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Freight Data Cost Elements (2013)

Chapter: Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 - Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Freight Data Cost Elements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21939.
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9 Freight transportation cost data could be a critical input of numerous public-sector activities. This chapter identifies current public-sector freight transportation planning and decision-making functions, and the cost data used to sup- port those functions. While this chapter focuses on the public-sector agencies that are primarily involved in transportation functions, such as federal and state departments of transportation (DOTs), metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), and port/ airport/railroad authorities, the information conveyed may be useful to other public agencies as well, such as economic development and environmental agencies. This chapter has two main sections. Section 3.1 identi- fies current public-sector freight transportation functions based on a review of research publications and govern- ment documents. The research team examined five levels of public-sector organizations, including MPOs; state DOTs; the federal government; local governments; and other stake- holders, such as port authorities and the business commu- nity. The relevant government functions are summarized in a matrix that includes a description of the function, the modes affected, and the levels of government organizations involved. Functions were identified from Unified Planning Work Programs (UPWPs), state transportation plans, and other sources. Section 3.2 examines the freight cost data elements cur- rently used to support those public-sector freight transporta- tion functions. The cost data elements were identified through interviews with public transportation planners and a litera- ture review. The section has three parts: (1) a comprehen- sive literature review of publications that are relevant to freight transportation planning and operations, as well as research publications and case studies at federal, state, and local levels; (2) a function-by-function data needs assess- ment, which examines needs for company costs, vehicle costs, and route costs; and (3) the findings in a function- by-cost matrix based on the previous assessment. 3.1 Public-Sector Functions Data collection and analysis are crucial components of a wide variety of public-sector planning activities. The project provides research and guidance on the freight cost data ele- ments required for transportation planning objectives, and the sources of those data elements. Section 3.1 identifies the public-sector organizations that are responsible for freight transportation planning, as well as current government func- tions informed by freight data and cost considerations. 3.1.1 Organizations Involved in Freight Transportation Planning The research team first examined various types of orga- nizations involved in freight transportation planning and operations to identify the characteristics and roles of these stakeholders and those planning and decision-making func- tions that require freight cost data. 3.1.1.1 Metropolitan Planning Organizations MPOs are federally mandated transportation policy- making organizations composed of representatives from local governments and governmental transportation author- ities. The purpose of an MPO is to implement 23 U.S.C. 134 and Section 5303 of the Federal Transit Act, as amended, which require that an MPO be designated for each urban- ized area (defined as a metropolitan statistical area with a population of 50,000 or more). In addition, the metropoli- tan area must have a continuing, cooperative, and compre- hensive transportation planning process that results in plans and programs that consider all transportation modes and support metropolitan community development and societal goals. These plans and programs lead to the development and operation of an integrated, multimodal transportation system that facilitates the efficient, economic movement of C H A P T E R 3 Public-Sector Functions and Current Cost Data Needs

10 people and goods. In rural areas, the counterparts of MPOs are rural development councils (RDCs). 3.1.1.2 State Agencies State DOTs are responsible for coordinating and develop- ing comprehensive transportation policies for the state, and for assisting in the development and operation of transporta- tion facilities and services for highways, railroads, mass transit systems, ports, waterways, and aviation facilities. State DOTs also regulate public safety for railroads and motor carriers, and provide oversight in matters relative to the safe opera- tion of bus lines, commuter railroads, and publicly subsidized subway systems. Governors and legislatures provide political support and investment for transportation policy frameworks and investment. State transit authorities are government- owned organizations that are responsible for the operation of transit services such as buses and ferries. 3.1.1.3 The Federal Government The U.S.DOT administers programs to promote connectiv- ity and development, reduce congestion, protect the environ- ment, ensure safety, and ensure effective emergency response. The U.S.DOT enables programs involving highways, airports, mass transit, the maritime industry, railroads, and motor vehicle safety. It regulates the construction and operation of bridges over navigable waters, the prevention of oil pollution, and the security of commercial aviation and passenger vessels. Other responsibilities include developing policies concerning acquisitions and grants, access for the disabled, environmen- tal protection, energy conservation, information technology, property asset management, seismic safety, security, and the use of aircraft and vehicles. Several agencies within the U.S.DOT contribute to freight policy and planning. For example, FHWA is charged with maintaining the National Highway System. To this end, FHWA distributes funding, mostly to state DOTs, for roadway con- struction and maintenance. FHWA also conducts highway design and construction on federal lands under the Federal Lands Highway Program. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration is responsible for safety oversight of motor carriers operating in interstate and foreign commerce. Among its activities are regulatory enforcement, data collection and analysis, and safety outreach programs. Many of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s programs are conducted by state partners who receive substantial funding through safety grant programs. The Federal Aviation Administration manages aircraft, airports, and air traffic, developing Airport Improvement Programs and conducting research based on aviation data and statistics. The Federal Railroad Administra- tion (FRA) manages freight and passenger rail, improves rail- road safety, and develops strategic plans. For example, the FRA developed the Intermodal Transportation and Inventory Cost Model (ITIC) (Federal Railroad Administration 2005), which computes total logistic costs for the freight modes available in a given corridor or region. The Maritime Administration promotes the use and integration of waterborne transporta- tion with other segments of the transportation system, as well as the viability of the U.S. Merchant Marine fleet. Other federal departments provide transportation infra- structure support. For example, the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- neers provides funding and dredging services to maintain many of the deep-water ports that make international trade feasible. The U.S. Congress charges the Surface Transportation Board with resolving railroad rate and service disputes, and reviewing proposed railroad mergers (Surface Transportation Board 2010). Within DHS, TSA develops a variety of transpor- tation security programs including grants, law enforcement, and security screening (Holguín-Veras et al. 2011). DHS coor- dinates with states and regional organizations to incorporate emergency preparedness and other considerations into trans- portation planning. The U.S. Coast Guard is responsible for port/waterway/coastal/marine safety, marine resources, envi- ronmental protection, and defense readiness, as well as other law enforcement duties. 3.1.1.4 Local Governments Local governments are responsible for many transporta- tion planning and decision-making functions, often in col- laboration with state DOTs, MPOs, modal partners, and other stakeholders. Public agencies are involved in a variety of trans- portation programs, including federal economic recovery projects, interregional connectivity, emergency relief, high- way safety improvement, local bridge improvement, freight rail infrastructure improvement, and surface transportation improvement (Yunjun et al. 2007). 3.1.1.5 Other Stakeholders A variety of other organizations are involved in freight transportation planning, including local units of government, port/airport/roadway authorities, regional planning offices, and the business community. In particular, port authorities are often primarily responsible for the day-to-day manage- ment and maintenance of regional transportation hubs, such as airports, train and bus stations, and water ports. Turnpike authorities are responsible for the construction, operation, and maintenance of turnpike systems. Regional planning offices often attempt to create procedures and processes that complement those of the metropolitan areas served and that foster seamless transportation flow from one area to another. In a general sense, the business community is a stakeholder in

11 transportation policy because business costs and profits are directly related to transportation times. The various public- sector organizations involved in freight transportation plan- ning and operations are illustrated in Figure 3.1. 3.1.2 Methodology The research team employed a three-step methodology to select public-sector planning and decision-making functions. In Step 1, “functions” were defined. For this study, “function” is defined as an area of transportation planning work that comprises more specific activities. “Activity” is defined as an organizational unit for performing a specific transportation planning function. In this study, the list of functions is limited to those that make use of freight data and costs. Step 2 was an extensive literature review. Previous TRB and NCHRP reports provided insight on the role of freight data in numerous public-sector functions. Additional data sources considered included a UPWP and a United Nations database, Classification of the Functions of Government, which list the varying functions and modes present in the transportation sector (Yushimito et al. 2012). Several states’ transportation plans, such as Florida’s 2025 Transportation Plan, provided insight on the transportation roles and func- tions of state entities. These sources are discussed in the lit- erature review. Step 3 was to select the relevant functions. The functions were combined when appropriate, and some functions were excluded as not being specific enough to support the analysis of cost data requirements. The result was a list of 18 functions associated with freight cost data. 3.1.3 Literature Review This subsection presents a review of the documents and source materials used by the research team. Each paragraph includes a short description of the relevancy of each source. Bibliographic information for these documents and sources is included in the references section. Information from a survey of 14 state transportation agen- cies included in the TRB Electronic Circular E-C080: Freight Data for State Transportation Agencies identifies a variety of uses of freight data across transportation modes and func- tions (TRB 2005). Among other survey questions, respon- dents were prompted to “list the types of policy questions, planning studies, project plans and designs, or other activities for which your DOT needs to analyze data on the movement of commodities, truck travel, rail freight and shipping, safety, or other aspect of rail transportation.” Data uses and needs were summarized by modes (such as highway, rail, air, water, and multimodal) as well as by government functions (such as safety, hazardous materials, large truck management, etc.). TRB Electronic Circular E-C080 also identifies current freight data sources, relevant organizations, and opportunities for potential improvements. NCHRP Synthesis 358: Statewide Travel Forecasting Models provides an inventory of major sources of information on statewide travel forecasting models, and identifies trends in recent statewide model development based on five case studies: Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Virginia, and Wisconsin (Horowitz 2006). The report also summarizes those plan- ning needs that have not been fully realized due to deficien- cies in either data or algorithms, and the innovations needed for better planning. NCHRP Synthesis 384: Forecasting Metropolitan Commer- cial and Freight Travel provides insight on freight transporta- tion planning from the metropolitan perspective (Kuzmyak 2008). This report is focused on trucks, because they account for 80% of freight movement in most metropolitan areas. It addresses a range of issues related to metropolitan freight travel, such as the impacts of trucks on traffic and infrastruc- ture, and the challenges associated with modeling the freight movement of heavy trucks and other commercial vehicles. MPOs For each urbanized area (population of 50,000 or more) State Agencies State DOTs State Transit Authorities The Federal Government U.S.DOT U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Surface Transportation Board Transportation Security Administration Department of Homeland Security Local Governments Focus on community- level programs Other Stakeholders Port Authorities Turnpike Authorities Regional Planning Offices Business Community Freight Transportation Planning Figure 3.1. Levels of public-sector organizations.

12 Based on a survey of 23 state DOTs, NCHRP Report 606: Forecasting Statewide Freight Toolkit identifies several policy and planning needs for freight analysis and forecasting (Cohen, Horowitz, and Pendyala 2008). The report addresses the dif- ficulties imposed by the deregulation of the freight trans- portation industry and summarizes techniques for long- and short-distance freight movement forecasting. NCHRP Report 570: Guidebook for Freight Policy, Planning, and Programming in Small-and Medium-sized Metropolitan Areas provides small- and medium-sized MPOs with the nec- essary resources to begin or enhance their freight transpor- tation planning programs (Williamson et al. 2007). It also provides definitions for terms used repeatedly in this area of research, including the following: • Freight policy development relates to the development of specific policy guidance concerning freight movements. Freight policy development is designed to help MPOs assess their roles in addressing freight issues, and can help focus metropolitan freight planning efforts. • Freight planning relates to the process by which freight issues and concerns are addressed in statewide or metropoli- tan transportation planning activities and documents, such as long-range transportation plans (LRTPs), Transportation Improvement Programs (TIPs), and UPWPs. • Freight programming involves the ways in which MPOs commit funds to freight-specific projects identified in the regional TIP. • Metropolitan freight planning programs integrate these various components into a comprehensive, continuous pro- cess of improvement. The Baltimore Region FY 2011 UPWP presents a multi- tude of public-sector functions, including those dependent on freight data and costs (Baltimore Metropolitan Council 2010), and describes the contributions of federal, state, and local authorities to the transportation planning process. The transportation section of the United Nations database, Clas- sification of the Functions of Government, describes several functions that the public sector is expected to perform for road, rail, air, port, and pipelines modes (Yushimito et al. 2012). Many states publish general transportation and freight- specific action plans which highlight the roles of state DOTs and other state agencies in the transportation industry. Many of these plans share transportation priorities, such as con- gestion mitigation, environmental welfare, and intermodal and interregional connection. California and Florida also conduct substantial international trade, which is reflected in their state plans and planning priorities (Florida DOT 2010). 3.1.4 List of Public Functions Table 3.1 identifies the functions associated with MPOs. The list was compiled from the Baltimore Region UPWP and refined by removing functions that were not relevant to freight or were deemed not specific enough for identifying cost data requirements. For example, the function “analysis of trends and policy issues” includes a broad set of cost data elements already covered by other, more specific functions. The United Nations database, Classification of the Func- tions of Government, provided additional public-sector trans- portation functions, as listed in Table 3.2. Each of the five transportation modes (road, water, railway, air, and pipeline) are responsible for these main functions. Freight plans published by several state DOTs were the source of additional information used to complete the work- ing list of functions used by the research team. Table 3.3 lists these state DOT functions. Lacking Specificity for Cost Data Element Not Freight Related Congestion Management Vision Planning Bicycle and Pedestrian Planning Operations Planning Long-Range Transportation Planning Safety Planning and Analysis Transit Coordination Freight Mobility Planning Analysis of Trends and Policy Issues 2010 Census Emergency Preparedness Planning Travel Monitoring Program Modal Diversion Planning Cooperative Forecasting Transportation Equity Planning GIS Activities Economic Development Monitoring and Planning Regional Database Integration Transportation and Land Use Planning Integration Environmental Planning Selected Not Selected (Reason) Human Service Transportation Coordination Table 3.1. MPO functions.

13 Based on the analysis of these public-sector functions and discussions with experts, the research team summarized these functions in Table 3.4. To avoid overlap, a few functions that serve the same goals were combined into more general func- tions. Such adjustments included: • Services, operations planning, and operational perfor- mance were combined as one general function (operations/ services), as all of these functions involve improvements in the safety, reliability, and effectiveness of the transpor- tation system, as well as coordination of management and operations. • Financial support and development of financial plans were combined into one general function (financial planning), as both functions strive to support the transportation sys- tem financially. Financial sources include taxes, fees, grants, loans, and such activities as collaborative partnerships (e.g., public-private partnerships). • Modal diversion planning was combined with freight mobil- ity planning, as its goals to improve the efficiency and effec- tiveness of specific freight modes are covered by the more general function, freight mobility planning. • The information function was excluded, as the need for freight cost data in composing technical documents and statistics depends on the type of service provided by the agency. Table 3.4 contains a brief description of the 18 unique func- tions, as well as the level of government and the freight modes typically associated with each function. 3.2 Freight Cost Data Needs Freight cost data are used to support a variety of public func- tions. Section 3.1 defined public-sector functions and iden- tified those responsible for freight transportation planning. Section 3.2 will identify which freight cost data elements sup- port those functions and examine the relative importance of each element. This section includes three subsections that describe the study’s methodology; freight cost data needs for each identified government function based on existing studies and documents; and the findings based on previous analysis. 3.2.1 Methodology The analysis of freight cost data needs was divided into eight steps. Step 1, a scan of TRB reports with a focus on freight transportation planning, provided insight into freight trans- portation planning considerations and forecasting method- ologies. Relevant studies identified included: • NCHRP Report 570: Guidebook for Freight Policy, Planning, and Programming in Small- and Medium-Sized Metropolitan Areas (Williamson et al. 2007) • NCHRP Report 594: Guidebook for Integrating Freight into Transportation Planning and Project Selection Processes (Cambridge Systematics, Inc. 2007) • NCHRP Report 606: Forecasting Statewide Freight Toolkit (Cohen, Horowitz, and Pendyala 2008) • NCHRP Synthesis 358: Statewide Travel Forecasting Models (Horowitz 2006) • NCHRP Synthesis 384: Forecasting Metropolitan Commercial and Freight Travel (Kuzmyak 2008) • NCHRP Web Doc 4: Multimodal Transportation Planning Data: Compendium of Data Collection Practices and Sources (National Research Council 1997) • TRB Special Report 304: How We Travel – A Sustainable National Program for Travel Data (TRB 2011) Step 2 was a broader scan of NCHRP studies on freight transportation–related government functions. Several reports provide confirmation of the importance of certain freight cost data, including such measures as tour time, tour distance, maintenance costs, taxes, and fees. The analysis of broader NCHRP transportation studies included: • NCHRP Synthesis 319: Bridge Deck Joint Performance (Russell and Rhys 2003) • NCHRP Synthesis 337: Cooperative Agreements for Corridor Management (Williams 2004) UN Functions Services Regulation and Enforcement Information Financial Support Source: United Nations (2010). Table 3.2. Functions of government. State DOT Functions Development of Financial Plan Intermodal Corridor Planning Terminal and Border Access Planning Security Planning Hazardous Materials Planning Roadway Pavement and Bridge Maintenance Planning Inter-regional Connectivity Modal Diversion Planning Sustainable Transportation Investment Operational Performance Collaborative Partnerships Table 3.3. State DOT functions.

14 Table 3.4. Freight planning and decisionmaking, public-sector functions. Function Description Mode State/MPO Source Congestion Management Identify and monitor recurring and non-recurring congestion along road corridors and evaluating and recommending mitigation strategies Truck Both Baltimore UPWP Operations/Services Develop, operate and maintain transportation modes; improve the movement of goods and people and increase the safety and efficiency of the transportation system through enhanced management and operations coordination All Modes MPO Baltimore UPWP Safety Planning and Analysis Implement and maintain integrated multimodal safety and transportation planning; the ultimate goal is to reduce crashes, injuries and fatalities All Modes Both Baltimore UPWP Freight Mobility Planning Incorporate goods movement into the regional transportation planning process All Modes Both Baltimore UPWP Emergency Preparedness Planning Increase the safety and security of the transportation system through enhanced coordination and communications amongst emergency responders All Modes Both, federal Baltimore UPWP Transportation Equity Planning Incorporate transit equity principles and legislation such as SAFETEA-LU into regional transportation planning Multimodal MPO Baltimore UPWP Economic Development Planning Involve the impacts of transportation planning on local population and employment All Modes MPO Balti more UPWP Transportation and Land Use Planning Integration Coordinate regional transportation planning and land use development Multimodal MPO Baltimore UPWP Environmental Planning Involve such activities as mobile emissions planning, environmental protection, land use management, and air quality efforts All Modes Both Baltimore UPWP Regulation and Enforcement Involve such activities as licensing, inspection, size and load specifications, work hours regulation, and taxes/fares All Modes State UN COFOG Financial Planning Include grants, loans, and subsidies to support the transportation system; also involve tax policy, road user fee assessment, and other activities such as public- private partnerships All Modes Both UN COFOG Intermodal Corridor Planning Develop intermodal corridors to ensure efficient freight movement and reduce congestio n All Modes Both Florida Plan Terminal and Border Access Planning Manage terminals and borders to ensure efficient movement of people and goods across modes All Modes, Intermodal Both, federal California Plan Security Planning Integrate emergency response and other calculations into transportation planning All Modes Both, federal Multiple Plans Hazardous Materials Planning Improve safe movement and monitoring of hazardous materials transported using the freight syste m All Modes State, federal Multiple Plans Roadway Pavement and Bridge Maintenance Planning Study the effects of fleet use on infrastructure, such as expected pavement deterioratio n Primarily Truc k State Minnesota Plan Interregional Connectivity Facilitate efficient freight traffic while addressing community livability and land use concerns Multimodal Both Florida Plan Sustainable Transportation Investment Investigate ways to fund the existing transportation system and future projects All Modes Bo th Florida Plan

15 • NCHRP Synthesis 367: Technologies for Improving Safety Data (Ogle 2007) • NCHRP Report 388: A Guidebook for Forecasting Freight Transportation Demand (Cambridge Systematics, Inc. 1997) • NCHRP Report 463: Economic Implications of Congestion (Weisbrod, Vary, and Treyz 2001) • NCHRP Report 497: Financing and Improving Land Access to U.S. Intermodal Cargo Hubs (Shafran and Strauss-Wieder 2003) • NCHRP Report 524: Safety of U-Turns at Unsignalized Median Openings (Potts et al. 2004) • NCHRP Report 590: Multi-Objective Optimization for Bridge Management Systems (Patidar et al. 2007) • NCHRP Report 618: Cost-Effective Performance Measures for Travel Time Delay, Variation, and Reliability (Cambridge Systematics, Inc., et al. 2008) • NCHRP Report 661: A Guidebook for Corridor-Based State- wide Transportation Planning (Carr, Dixon, and Meyer 2010) Step 3 was an analysis of case studies at the state or local level. The cases provided insight on a range of freight transportation–related issues, challenges, and public policy responses. The main public-sector functions discussed in these cases were congestion management, corridor plan- ning, operation/services, and terminal and border access planning. Studies examined included: • Bay Bridge Corridor Congestion Study (San Francisco) (Bruzzone 2010) • Transportation 2040: Toward a Sustainable Transportation System (Puget Sound Regional Council 2010) • Congestion Management Process (New York Metropolitan Transportation Council 2010) • Mitigating Diesel Truck Impacts in Environmental Justice Communities: Transportation Planning and Air Quality in Barrio Logan, San Diego (Karner et al. 2009) • Interregional Transportation: Sacramento Region MTP 2035 Metropolitan Transportation Plan (Sacramento Area Council of Governments 2008) • Road Pricing Simulations: Traffic, Land Use and Welfare Impacts for Austin, Texas (Gupta, Kalmanje, and Kockelman 2004) • Northeast Corridor—Great Cincinnati Transit Benefit- Cost Analysis (HLB Decision Economics Inc. 2002) Step 4 was a scan of public-sector agencies involved in freight transportation planning activities. The websites of councils of governments (COGs), state DOTs, MPOs, and port, airport, and roadway authorities provide a wealth of information on their goals and missions, policies and regulations, and past and current projects. Such information allowed the research team to better understand these agencies and their needs for freight cost data. Step 5 was a survey of public-sector freight transportation data users. The research team interviewed planners and ana- lysts in a number of state and local agencies, including state DOTs, city DOTs, MPOs, and port authorities. Step 6 was an analysis of the cost data needs for each public- sector function. The analysis determined the relative impor- tance of the cost data elements, ranking each as “crucial,” “very important,” “important,” or “not generally used.” Step 7 was to present the relative importance of freight cost data elements for each public-sector function in a matrix to provide a visual interpretation of the findings. Step 8, the final step of the methodology, was to draw con- clusions from the analyses. Based on the cost-by-function matrix, the research team identified the data elements most and least commonly used to support freight transportation– related public-sector functions. These steps are discussed in more detail in Section 3.2.3. 3.2.2 Cost Data Needs by Function This subsection provides a function-by-function analysis of specific freight cost data elements for transportation planning decision-making functions. Cost data have been divided into three aggregate cost measures: company, vehicle, and route. These whole-cost measures are further divided into fixed, variable, and average costs, when appropriate. For clarity and simplicity, the trucking mode is used as an example. While aggregate cost measures simplify the exposition, each aggre- gate measure contains the following detailed cost elements: • Company Costs: Building/land costs, utilities, special equip- ment costs, wages/benefits of administration staff, mainte- nance, company licenses/permits/insurance, and taxes/fees. • Vehicle Costs: Driver- and crew-related labor costs, vehi- cle purchase costs, estimated salvage value, maintenance costs, depreciation, vehicle licenses/permits/insurance, taxes, energy consumption, monitoring devices, and com- munication system costs. • Route Costs: Vehicle operating time and speed, travel time and distance, permits, tolls, and parking costs. 3.2.2.1 Congestion Management The research team analyzed a number of studies to deter- mine which cost data elements are needed for congestion man- agement planning. The most important of these studies were: • NCHRP Report 463: Economic Implications of Congestion (Weisbrod, Vary, and Treyz 2001) • Bay Bridge Corridor Congestion Study (Bruzzone 2010) • Fusing Public and Private Truck Data to Support Regional Freight Planning and Modeling (Liao 2010)

16 Route costs are critical data elements for congestion man- agement planning. The three studies each discussed route variable costs and route average costs, so these data elements are identified as either crucial or very important. Vehicle cost data are less important and are not widely utilized. Company costs were not deemed important because none of the studies considered them. • Route Variable Costs (Crucial): NCHRP Report 463 used truck trip coverage and truck delivery delay data to ana- lyze the impact of urban traffic congestion on producers of economic goods or services. The Bay Bridge Corridor Congestion study projected the corridor’s freeway perfor- mance between the East Bay and San Francisco in terms of congestion reduction and transit reliability using data on travel time/delay. Liao’s study used truck speed and travel time data, collected between Minneapolis/Saint Paul and Chicago, to assess the cost effectiveness of portable data collection GPS systems. These systems also are used in the State of Washington to measure freight movements and to identify corridor bottlenecks. Along with these researchers, public-sector planners also expressed the need for data on delay and congestion (e.g., travel time). For example, in an interview conducted for NCFRP Project 26, a staff member at a large MPO expressed an interest in conges- tion analysis, in which travel time and speed would be key inputs. • Route Average Costs (Important): Data on travel speed were used in the Bay Bridge Corridor Congestion Study to project the corridor’s freeway performance in terms of congestion reduction and transit reliability, and truck speed was used as an input in Liao’s study of GPS systems. • Vehicle Fixed Costs (Important): Vehicle fixed costs are collected and analyzed in a limited number of studies, including Liao’s, and are identified as important cost ele- ments in NCFRP Report 22. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Since these studies do not mention company costs, the analysis determined that they are not generally required for congestion man- agement planning. 3.2.2.2 Operation and Service Planning The operation and service planning function covers a variety of freight transportation–related programs, including perfor- mance evaluation, corridor planning, and congestion man- agement. Studies typical of this function included: • NCHRP Report 618: Cost-Effective Performance Measures for Travel Time Delay, Variation, and Reliability (Cambridge Systematics, Inc., et al. 2008) • FY-2008 Network Documentation: Highway and Transit Network Development (Draft). (Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments 2008) • Mitigating Diesel Truck Impacts in Environmental Justice Communities: Transportation Planning and Air Quality in Barrio Logan, San Diego (Karner et al. 2008) Analysis of these reports led to the conclusion that route costs are crucial to operation and service planning. Route costs data were used in each of the studies listed, as well as in other studies. Vehicle costs and company costs were not identified as important, as they went unmentioned in relevant studies. • Route Variable Costs (Crucial): NCHRP Report 618 used data on highway user costs, including tolls and permits, to analyze the framework and methodology for highway performance evaluation and estimation. The Metropoli- tan Washington Council of Governments collected data on existing tolls for high occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes in 2010 and made projections for tolls in years 2020 and 2030 because they plan to develop highways and transit networks in the area. The truck environmental impact study in San Diego identified potential traffic operational improvements using such data as distance traveled by truck. During an interview conducted as a part of the research for NCFRP Project 26, a state DOT employee stated there was a need for route variable cost data. • Route Average Costs (Important): Route average costs were identified as important in operational and service planning. For example, data on truck speed was used by Karner and his colleagues to identify potential traffic oper- ational improvements that would mitigate local impacts originating from diesel trucks. • Vehicle and Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Few studies mentioned vehicle costs or company costs in rela- tion to operation and service planning. However, such costs can be very important in assessing specific public-sector questions, such as changes in toll policies, new equipment requirements, and Hours-of-Service regulations. 3.2.2.3 Safety Planning and Analysis The research team determined the cost data elements needed for safety planning and analysis through a litera- ture review of government regulations and relevant studies. Important resources included: • The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) website at: http://www.ntsb.gov • The Surface Transportation Board (STB) website at: http:// stb.dot.gov/stb/environment/rules.html

17 • The Highway Safety for Missouri Farm Trucks (Missouri DOT) website at: http://www.modot.org/mcs/documents/ FarmTruckSafety07.pdf • The Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Study (FHWA 2000) website at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/otps/ truck/finalreport.htm • NCHRP Report 524: Safety of U-Turns at Unsignalized Median Openings (Potts et al. 2004) The types and granularity of safety data needed may vary considerably depending on the geographic scope of a study, as well as the issues. Based on these source materials, the research team concluded that route costs data are crucial for highway safety planning and analysis. Vehicle costs data, which are uti- lized less frequently, were identified as important rather than crucial. Because none of the studies mentioned company costs, they were not identified as important. • Route Average Costs (Crucial): The NTSB discussed the need to use electronic onboard data recorders to maintain accurate records of driver hours of service. The Missouri study required all working hours, driving hours, and off- duty time to be documented with a logbook for safety regulation purposes. NCHRP Report 524, which covered a total of 918 unsignalized median openings in 62 arte- rial corridors in seven states, recommended that highway agencies consider the volume of turning and crossing large vehicles when they design the medians. Information on large truck operating days/hours might be useful in esti- mating the truck volume. • Route Variable Costs (Important): The Missouri study utilized information on farm truck tour distance to analyze the safety of farm truck operations. • Vehicle Fixed Costs (Important): The Missouri study men- tioned truck insurance coverage in highway safety analysis. According to the study, higher public liability insurance may be required if trucks carry bulk or placarded hazardous materials. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Company costs, mainly including labor costs on administration staff, build- ing and utility costs, and number of vehicles, were not gen- erally utilized for safety planning and analysis. However, as noted previously, specific analyses may consider the impacts of an action on company costs. 3.2.2.4 Freight Mobility Planning Of the literature analyzed, these are the most important to determining the cost data elements needed for freight mobil- ity planning: • FHWA Freight Facts and Figures 2007 (updated annually) • “Public Policy and Surface Transportation Capacity,” pre- sented at the Freight Transportation Productivity Summit, Atlanta, Georgia (Nober 2005) • NCHRP Report 657: Guidebook for Implementing Passenger Rail Service on Shared Passenger and Freight Corridors (Bing et al. 2010) • Rail to Truck Modal Shift: Impact of Increased Freight Traf- fic on Pavement Maintenance Costs (Steward et al. 2008) • Fusing Public and Private Truck Data to Support Regional Freight Planning and Modeling (Liao 2010) The research team concluded from this analysis that vehi- cle costs are crucial and route costs are very important in sup- porting freight mobility planning programs. The analysis did not identify company costs as important. • Route Variable Costs (Very Important): Data on tour dis- tance and tour time are very important for freight mobility planning. For example, the FHWA report presented data on truck travel distance in several figures; data on travel dis- tance were used to calculate truck miles by average weight and truck miles by products carried. • Route Average Costs (Important): Some studies required route average cost data, such as operational speed. NCHRP Report 657 discussed state officials’ awareness of leverag- ing rail mode and encouraging truck-to-rail or intermodal handling, and data on truck speed are necessary for the cost-benefit analysis of this type of modal shift. • Vehicle Fixed Costs (Important): The presentation by Roger Nober, then Chairman of the STB, discussed sev- eral factors that limit truck capacity, including high insur- ance costs. Vehicle fixed cost data (e.g., insurance cost per vehicle power unit or trailer) are important for analyzing freight mobility. The research team interviewed an individ- ual from a large turnpike authority who identified vehicle fixed cost data as one of the agency’s current needs for freight cost data. • Vehicle Variable Costs (Crucial): Fuel consumption and prices were discussed in many freight mobility studies. For example, the Rail to Truck Modal Shift study showed that trucking costs increased substantially in several years before 2008, partly due to escalating fuel prices that greatly influ- enced mode selection in freight transportation planning. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Few studies men- tioned company cost data in relation to freight mobility- related policies, which incorporate goods movement into the regional transportation planning process. However, as noted previously, specific analyses may consider the impacts of an action on company costs.

18 3.2.2.5 Emergency Preparedness Planning The cost data needs of the emergency preparedness plan- ning function are reflected in many freight transportation– related regulations and relevant analyses. Some important documents included: • A Guide to Updating Highway Emergency Response Plans for Terrorist Incidents (Parsons Brinkerhoff–PB Farradyne 2002) • Emergency Preparedness and Individuals with Disabilities. U.S.DOT website at: https://www.civilrights.dot.gov/page/ emergency-preparedness • Emergency Relief Manual (FHWA 2009b) • “Communicating in a Crisis.” DHS website at: http://www. dhs.gov/files/publications/gc_1262023179771.shtm The research team concluded that vehicle average costs are crucial for emergency preparedness planning. Route vari- able costs are identified as important since they are likely to be used in detour route planning. Company costs are not dis- cussed in relevant documents and studies, and so were not deemed important. • Vehicle Average Costs (Crucial): Given that communi- cation is discussed in almost every safety and emergency planning program, the costs for monitoring devices and communication systems were identified as crucial to this function. According to the U.S.DOT, in any emergency, communication about the incident and the means to remain safe are critical to avoid panic, minimize injuries, and save lives. To enhance emergency preparedness, DHS has orga- nized a series of scenario-based workshops called “News and Terrorism: Communicating in a Crisis.” According to the PB Farradyne report, a lack of communication lines and centers, along with incompatible technologies among public safety and transportation agencies, indicates the dangers inherent in institutional isolation, and interoper- able communications systems for both data and voice are key to generally improved emergency management. • Route Variable Costs (Important): Tour time was iden- tified as important data for emergency preparedness and response efforts. FHWA suggests that detour routes need to be created to relieve excess traffic directly attributable to a disaster, and the PB Farradyne report also lists develop- ing detour routings as an important responsibility of state DOTs in a highway emergency. The planning of detour routes may require congestion-related information such as tour time and tour distance. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Emergency preparedness/response-related programs usually are focused on enhancing communication and coordination among emergency responders and are not focused on company costs. As noted previously, specific analyses may consider the impacts of an action on company costs. 3.2.2.6 Transportation Equity Planning Among the resources analyzed to determine the cost data elements needed for transportation equity planning, the most important are: • Evaluating Transportation Equity: Guidance for Incorpo- rating Distributional Impacts in Transportation Planning (Litman 2012) • Transportation Equity Project (Pratt Center for Com- munity Development), website at: http://prattcenter.net/ transportation-equity-project • Transportation Equity (Baltimore Metropolitan Council), website at: http://www.baltometro.org/transportation- planning/transportation-equity The research team concluded that vehicle costs are crucial for this government function, while route costs are impor- tant, as route costs are utilized less frequently. Company costs are not discussed in relevant studies, and therefore are not identified as important for this function. • Vehicle Variable Costs (Crucial): Data on vehicle fuel con- sumption are crucial for transportation equity planning. According to the Baltimore Metropolitan Council website, a core principle of environmental justice and transporta- tion is to avoid, minimize, or mitigate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects, including social and economic effects, on minority and low-income populations. The Pratt Center for Community Development website also lists environmental quality and pedestrian safety as a goal for the Transportation Equity Project in New York City. • Route Variable Costs (Important): According to Litman (2012), some impacts of congestion (e.g., travel delays and accident risks) are monetized (measured in monetary units) for economic evaluation; however, adjustments are needed for comprehensive equity evaluation. For example, the fact that motorists impose far more delay and risk on non-motorized travelers than non-motorized travelers impose on motorists represents an inequity. For a compre- hensive evaluation of the impacts of congestion delay, basic route variable cost data (e.g., tour time and tour distance) are important. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Company costs are not generally used to support transportation equity planning activities, and new principles and legislation are unlikely to have a significant effect on company cost ele-

19 ments such as building, land, utilities, or maintenance. As a result, company costs are not identified as important for this function. 3.2.2.7 Economic Development Planning Economic development planning involves a variety of freight transportation–related programs and has impacts on both the private and the public sector. The research team analyzed many case studies in order to identify important cost data elements for this public-sector function, including: • “Transportation and the Economy,” in The Geography of Transport Systems (Rodrigue, Comtois, and Slack 2009) • Evaluating Transportation Economic Development Impacts (Litman 2010) • Economic and Land Use Impacts Study of State Trunk Highway 29: Phase 1, Chippewa Falls to Abbotsford, Wisconsin (Leong 2003), website at: http://www.fhwa. dot.gov/planning/econdev/wis2911.htm • Georgia’s “Business Expansion Support” Act (Georgia Ports Authority), website at: http://www.gaports.com/ SalesandMarketing/EconomicIndustrialDevelopment/ BESTLegislation.aspx The conclusion drawn from analyzing relevant reports is that route costs, vehicle costs, and company costs are all crucial for economic development planning. • Route Variable Costs (Crucial): The work by Rodrigue, Comtois, and Slack (2009) divided economic impacts of transport into five categories: networks, performance, reli- ability, market size, and productivity. Route variable data, such as tour time and tour distance, are required to assess the improvements in the time performance in terms of punctuality as well as reduced loss or damage. • Route Average Costs (Crucial): Data on operational speed are crucial for economic development planning. For exam- ple, the FHWA study on State Trunk Highway 29 showed that the expansion of Highway 29 in Clark County, Wisconsin, and the subsequent higher speed limit increased the reliabil- ity and efficiency of manufacturers delivering commodities. As a result, for-hire truck companies offered lower freight charges for deliveries, and manufacturers using these freight services saved money on delivery feeds. • Vehicle Variable Costs (Crucial): Vehicle variable cost ele- ments often are used to determine the relationship between transportation-related factors and other social factors. For example, to examine the relationship between mobility and economic productivity, Litman (2010) analyzed the correla- tion between per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and vehicle-miles traveled (VMT), and the correlation between GDP and fuel prices. The results indicated that economic productivity tends to increase with less motor vehicle travel and higher fuel prices. Vehicle variable costs—like miles traveled per year and unit cost of fuel—are vital, both for such economic impact analysis and for freight transporta- tion decisionmaking in general. • Company Fixed Costs (Crucial): The number of admin- istrative employees and related labor costs were identified as crucial data for economic development planning. For example, Georgia’s Business Expansion Support Act (BEST) provides highly competitive tax incentives to increase jobs while expanding port traffic. According to Rodrigue, Com- tois, and Slack (2009), at the macroeconomic level, trans- portation and the mobility it provides are linked to a level of output—employment and income—within the national economy. Employment-related data are therefore crucial to analyze the economic impacts of freight transportation policies. 3.2.2.8 Transportation and Land Use Planning Integration The integration of Transportation and Land Use (TLU) is a critical consideration for freight planning and decision- making. The following papers and studies, among others, were analyzed to determine which cost data elements are needed for TLU planning integration: • NCHRP Report 497: Financing and Improving Land Access to U.S. Intermodal Cargo Hubs (Shafran and Strauss-Wieder 2003) • NCHRP Synthesis 320: Integrating Freight Facilities and Operations with Community Goals (Strauss-Wieder 2003) • Road Pricing Simulations: Traffic, Land Use and Welfare Impacts for Austin, Texas (Gupta, Kalmanje, and Kockelman 2004) • Land Use Transport Interaction: State of the Art (Wegener and Fürst 1999) The research team concluded that route variable costs are crucial for TLU planning integration purposes. All of the studies listed above used route variable costs, while vehi- cle cost data and company cost data were identified as less important. • Route Variable Costs (Crucial): Data on tour distance and tour time were identified as crucial for TLU planning. NCHRP Synthesis 320 discussed the impacts of trucking on communities, including congestion on local roads, high- ways, and at customer facilities. The University of Texas study assessed different tolling scenarios, and used tour distance data to evaluate toll rates based on travel distance.

20 The Land Use Transport Interaction study used tour time to analyze technical, behavioral, and institutional issues of land use transport interaction at the urban-regional level. The University of Texas project also involved travel cost data, which could cover several route variable cost ele- ments such as permits, tolls, and parking. In the survey conducted for NCFRP Project 26, a respondent from a large MPO identified the importance of toll data in inte- grated planning. • Vehicle Costs (Important): According to NCHRP Report 497, improved access to intermodal cargo hubs will increase the use of higher capacity equipment, such as longer trucks. Higher capacity equipment allows carriers to streamline their service routes by focusing on a few hubs to reduce costs and to increase the efficiency of their operations. The cost-benefit analysis of longer trucks requires all types of vehicle costs, including truck purchase costs (fixed costs), average service life (average costs), and maintenance costs (variable and average costs). • Company Variable Costs (Important): As NCHRP Report 497 indicated, the development of cargo hubs is likely to lead to an increase in higher capacity trucks, which will affect some company variable costs. Costs that are affected mainly include number of trucks by type, and number of truck miles transported. 3.2.2.9 Environmental Planning The following reports and studies are the most important of those analyzed to determine which cost data elements are needed for environmental planning: • NCFRP Report 4: Representing Freight in Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Models (Browning et al. 2010) • NCHRP Report 388: A Guidebook for Forecasting Freight Transportation Demand (Cambridge Systematics, Inc. 1997) • Incentive Funding Opportunities for On-Road Diesel Vehi- cles (Air Resources Board 2009) • A Multi-Track Future: An Analysis of the Social and Environmental Aspects of Railways and Public Transport (Ries 2007) Both vehicle costs and route costs are crucial for environ- mental planning, while fuel consumption and operational speed data are important. Company costs are not identified as important to environmental planning. • Vehicle Variable Costs (Crucial): Data on vehicle fuel consumption were widely used in environmental studies, and according to NCFRP Report 4, these data are required to determine the greenhouse gas emissions of the trans- portation sector. According to NCHRP Report 388, motor carriers are most affected by emissions controls and clean fuel requirements. The California Air Resource Board requires fuel consumption data from applicants for grants and loans to reduce the cost of replacing older trucks with more energy-efficient ones. In a social and environmental analysis, Ries assessed environmental risks in transpor- tation investment based on vehicle data, including fuel consumption. • Vehicle Fixed Costs (Very Important): NCFRP Report 4 discusses methods of estimating greenhouse gas emissions for different types of trucks. Truck type is directly associ- ated with truck purchase costs. In addition, the California Air Resource Board requires grant or loan applicants to provide information on purchase cost and estimated sal- vage value. • Vehicle Average Costs (Very Important): In addition to vehicle fixed costs, truck type is also directly associated with vehicle average costs, such as average service life and maintenance costs. • Route Average Costs (Crucial): As NCFRP Report 4 indi- cates, data on truck operational speed are required to analyze truck greenhouse gas emissions. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Although environ- mental planning may affect some company fixed costs, such as land/building costs, the majority of company costs will not be affected. Because these cost elements are not dis- cussed in the literature reviewed, they were not identified as important for environmental planning purposes. For example, some environmental programs are now mandat- ing that certain older trucks be banned from use at ports. Such policies can raise costs for individual companies, and are recognized as having that effect with programs offered to reduce the cost of acquiring newer trucks or retrofitting older equipment. 3.2.2.10 Regulation and Enforcement To understand the data needs of the regulation and enforcement function, the research team analyzed freight transportation–related policies and regulations enforced by different levels of transportation authorities, as well as research papers that discussed regulation issues. Selected source materials are: • Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations: Truck Driver Regulations (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Adminis tration, U.S.DOT), website at: http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/rules- regulations/truck/driver/truck-driver.htm • Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations: Hours-of-Service Regulations. (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration), website at: http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/rules-regulations/ topics/hos/index.htm

21 • Commercial Vehicle Size and Weight Program. (FHWA), website at: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/sw/overview/ index.htm • Road Pricing Simulations: Traffic, Land Use and Welfare Impacts for Austin, Texas (Gupta, Kalmanje, and Kockelman 2004) • Positive Train Control Overview. (FRA), website at: http:// www.fra.dot.gov/rrs/pages/fp_1265.shtml From this analysis, the research team concluded that route costs are crucial for regulation and enforcement. They are required by the federal government and frequently used in policy analysis. Vehicle costs are important because they might be used to support the development of certain regulations. Based on the information reviewed, truck purchase and com- pany costs are not generally used for this function. • Route Variable Costs (Crucial): In the University of Texas study by Gupta et al. (2004), tolling information was used to analyze traffic, land use, and welfare impacts of road pricing in the Austin, Texas region. Title 49 “Transportation” in the Code of Federal Regulations also mentioned expenses data, such as permits, tolls, and parking costs. • Route Average Costs (Crucial): The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, an agency within the U.S.DOT, is responsible for setting and enforcing Hours-of-Service regulations that limit how long commercial motor vehi- cle drivers may drive. Such regulations involve such route average cost elements as number of days of operation, or operating hours per day. In the Positive Train Control Overview, FRA mentioned over-speed derailments, which require operational speed data. • Vehicle Fixed Costs (Not Generally Used): Truck purchase costs are not collected or tabulated by the FHWA as part of the Commercial Vehicle Size and Weight Program. • Vehicle Variable Costs (Crucial): Regulations on commer- cial vehicle weight and size affect many vehicle variable cost elements, including truck maintenance costs and fuel con- sumption. The analysis of Hours-of-Service regulations of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requires use of such vehicle variable data as truck driver wages and benefits. Analysis of the Hours-of-Service rules also involves vehicle fixed cost data such as training costs of truck drivers. • Vehicle Average Costs (Very Important): Vehicle average cost elements, such as the average service life of power unit and trailer, are directly affected by regulations on truck size and weight. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Given that com- pany cost elements were rarely discussed in relevant docu- ments, these are not likely to be required for the regulation and enforcement function. However, as noted previously, specific analyses may consider the impacts of a particular action on company costs. 3.2.2.11 Financial Planning Financial planning covers policies and programs related to grants, loans, subsidies, and taxes, as well as such finance mechanisms as public-private partnerships. To determine the cost data elements needed for these activities, the research team analyzed information from a number of sources, including: • NCHRP Report 497: Financing and Improving Land Access to U.S. Intermodal Cargo Hubs (Shafran and Strauss-Wieder 2003). • Planning and Programming: State Transportation Improve- ment Program (Minnesota Department of Transportation), website at: http://www.dot.state.mn.us/planning/program/ stipfunding.html • The Future of Highway Funding (Utah State Legislature 2002) The research team concluded that vehicle and route costs are generally very important for financial planning, whereas company costs are not. • Vehicle Variable Costs (Very Important): Financial plan- ning requires vehicle variable costs to analyze funding sources, and vehicle variable cost elements such as unit cost of fuel ($/gallon) and fuel consumption (gallons) for analyses. For example, the Utah legislature identified three sources to fund highway programs: (1) periodically increasing fuel tax rates; (2) creating an automatic rate adjustment (indexing) on fuel taxes; and (3) imposing a sales tax on the sale of fuel. • Vehicle Fixed Costs (Important): Data on purchase costs are needed for cost-benefit analyses, such as in NCHRP 497, which identified that equipment with higher capacity (e.g., longer trucks) can reduce the number of hubs needed, which can then reduce costs and increase the efficiency of hubs. • Route Variable Costs (Very Important): According to NCHRP 497, cargo hub access projects are currently sup- ported mainly by available highway user taxes, and/or through the contributions of private, port, airport, or eco- nomic development programs. NCHRP used route vari- able data such as highway user taxes or tolls to reach its conclusions. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Company costs were not discussed in relevant studies. However, as noted previously, while generally deemed not important, company costs may be considered in relation to a specific analysis. 3.2.2.12 Intermodal Corridor Planning The primary source materials used to determine the cost data elements needed for intermodal corridor planning were:

22 • U.S. Intermodal Corridors (Huffman 2010) • I-10 National Freight Corridor Study (Phase II Report) (Wilbur Smith Associates 2005) • I-87 Multimodal Corridor Study (New York State DOT) The conclusion from this is that route costs are important in intermodal corridor planning, to assess corridor capacity. Vehi- cle costs and company costs were not identified as important. • Route Variable Costs (Very Important): The I-10 Corri- dor study used travel time and travel distance to measure scheduled and nonscheduled delays, while the I-87 Cor- ridor study used data on the travel distance of truck and rail to estimate the capacity of existing intermodal facilities in the corridor. At the 2010 International Delegate Conference, Bob Huffman used the Heartland Corridor Double Stack Clearance Project to illustrate the benefits of such inter- modal corridor projects. Congestion information, such as tour time and tour distance, is critical for the planning of such projects. • Route Average Costs (Important): Average cost elements such as operational speed are often used in studies that evaluate rail-truck facilities. • Vehicle and Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Neither vehicle costs nor company costs were discussed in these studies as corridor planning activities are unlikely to sig- nificantly affect equipment, labor, or overhead costs. How- ever, as noted previously, specific analyses may consider the impacts of an action on company costs. 3.2.2.13 Terminal and Border Access Planning The research team analyzed numerous studies and regu- lations in this field, many of which were established after September 2001, to determine the cost data elements needed for terminal and border planning. Typical source materials included: • Integration and Consolidation of Border Freight Transpor- tation Data for Planning Applications and Characterization of NAFTA [North American Free Trade Agreement] Truck Loads for Aiding in Transportation Infrastructure Manage- ment (FHWA 2008) • NTSB website at: http://www.ntsb.gov • Truck Terminal and Warehouse Survey Results (New York Metropolitan Transportation Council 1996), website at: http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/5000/5900/5939/789.pdf The research team concluded that route variable costs are crucial in terminal and border planning, since they are used at both local and federal levels. Vehicle fixed costs were less fre- quently mentioned in the studies reviewed, but were deemed important, whereas company costs were not mentioned in terminal and border access planning activities. • Route Variable Costs (Crucial): The FHWA report described the truck pilot program in 2007, which gave 100 Mexican and 100 U.S. trucks permission to operate beyond the com- mercial zones into the interior of Mexico and the United States. Route variable costs data, such as tour time and tour distance, were required for this program. • Vehicle Fixed Costs (Important): Vehicle fixed costs were required for certain border planning programs. For exam- ple, truck traffic in Texas increased dramatically after the implementation of NAFTA, and the Texas DOT has identi- fied the need for accurate information on truck character- istics for border planning. Such information might include truck purchase cost data. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): An increase in ter- minal and border access planning activities may require companies to complete more paperwork, thereby increas- ing their overhead costs. However, the research team esti- mated the impact of such an increase to be insignificant. As noted with other cost elements, however, specific analyses may consider the impacts of an action on company costs. 3.2.2.14 Security Planning Many security considerations are related to hazardous material transportation. To determine the cost data elements needed for security planning, the research team analyzed a variety of regulations and reports, including: • Assessment of Highway Mode Security: Corporate Security Review Results (TSA 2006) • Highway Security-Sensitive Materials (HSSM) Security Action Items (SAIs) (TSA), website at: http://www.tsa.gov/ highway-security-sensitive-materials-hssm-security- action-items-sais • NTSB website at: http://www.ntsb.gov Vehicle and route costs data, it was determined, are crucial and widely used for security planning, and company costs were identified as very important. • Vehicle Average Costs (Crucial): Costs for monitoring devices and communication systems like vehicle tracking expenses and cell phones are crucial for security plan- ning. According to the Assessment of Highway Mode Secu- rity, many states have implemented strong communication systems to help them respond effectively to incidents. • Route Variable Costs (Crucial): Route variable costs are used to support en-route security management. TSA lists en-route security as a major category of security action

23 items, which refers to the actual movement and handling of motor vehicles containing highway security–sensitive materials. Therefore, en-route security planning is likely to involve data elements like cargo loading time at base, time to complete each stop, number of stops per trip, tour time, and tour distance. • Company Average Costs (Very Important): Company average costs are required for highway security analysis. For example, the Assessment of Highway Mode Security discussed the overall conditions of the motor carrier freight industry, with company data including the number of trucks, number of hazmat trucks, and the number of workers. Company cost elements such as “number of trucks by type” and “number of administration staff ” are therefore very important for highway security assessment. Addi- tionally, security hardware costs play an important role in security planning. 3.2.2.15 Hazardous Materials Planning To determine the cost data elements needed for hazardous materials planning, the research team analyzed hazardous material–related regulations and studies conducted by trans- portation authorities. Some typical references are: • Freight Facts and Figures (FHWA 2007) • Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (U.S.DOT), website at: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/ training/requirements • Trucks Transporting Hazardous Materials (Department of California Highway Patrol), website at: http://www.chp. ca.gov/publications/pdf/chp800c.pdf • Comparative Risks of Hazardous Materials and Non- Hazardous Materials Truck Shipment Accidents/Incidents: Final Report (Battelle 2001) Through this analysis, the research team concluded that data on vehicle costs are crucial for hazardous materials plan- ning. Such data were discussed in each regulation or research program listed above. Route costs were identified as very important, and company costs are not generally required for this function. • Vehicle Fixed Costs (Crucial): The federal hazardous materials transportation law requires training for all employees working with hazardous materials. Planning these training programs requires information on training- related costs. Battelle conducted a study to assist the U.S.DOT in reducing the rate and severity of accidents in hazardous materials transportation, and the study involved cleanup costs and property damage. Vehicle fixed costs, such as the purchase cost or specialized equipment cost, are required to estimate damages in dollar terms. In addition, certain regu- lation limitations are based on the amount of hazardous material transported, and the size of the truck. Truck size also directly impacts purchase costs. • Vehicle Variable and Average Costs (Very Important): In addition to vehicle fixed costs, information on other costs such as maintenance, insurance, license, and permits is also necessary for the U.S.DOT to determine the dollar loss due to hazardous materials transportation accidents. Truck size, which is required for hazardous material planning, is also associated with variable and average costs, such as service life and maintenance costs. • Route Variable Costs (Very Important): Route vari- able costs are often used to develop hazardous materials transportation-related measures. The FHWA report pro- vided a summary of hazardous materials shipments by trans- portation mode. Measures such as ton-miles and average miles per shipment required data on vehicle travel distance. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): An increase in hazardous materials planning activities is likely to result in higher company costs. For example, regulations may require companies to provide more training for adminis- tration staff, which would increase the companies’ overhead costs. However, as noted previously, specific analyses may consider the impacts of an action on company costs. 3.2.2.16 Roadway Pavement and Bridge Maintenance Planning To understand the data needs of the roadway pavement and bridge maintenance function, the research team analyzed a variety of studies and reports, including: • NCHRP Synthesis 319: Bridge Deck Joint Performance (Russell and Rhys 2003) • Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Design (FHWA 1998) • Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Study (FHWA), website at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/otps/truck/ finalreport.htm Route costs are crucial for roadway pavement and bridge maintenance planning, while vehicle and company costs are not generally required. • Route Average Costs (Crucial): Data on operating hours and travel speed were identified as crucial, since they reflect the amount of truck traffic. NCHRP 319 evaluated the performance of joint seals, which are considered one of the most serious issues in the operation of bridges. The report suggested that sliding plate joints are particularly unsatisfactory on highways with a significant amount of truck traffic, so data on operating time are required for

24 bridge maintenance planning. The Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Design identified the need for user delay costs, which in turn necessitates data on route average costs such as travel speed. • Route Variable Costs (Very Important): Route variable costs, such as tour time and tour distance, were identified as very important. For instance, the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Design discussed the assessment of user delay costs, which requires route variable cost data like tour time. • Vehicle and Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Road- way pavement and bridge maintenance planning activities are mainly focused on transportation infrastructures, rather than vehicles, equipment, or company management. As a result, vehicle and company costs are not generally involved in such planning activities. 3.2.2.17 Interregional Connectivity Among the important sources analyzed to determine the cost data elements needed for interregional connectivity plan- ning were: • Interregional Transportation: Sacramento Region MTP 2035 Metropolitan Transportation Plan. (Sacramento Area Council of Governments 2006) • Action Strategy Paper: Inter-Regional Transportation Plan- ning (prepared for the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning by the Research and Innovative Technology Admin- istration, U.S. Department of Transportation) (Rasmussen, Peirce, and Lyons 2009) • Inter-Regional Report: Making Connections Across Regional Borders (Wilmington Area Planning Council 2008) Route costs are crucial for interregional connectivity plan- ning, vehicle costs are less important, and company costs are not generally required. • Route Variable Costs (Crucial): Studies show that conges- tion is a critical consideration in interregional connectivity planning, and congestion data, such as tour distance and tour time, are essential. The Sacramento study analyzed the capacity of the region’s interregional connections for passenger and goods movement and found that several interstate highways experience severe congestions dur- ing morning and afternoon commute times. In this study’s survey, a member from a Transportation Planning Author- ity identified cost of delay as a major freight transportation data need for the agency, used to better analyze interregional connectivity. • Route Average Costs (Very Important): In the Sacramento Region study, congestion information, including vehicle travel speed, was used to analyze the capacity of interregional connections. In addition, the Wilmington interregional transportation study used travel speed data as an input to evaluate projected demographic and travel behaviors from 2000 to 2030. • Vehicle Variable Costs (Important): Data on fuel con- sumption and cost are used by the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning to analyze the impact of fuel prices on interregional travel patterns. • Company Costs (Not Generally Used): Interregional connectivity-related programs are largely intended to facili- tate efficient freight traffic, address community livability, and assist land use decisionmaking. Although certain pro- grams may have minor impact on land costs, most over- head costs will not be affected, so company cost data are not generally required for interregional connectivity devel- opment purposes. 3.2.2.18 Sustainable Transportation Investment To determine the cost data elements needed for sustainable investment planning, the research team analyzed a variety of studies and reports, including: • Toll Roads in the United States: History and Current Pol- icy (FHWA), website at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy information/tollpage/documents/history.pdf • Transportation Infrastructure and Sustainable Devel- opment: New Planning Approaches for Urban Growth (Boarnet 2008) • Transportation 2040: Toward a Sustainable Transporta- tion System (Puget Sound Regional Council 2010), web- site at: http://www.psrc.org/transportation/t2040/ • Job Types Related To Sustainable Transportation (Global Development Research Center [GDRC]), website at: http:// www.gdrc.org/uem/sustran/job-types.html The research team concluded that route costs and vehicle costs are both crucial for sustainable transportation invest- ment. Company fixed costs are important as well, but sus- tainable transportation investment activities have a limited impact on these cost elements. • Route Variable Costs (Crucial): Tolling information is required for cost-benefit and other analyses of toll roads, so these data elements are crucial in sustainable transporta- tion investment. To assess the effectiveness of toll roads as a funding strategy, Boarnet examined the effect of the ini- tial segments of the toll road network in Orange County, California, on urban growth patterns. Congestion data, such as travel time, were used in this study as well. The FHWA’s report provides a detailed discussion of historical

25 and current policies on toll roads in the U.S., indicating the importance of toll data in long-term transportation planning. • Vehicle Variable Costs (Crucial): Fuel consumption and fuel tax are crucial cost elements for sustainable transpor- tation investment: Boarnet discussed the negative environ- mental impact of congestion in his paper on sustainable transportation development, and the Puget Sound Regional Council concluded from their research that fuel tax has been one of the principal transportation tax bases. • Company Fixed Costs (Important): Researchers at the GDRC identified a variety of job types related to transporta- tion in the areas of technology, services, maintenance, train- ing, and production/manufacturing. To analyze the impact of transportation investment on the labor market requires company fixed cost data such as number of employees, wages, and benefits. 3.2.3 Cost Data Matrix Based on the analysis of cost data needs by function, the research team determined the relative importance of freight cost data elements for each public-sector function. Costs were defined as follows: • Fixed Cost: The summation of all fixed cost elements required to produce a set output. • Average Cost: The total cost divided by the total output. • Variable Cost: The costs that depend on the unit of output produced. Table 3.5. Freight cost data needs. Fi x ed C os t V a ri a bl e C o st A v er a ge C o st Fi x ed C os t V a ri a bl e C o st A v er a ge C o st V a ri a bl e C o st A v er a ge C o st Congestion Management Operation/Services Safety Planning and Analysis Freight Mobility Planning Emergency Preparedness Planning Transportation Equity Planning Economic Development Planning Transportation and Land Use Planning Integration Environmental Planning Regulation and Enforcement Financial Planning Intermodal Corridor Planning Terminal and Border Access Planning Security Planning Hazardous Materials Planning Roadway Pavement and Bridge Maintenance Planning Interregional Connectivity Sustainable Transportation Investment Functions Company Vehicle Route  = Crucial  = Very Important  = Important                                               

26 The results of the analysis are presented in Table 3.5. Each data element received a ranking of “crucial,” “very impor- tant,” “important,” or “not generally used.” Route variable cost data are the elements most needed and used for freight planning and decision-making functions. Within the cat- egory of variable cost data, the items most frequently used are tour time and tour distance. Route average cost data are also widely used to support government freight planning and decision-making functions, and most used within this cate- gory are operational speed and operating time (hours/days). In contrast, company cost data are much less frequently used or required. Among all the freight planning and decision- making functions, only four identified some company cost elements as important. (Because vehicle costs are listed as an independent category of freight costs, company costs in this study mainly involve overhead-related inputs.) These inputs, such as land/building, utilities, maintenance, and administra- tive staff, are rarely affected by freight transportation planning activities. Possibly the use of company costs is limited due to data privacy issues, and these costs may be more widely used when new data-sharing tools are developed and accepted by the private sector. This analysis of freight cost data needs also clarifies how interdependent some freight planning and decision-making functions are. For example, congestion is an important consid- eration in corridor planning activities, while such corridor planning strategies can be applied to improve congestion management. The hazardous materials planning function and the security planning function also have overlapping effects. The analysis shows that regulation and enforcement and economic development require the broadest scope of freight cost data. These functions cover a wide range of activities that affect route costs, vehicle costs, and company costs.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Report 22: Freight Data Cost Elements identifies the specific types of direct freight transportation cost data elements required for public investment, policy, and regulatory decisionmaking. The report also describes and assesses different strategies for identifying and obtaining the needed cost data elements.

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