provided to guide the user. Delete this text before submitting to FHWA. • Blue text—Specific guidance describing what should be included in the section. Replace this text with a narrative specific to each experiment being proposed. • Non-italic red text—This text should be replaced with text specific to the preparing agency. • Black text—This text is general and should be sufficient for all RTEs with little to no modification. D.2 Template DATE Office of Transportation Operations Federal Highway Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue, S.E. HOTO-1 Washington, DC 20590 A P P E N D I X D Request to Experiment Template

182 A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies RE: Request to experiment with colored pavement markings for transit-preferential lanes in JURISDICTION AGENCY formally requests approval, as outlined in Section 1A.10 of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), to install red-colored pavement markings as an experimental traffic control device for transit-preferential lanes. The proposed device is proposed for imple- mentation at CORRIDOR/INTERSECTION. This experiment is requested because the use of red-colored pavement markings to mark transit- preferential lanes is currently not allowed in the MUTCD. This experiment will contribute to the body of knowledge regarding colored pavement markings for transit-preferential lanes. Source: FHWA (2009). Figure D-1. Flowchart for obtaining experimental approval.

Request to Experiment Template 183 The attached document provides the information and agreements requested in the MUTCD for experimental approval. We look forward to your review and approval of this request. Sincerely, AGENCY CC: STATE FHWA Division Office Request to Experiment Colored Pavement Markings for Transit-Preferential Lanes CORRIDOR/INTERSECTION BACKGROUND/NATURE OF THE PROBLEM A statement of the nature of the problem, including data that justify the need for a new device or application. Background This section should describe the agency, project location, and project background. Nature of the Problem What is leading to the need to experiment with red-colored transit lanes? The following text is an example and could be used if applicable to your agency’s application. Transit-preferential lanes can reduce transit travel times and improve transit service reliability by allowing transit vehicles to bypass traffic congestion and avoid conflicts with other vehicles in mixed travel lanes. Non-transit vehicles are typically permitted to enter transit-preferential lanes to access curbside parking or to complete a turn unless specifically prohibited. How- ever, non-transit vehicles frequently violate transit-preferential lane restrictions by traveling along or double-parking in transit-preferential lanes. Transit-preferential lane violations can cause transit vehicles to slow down to merge into adjacent lanes or stop to wait for the transit- preferential lane to clear, contributing to longer transit travel times, reduced service reliability, and reduced customer safety and comfort. The intent of this experimentation is to reduce viola- tions of transit-preferential lane restrictions by making existing and future transit-preferential lanes more self-enforcing. In addition to defining the nature of the problem in narrative form, consider including, either here or in an appendix, the following supporting information: • Photos showing the existing transit-preferential lane configurations. • Data (e.g., number of non-transit vehicle violations) that are relevant to the application and justify the need for red-colored transit lanes. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED CHANGE A description of the proposed change, how it was developed, and how it deviates from the current MUTCD.

184 A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies This section should describe the specific element(s) of the project that deviates from the MUTCD. Include other methods currently in place that have not addressed the problem or alternatives that were considered. Include an assessment of any potentially negative consequences of the installation and how those have been addressed in the design. The following text is an example and could be used if applicable to your agency’s application. AGENCY proposes experimenting with red-colored transit-preferential lanes to determine if they reduce violations of transit-preferential lane restrictions. Transit-preferential lanes in AGENCY/LOCATION generally include pavement messages indicating the class of vehicles permitted to use the lanes (e.g., “Bus Only” and “Bus Taxi Only”) and signs indicating when the transit-only regulation is in effect. Some transit-preferential lanes include diamond symbol pavement markings. The 2009 MUTCD provides guidance for preferential lane word, symbol, and longitudinal markings but does not provide specific guidance for the use of colored transit-preferential lanes. Section 3G.01 of the 2009 MUTCD restricts colored pavement to the colors of yellow and white. This request for experimentation is for the use of red-colored transit-only lanes as a new traf- fic control device, including both full-time transit-only lanes and part-time transit-only lanes. AGENCY anticipates that adding red-colored treatments to transit-preferential lanes will improve compliance with existing restrictions. DIAGRAMS/FIGURES/ILLUSTRATIONS Any illustration(s) that enhances understanding of the device or its use. If available, consider including the following information in this section or an appendix: • Figures showing plans for implementation of the proposed experimentation. Provide relevant engineering details. • Examples of applications of red-colored pavement markings for transit-only lanes in other jurisdictions. SUPPORTING DATA/PREVIOUS PRACTICE Supporting data that explains how the experimental device was developed, if it has been tried, the adequacy of its performance, and the process by which the device was chosen or applied. Other Requests to Experiment The following text is an example that could be used without change unless more current infor- mation is available. As of January 2015, at least three agencies had submitted RTEs for experimentation with red- colored pavement for transit-preferential lanes: the City of Chicago, the City of New York, and the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. The New York City DOT has submitted a final report to FHWA for its experimentation. The New York City DOT study evaluated the effect of red treatments on transit travel times, illegal transit lane occupancy by non-transit vehicles, legal parking behavior in lanes with red-colored pavement during non-transit lane hours, and non-transit vehicle right-turning behavior. The New York City DOT study showed positive results but was based on relatively small samples. Material Details The following text is an example that could be used without change unless more current infor- mation is available.

Request to Experiment Template 185 New York City DOT in conjunction with Penn State University completed an evaluation of nine red transit lane treatment products in 2012. Materials were tested for durability and friction both in the lab and in the field. Field observations of color, susceptibility to dirt and grime, and ease of patching were also conducted, and life-cycle costs were estimated. The evaluation concluded that epoxy-based paints, epoxy/aggregate treatments, and asphalt concrete micro surface treat- ments provided the best durability. The evaluation also concluded that aggressive pre-treatment of asphalt roadways, including shot-blasting and crack repair, was necessary prior to application of colored treatments to ensure durability. PATENT/COPYRIGHT PROTECTION A legally binding statement certifying that the concept of the traffic control device is not protected by a patent or copyright (see MUTCD Section 1A.10 for additional details). The concept of red-colored pavement markings is not protected by a patent or copyright. EXPERIMENT TIME PERIOD AND LOCATION The proposed time period and location(s) of the experiment. Time Period AGENCY is requesting the experimental approval start on DATE and end on DATE based on the following schedule. Acvity Time Period Material tesng, if applicable Material procurement, if applicable Before data collecon Install treatments A er data collecon Submit final report to FHWA Location Include a description of the specific location(s) at which the experimental application will be applied. Location information may be described in narrative, tabular, map, and/or another format. The table that follows is an example of a tabular form. The table that follows provides details for existing and/or proposed transit-only lanes in AGENCY where red-colored pavement may be applied. Transit-Preferenal Lane Locaon Time Period of Operaon Type of Operaon Bond Street from Franklin Avenue to Greenwood Avenue All mes Le-side transit lane adjacent to on-street parking on one-way street Third Street from Burnside Avenue to Hawthorne Avenue 7 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. Monday–Friday Right-side transit lane adjacent to curb in one direc on on two-way street EVALUATION PLAN A detailed research or evaluation plan providing for close monitoring of the experimentation, especially in the early stages of field implementation. The evaluation plan should include before-and-after

186 A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies studies as well as quantitative data enabling a scientifically sound evaluation of the performance of the device. This section should describe the proposed evaluation of the red-colored pavement. In determin- ing an appropriate evaluation plan, the first step is to identify the key measures of effectiveness (MOEs) for the device. The example that follows shows candidate MOEs. Your agency may elect to collect different or additional MOEs. The specific evaluation plan, including duration of observation periods, should be structured to obtain a data set that could result in a statistically significant finding. Depending on the specific installation, there may also be related design ques- tions that should be tested, such as the placement of signs and other pavement markings relative to the beginning and end of the red-colored pavement. The following text is an example that should be modified to be applicable to your agency’s application. AGENCY proposes to evaluate red-colored transit-preferential lanes by collecting before-and- after observational data of transit-preferential lane violations. Each experimental location will be observed using OBSERVATIONAL METHOD (e.g., video, manual observation) during TIME PERIODS. Before-and-after data to be collected include: Measure of Effecveness Unit of Measure Traffic counts Vehicles per hour Non-transit vehicle travel viola ons in transit- preferen al lane Vehicles per hour traveling within transit-only lanes, excluding vehicles making legal turning or parking maneuvers Non-transit parking (or standing vehicle) viola ons in transit-preferen al lane Parking infrac ons per hour Parking occupancy adjacent to transit-only lanes Percentage of legal parking spaces occupied Vehicle turning behavior Turning vehicles per hour per approach lane In addition to the observational data, the following information may be collected: • User surveys of motorists, transit vehicle operators, and/or transit customers to collect infor- mation on user perceptions of the meaning and effectiveness of the red treatments. • Before-and-after transit travel times using automatic passenger counters (APCs). The APC units use onboard sensors and GPS to record travel times between transit stops and customer activity at each transit stop. AGREEMENT TO TERMINATE OR RESTORE An agreement to restore the experimental site to a condition that complies with the provisions of the MUTCD within 3 months of completion of the experiment. The agreement must also provide that the sponsoring agency will terminate the experiment at any time if it determines that the experiment directly or indirectly causes significant safety hazards. If the experiment demonstrates an improve- ment, the device or application may remain in place until an official rulemaking action occurs. Upon request from the FHWA, AGENCY agrees to restore the site of the experiment to a con- dition that complies with the provisions of the MUTCD within 3 months of completion of the experiment. In the event that the colored pavement markings under experiment directly or indirectly cause significant safety hazards, AGENCY agrees to terminate the experiment and restore the site of the experiment to a condition that complies with the provisions of the

Request to Experiment Template 187 MUTCD. AGENCY and the FHWA acknowledge and agree that if the experiment demonstrates an improvement, the device or application may remain in place until an official rulemaking action occurs. PROGRESS REPORTING An agreement to provide semi-annual progress reports for the duration of the experimentation and a copy of the final results to the FHWA’s Office of Transportation Operations within 3 months of the conclusion of the experiment. AGENCY will provide semi-annual progress reports during the course of the experiment and will provide a report documenting the final results within 3 months of the conclusion of the experiment. PROJECT ADMINISTRATION AGENCY is responsible for all project administration. The project manager will be: Name Title Agency Address City, State ZIP Phone: Fax: Email:

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A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies Get This Book
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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 183: A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies is a resource for transit and roadway agency staff seeking to improve bus speed and reliability on surface streets, while addressing the needs of other roadway users, including motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians.

The guidebook identifies consistent and uniform strategies to help improve transportation network efficiency to reduce delay and improve reliability for transit operations on roadways; and includes decision-making guidance for operational planning and functional design of transit/traffic operations on roads that provides information on warrants, costs, and impacts of strategies.

The guidebook also identifies the components of model institutional structures and intergovernmental agreements for successful implementation; and highlights potential changes to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and related documents to facilitate implementation of selected strategies.

In addition to the report, TCRP Web-Only Document 66: Improving Transportation Network Efficiency Through Implementation of Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies documents the methodology used to develop the report.

A PowerPoint presentation accompanies the report.

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