National Academies Press: OpenBook

Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies (2003)

Chapter: APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites

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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2003. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21959.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

41 APPENDIX C Annotated References and Websites A POLICY ON GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF HIGHWAYS AND STREETS, 4TH EDITION The 2001 “Green Book” contains the latest design practices in universal use as the standard of highway geometric design and features the following improvements and additions: (1) use of dual units (metric and U.S. customary) throughout; (2) larger format—pages are 8.5 × 11 in. with easier-to-read text and graphics; (3) available on CD-ROM (non-network version); (4) com- pliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act; (5) discussions of the latest AASHTO Guide for the development of bicycle facilities (see page 9, code D-GBF-3) and the proposed new AASHTO Pedestrian Guide; (6) incorporates research from NCHRP Reports 375, 383, 400, 420, and 439 on median width and median opening design; revised criteria for intersection sight distance; stopping sight distance model; access management techniques; and super elevation criteria. Also available on CD-ROM (Publication No. CD-014). The book covers the following areas: Highway Functions, Design Controls and Criteria, Elements of Design, Cross Section Elements, Local Roads and Streets, Rural and Urban Arterials, Freeways, Intersections, Grade Separations and Interchanges (AASHTO 2001). A PRACTICAL SAFETY TOOL FOR LOCAL LOW-VOLUME RURAL ROADS: THE RSAR Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Low-Volume Roads, TRB, Reno, Nevada, June 22–25, 2003 Abstract Practical tools for improving transportation safety are needed worldwide. It has been estimated that motor vehicle-related crashes account for more than one million fatalities each year and the number of serious injuries far exceeds fatalities. Local and low-volume roads are significantly overrepresented in crash statistics. Globally, the Road Safety Audit (RSA) concept has been recognized as an effective tool in identifying and reducing the crash potential of roadways when used to analyze the safety aspects of project plans and designs prior to completion. In the local rural road arena, there are many safety issues associated with existing roadway networks. Many of these networks have developed over time with little or no planning and/or design. There is a critical need for a practical tool that focuses on the safety of the existing, as-built local road network. The RSA Review (RSAR) process has been developed for this purpose, giving specific recognition to the functionality of the road being evaluated for safety issues. There are significant numbers of safety improvements needed, and practical approaches to address these needs are crucial. The RSAR tool has the potential to be particularly beneficial to local governments in systematically addressing safety deficiencies on existing rural road networks. In addition, it is a proactive safety tool that has the potential to protect agencies from tort liability as it estab- lishes a record of the organization’s safety agenda. An RSAR methodology that can be adapted by local agencies is presented. A case study illustrating the application of this process is included. Also highlighted is a local rural training program that has been presented in several states for county applications. The focus of this paper is on U.S. county applications, but it is recognized that the process has utility for other agencies and has application in other countries. The necessity of training as a key component in the development of a sustainable safety program is emphasized.

42 ACCIDENT MITIGATION GUIDE FOR CONGESTED RURAL TWO-LANE HIGHWAYS NCHRP Report 440 This guide will assist planners, designers, and traffic engineers in identifying and designing projects to improve safety on congested rural two-lane highways. The guide assumes that widening the road to four lanes is not a practical solution because of financial, environmental, or societal constraints. Geometric, traffic control, and other types of countermeasures are dis- cussed. TRB, 2000, 170 pp., ISBN No. 0-309066-24-7. ARIZONA LOCAL GOVERNMENT SAFETY PROJECT ANALYSIS MODEL FHWA-AZ-01-504 Abstract Due to the time and expense required for the preliminary data collection and site assessment, some local governments lack the resources for an in-depth analysis of highway safety needs in their jurisdiction. This is significant because these jurisdictions may not determine candidate projects for safety program funding, and high-incident locations statewide may go without rem- edy despite the availability of federal aid for local safety improvements. The focus of this research has been primarily on development of site identification and implementation strategies for local safety projects. This research is intended to provide local governments with an efficient and justifiable means of assigning priority to potential projects in a local safety program. Although some analysis has been devoted to the multiple variables that affect the outcome of a safety measure, the primary aim of that analysis was the synthesis of data such as traffic volumes, average speed, type and design of roadway, and special circumstances, in order to develop appropriate parameters for imple- mentation strategies. This process was automated through the development of a database model intended to facilitate site identification and safety project selection by local jurisdictions and planning organizations. By providing an automated method for identifying local safety hazards, prioritizing these locations, and evaluating the potential benefits of treatments designed to remedy these locations, the Arizona Local Government Safety Project (LGSP) affords local jurisdictions more time for in-depth research of specific sites and a rationale for decision making that is impartial and justifiable. It is expected that the Arizona LGSP model will help local governments address their highway safety needs on a timelier basis, and ensure that more attention is directed at the most hazardous locations, thereby improving the overall safety of the roadway system in Arizona. This document is available to the U.S. public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161. BASIC REFERENCES FOR THE TRANSPORTATION ENGINEER Provides information on major current references in 16 subject areas dealing primarily with surface transportation. Listing includes textbooks, manuals, reports, periodicals, and other documents that contain significant information of importance to the practicing transportation professional. Also includes information on how to obtain copies of those publications. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1991, 9 pp. FUNDAMENTALS OF TRAFFIC ENGINEERING, 15TH ED. Covers traffic engineering characteristics and studies, control devices, planning and design, control systems, environmental and energy aspects, and administration. Reflects new literature and changes in laws and regulations, as well as recent changes in the state of the knowledge, art, and practice of traffic engineering. By W.S. Homburger, J.W. Hall, E.C. Sullivan, and W.R. Reilly. This 15th edition is the metric version. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, 2001.

43 GUIDELINES FOR GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF VERY LOW-VOLUME LOCAL ROADS (ADT ≤ 400): 2001 This AASHTO publication addresses issues that engineers face when designing policies for low-volume, local roads. A new approach to this type of road is presented based on research of safety and cost-effectiveness. This book may be used in lieu of the “Green Book.” AASHTO, 2001, 96 pp. HIGHWAY SAFETY DESIGN AND OPERATIONS GUIDE AASHTO’S “Yellow Book” This updated version of AASHTO’s “Yellow Book” combines results of research and state-of-the-art technologies with proven engineering practices for enhancing safety in the operation and management of highways. It identifies safety enhancements for new highway and 3R projects, introduces and consolidates new safety information, and suggests how existing situations might be upgraded to meet current standards and future needs. It is useful not only for design and planning purposes, but also for field reviews during planning, development, and evaluation. AASHTO, 1997, 132 pp. MANUAL ON IDENTIFICATION, ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION OF HIGH-CRASH-LOCATIONS (the HAL Manual) Technology Transfer Assistance Program Missouri Department of Transportation The HAL Manual discusses the use of police crash reports to improve the safety and flow of traffic. By analyzing data from crashes and using a few simple formulas, locations in need of improvement can be determined. Then, through worksheets, diagrams, and observations, primary and secondary crash patterns can be established. Steps can then be taken to improve the safety of the roadway. The manual provides all of the necessary worksheets and outlines how to use them. The manual also gives information on economic analysis and a list of possible solutions to traffic problems and the pros and cons of those solutions. MANUAL OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING STUDIES Shows in detail how to conduct several transportation engineering studies in the field. Discusses experimental design, survey design, statistical analyses, data presentation techniques, and report writing concepts. Provides guidelines for both oral and written presentation of study results. Includes useful forms for various transportation studies. Preceded by the Manual of Traffic Engineering Studies. Edited by H.D. Robertson, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1994, 526 pp. MANUAL ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES (MUTCD 2000) MILLENIUM EDITION Defines the standards used by road managers in the United States to install and maintain traffic control devices on all streets and highways. The purpose of these devices, which include signs, signals, and pavement markings, is to promote highway safety, efficiency, and uniformity so that traffic can move efficiently on the nation’s streets and highways. The Millennium Edition has been entirely rewritten and reformatted to improve the overall organization and discussion of the content and is available in a variety of formats (see MUTCD-1 through MUTCD-6). U.S.DOT/FHWA, 2000. NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC CONTROL ITE Publication The North Central Section of ITE has compiled a list of neighborhood traffic control techniques and their effects on traffic volumes, speed, environmental issues, and safety. These techniques offer a variety of potential alternatives with which to creatively solve problems in partnership with the neighborhoods and elected officials. Contained in this publication are addi- tional technical briefings. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1994, 64 pp.

44 ROADSIDE DESIGN GUIDE 2002 A synthesis of current information and operating practices related to roadside safety. It focuses on safety treatments that can minimize the likelihood of serious injuries when a motorist leaves the roadway. The document is written in dual units—metric and U.S. customary units. This publication supersedes the 1996 AASHTO publication of the same name. Includes CD-ROM. AASHTO, 2002, 328 pp., ISBN No. 1-560511-32-X. ROADWAY SAFETY NACE Action Guide Volume III-4 This guide has been prepared to assist county agencies—specifically, road superintendents, engineers, and assistant engi- neers—with highway responsibilities. It is intended to help identify various road hazards that may be present and to help develop safety improvements. It includes suggestions on ways to evaluate the seriousness of hazards and to develop priority lists for addressing those hazards. Standards of construction are indicated, and some comments are made on financing. Topics discussed at length include: • Agency Management, Operations, and Training; • Roadway Geometrics; • Roadside Features; • Traffic Control Devices; and • Work Zone Safety. ROADWAY SAFETY GUIDE Introduction This guide is designed to provide local elected officials and other community leaders with basic information to improve roadway safety in their communities. Written for nonengineers, it is designed to be a hands-on, user-friendly document, pro- viding community leaders with • Strategies they can use right away to begin making roads safer; • Basic information to improve roadway safety in cooperation with state and local transportation departments, highway engineers, highway safety officials, Safe Communities groups, and other safety programs; and • Clear descriptions of key funding and decision-making processes that affect roadway safety. The guide is available on the Roadway Safety Foundation website: www.roadway.org, with updates to assist users in their ability to respond to emerging roadway safety problems. Full text is available at: http://www.roadwaysafety.org/toc.html. STATISTICAL EVALUATION IN TRAFFIC SAFETY STUDIES ITE Publication This publication reports on the current practices of statistical techniques that governmental agencies are using in traffic safety studies, countermeasures, evaluation, and traffic safety research. The informational report covers transportation trends in five countries; summarizes a literature review that was conducted in Canada and the United States; and reports on the results of a questionnaire that was developed and distributed to governmental agencies, universities, and consultants throughout the United States, Canada, Australia, and England. Statistical techniques used in traffic safety studies are described and the advantages and disadvantages for each are presented. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1999, 80 pp., ISBN No. 0-935403-35-3.

45 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES HANDBOOK The new Traffic Control Devices Handbook replaces the out-of-print 1983 edition. The handbook will augment the 2000 edition of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), now being published. The Traffic Control Devices Handbook provides guidance and information to implement the provisions of the MUTCD. The objective of the handbook is to bridge the gap between the MUTCD requirements and field applications. Additional guidance is provided on the new MUTCD requirements to clarify the provisions of the manual. The information is specifically written for smaller jurisdictions, replacing the need for outside technical expertise. The handbook does not establish policy, procedures, or standards for an agency, or set the “standard-of-care” for decisions on traffic control devices. It is meant as guidance material to assist in determining the appropriate device(s) for a specific condition based on judgment and/or study. The handbook includes 14 chapters covering the wide variety of traffic control devices available to meet the public needs. There are chapters on low-volume, rural roads, as well as residential streets. Separate chapters are provided for signs, markings, traffic signals, railroad–highway grade crossings, and temporary (construction) traffic controls. One chapter addresses installation considerations for traffic control devices. Another discusses the human factor considerations in the application of traffic control devices. The specific issues of traffic control devices for schools, pedestrians, and bicyclists are each addressed in separate chapters. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2001, 521 pp., ISBN No. 0-935403-61-2. TRAFFIC SAFETY TOOLBOX: A PRIMER ON TRAFFIC SAFETY The following topics are covered in this update of the 1993 edition: Safety Management; Traffic Planning; Traffic Control Devices; Tort Liability, Risk Management, and Sign Inventory Systems; Geometric Design; One-Way Streets and Reversible Lanes; Roadside Safety; Enforcement; Automated Enforcement of Red Light Running; Infrastructure Maintenance; Traffic Control Devices; Work Zone Traffic Management; Designing for Pedestrians; Bicycling Element; Driver Behavior and Quali- fication; Traffic Calming; Teaching Safety; Before–After Evaluations in Highway Safety; Statistical Approach to the Analysis of Intersection Safety; Safety Improvements and Secondary Roadways; Low-Cost Safety Improvements; Safety Impacts of Roundabouts; and Road Safety Audit. The material covered reflects the personal knowledge, experience, and expertise of the authors of the individual chapters. This combination of resources makes this publication a valuable document, useful toward improving traffic safety and saving lives. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1999, 317 pp., ISBN No. 0-935403-43-4. BICYCLE LANES VERSUS WIDE CURB LANES: OPERATIONAL AND SAFETY FINDINGS AND COUNTERMEASURE RECOMMENDATIONS Foreword There is a variety of on- and off-road bicycle facilities—each with its advantages and disadvantages. A thorough evaluation of the various kinds of facilities implemented in pro-bicycling communities has been needed by the traffic engineering profes- sion. One of the studies under the FHWA’s Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Research Program investigated the long-standing issue of whether bicycle lanes or wide curb lanes are preferable. Overall, the study indicated that both bicycle lanes and wide curb lanes can and should be used to improve riding conditions for bicyclists. This document presents a summary of the research study, providing operational and safety findings and countermeasure recommendations regarding bicycle lanes and wide curb lanes. The information contained in this report should be of interest to state and local transportation engineers, planners, researchers, and bicycle coordinators. Report FHWA-RD-99-035, 1999. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/99035/intro.htm. CRASH MODELS FOR RURAL INTERSECTIONS: FOUR-LANE BY TWO-LANE STOP-CONTROLLED AND TWO-LANE BY TWO-LANE SIGNALIZED Foreword This report provides direct input into the Accident Analysis Module (AAM) of the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model. The AAM is a tool that highway engineers can use to evaluate the impacts of highway design elements in project planning and preliminary design. Three crash models were developed relating crashes to three types of rural intersections: (1) three-legged

46 intersections with major four-lane roads and minor two-lane roads that are stop-controlled, (2) four-legged intersections with major four-lane roads and minor two-lane roads that are stop-controlled, and (3) signalized intersections with both major and minor two-lane roads. Elaborate sets of data were acquired from state data sources (Michigan and California) and collected in the field. The final data sets consist of 84 sites of three-legged intersections, 72 sites of four-legged intersections, and 49 sites of signalized intersections. Negative binomial models—variants of Poisson models that allow for overdispersion—were developed for each of the three data sets. Significant variables included major and minor road traffic; peak major and minor left-turn percentage; peak truck percentage; number of driveways; and channelization, intersection median widths, vertical alignment, and, in the case of signalized intersections, the presence or absence of protected left-turn phases. Separate models were developed for crashes resulting in injuries and total crashes. Report FHWA-RD-99-128, 1999. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ tfhrc/safety/pubs/99128/intro.htm. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION PROFESSIONAL A manual on an organizational approach to communication dynamics. Includes case history examples of common communi- cation problems in operations, design, and planning, with practical responses for transportation officials who have not had the benefit of practical, formal, or role-model education. By Technical Council Committee 2-22, chaired by William van Gelder. An ITE Informational Report. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1984, 80 pp. GIS-BASED CRASH REFERENCING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM A geographical information system (GIS) can be simply defined as a collection of hardware and software that is used to edit, analyze, and display geographical information stored in a spatial database. In recent years, many transportation departments and other related organizations, such as the FHWA, have examined the feasibility of using GIS for transportation planning, systems management, and engineering applications. In some states and municipalities, GIS is being used to plan transporta- tion routes, manage pavement and bridge maintenance, and perform a variety of other traditional transportation-related func- tions. One area where GIS has yet to be extensively applied is in the analysis of crash data. Computerized crash analysis systems in which crash data, roadway inventory data, and traffic operations data can be merged are used in many states and municipalities to identify problem locations and assess the effectiveness of implemented counter- measures. By integrating this traditional system with a GIS, which offers spatial referencing capabilities and graphical dis- plays, a more effective crash analysis program can be realized. The objective of this effort was to develop a crash referencing and analysis system within a GIS. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/99-081.pdf. HIGHWAY SAFETY EVALUATION: PROCEDURAL GUIDE Foreword This guide describes procedures for evaluating highway safety programs and projects. It should be beneficial to state and local engineers and other professionals involved in evaluation. The objectives of this guide are to describe how to: 1. Select appropriate measures of effectiveness and efficiency to perform evaluations by using either accident data or alter- nate measures of hazard reduction; 2. Perform an evaluation of implemented safety improvements to gauge their effectiveness and efficiency, and to use the results in recommending improvements for other safety or operational problems; 3. Describe and guide the organization and management of evaluation processes for providing feedback on the effectiveness of safety programs to the planning and implementation components of the Highway Safety Improvement Program; and 4. Perform program effectiveness and administrative evaluations. Report FHWA-TS-81-219, 1981. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/81219/intro.htm.

47 HIGHWAY SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM (HSIP) Introduction A user’s manual, the Highway Safety Improvement Program, is being distributed as a Technology Sharing Report. This manual is currently being used in a National Highway Institute training course by the same name. The manual provides guidance to state and local agencies for developing and implementing a highway safety improvement program that best suits their capabilities and needs. The manual should be beneficial to federal, state, and local highway engineers and other professionals involved in a highway safety improvement program. The manual describes how to 1. Implement a highway safety improvement program that complies with Federal-Aid Highway Program Manual 8-2-3 and which contains the following components and processes: • Planning (collect and maintain data, identify hazardous locations and elements, conduct engineering studies, and estab- lish project priorities), • Implementation (schedule and implement projects), and • Evaluation (determine the effect of safety improvements). 2. Select the most appropriate procedures based on an agency’s particular goals, objectives, resources, and highway system. 3. Utilize current information concerning reporting requirements, funding sources, and practices of other highway agencies. Report FHWA-TS-81-218, 1981, 41 pp. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/81218/intro.htm. IMPROVING HIGHWAY SAFETY AT BRIDGES ON LOCAL ROADS AND STREETS Foreword This publication was developed by the FHWA’s Office of Highway Safety and has been produced by the FHWA’s Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) for distribution through the LTAP center network to the local, tribal, and rural governments. The FHWA’s LTAP is a network of 57 centers nationwide. The purpose of the LTAP is to stimulate the progressive and cost- effective transfer of highway technology and technical assistance to local, tribal, and rural governments. The LTAP accomplishes this by funding a variety of activities and projects that link local highway agencies, tribal governments, states, universities, and the federal government. The LTAP brings transportation technology transfer services, products, and educational resources to the local level. LTAP centers are located in all 50 states and Puerto Rico. Six additional centers assist American Indian Tribal governments. Although each of the LTAP centers has the flexibility to tailor its program to the needs of local customers, there are six basic requirements that are common throughout the entire network: each center must (1) publish a quarterly newsletter; (2) distribute technology transfer materials; (3) provide an information service; (4) provide at least 10 training courses; (5) evaluate the effectiveness of the program; and (6) compile and maintain a mailing list of tribal, local, and rural officials having transporta- tion responsibilities. The centers use a mix of technology transfer tools and marketing activities to meet their customer needs. Some typical endeavors include training workshops; on-site demonstrations and hands-on training; road shows or circuit-rider programs that take training on the road; microcomputer software development; adaptation and distribution of technical publications and user manuals; studies on specialized topics; and lending libraries for videos, publications, and other such materials. This pamphlet is intended as a general guide to effective, low-cost methods of improving and enhancing bridge and bridge approach safety. It is not a design manual or a substitute for engineering knowledge, experience, or judgment. Technical safety information such as bridge standards, crash-worthy approach rail systems and their attachment to the bridge rail, highway and bridge width, and development of highway alignments can be found in the material listed in the references. The guidance and information included in this pamphlet are based on actual situations and common existing bridge and roadway features identi- fied through national reviews. Some of the information provided in this pamphlet reflects a type of cost-effective improvement that can be made as a temporary measure before a bridge and/or bridge approach is reconstructed to current standards. Nation-

48 ally bridges and bridge approaches have been identified as one of the leading locations for severe, single-vehicle crashes. There are many bridges and large culverts on the highway system. Most have rigid rails and often span a potentially hazardous feature. Many of these structures were built decades ago for highways of lower speed and less traffic. Because of the high cost of replacing bridges and the long service life of many bridges, replacement of the bridge or major component of a bridge, such as the bridge deck or bridge rails, may not be a priority while the bridge remains structurally adequate. In situations where it is considered inappropriate to reconstruct the bridge or some element of the bridge to current standards, temporary improve- ments, although not resolving a substandard condition, can significantly contribute to improving highway safety. A temporary safety improvement may be considered when work is done to improve the safety or reduce the potentially hazardous nature of components or features of the bridge or roadway approaching the bridge. A safety improvement is considered temporary when it does not fully satisfy current design standards, but provides a significant improvement over existing conditions to warrant its application until the bridge and/or the approach roadway can be reconstructed to current design standards. Temporary improve- ments are not considered substitutes for design standards and should not be used as a substitute or justification for delaying rehabilitation of a bridge and/or bridge approach. Report FHWA-SA-98-083, 1998, 41 pp. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/98083/intro.htm. IMPROVING TRAFFIC SIGNAL OPERATIONS For elected and appointed officials and the public, this report describes how properly timed and operated signals can reduce congestion and lead to improvements in time savings, environmental benefits, and safety. Topics include strategies, how sig- nals work, when are signals needed, maintenance, legal aspects, and funding for improvements. Prepared by ITE under a grant from the FHWA. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1995, 16 pp. INTRODUCTION TO TRAFFIC ENGINEERING: A MANUAL FOR DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Thomas R. Currin’s new manual is useful in transportation engineering courses as well as in the office of the professional traffic engineer. This book presents step-by-step data collection and analysis techniques for 13 topics encountered in the daily practice of traffic engineering, from Determining Roadway Speeds to Traffic Control Compliance. Each topic is introduced in a consistent manner, with data collection and analysis forms provided for each study. Linkages between field data collection and estimation of field conditions using standard equations are also included. Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, Calif., 2001, 140 pp., ISBN No. 0-534378-67-6. MAINTENANCE OF SMALL TRAFFIC SIGNS Foreword This handbook is intended to help maintenance workers do a good job of maintaining small traffic signs. Maintaining small signs is important for driver safety. The following three kinds of signs help direct traffic flow safely and efficiently: • Regulatory signs, • Warning signs, and • Guide signs. Report FHWA-RT-90-002, 1990. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/90002/90002.pdf. RAILROAD–HIGHWAY GRADE CROSSING HANDBOOK Foreword This handbook provides general information on railroad–highway crossings, including characteristics of the crossing environ- ment and users, and the physical and operational improvements for safe and efficient use by both highway and rail traffic. The

49 handbook will be of interest to federal, state, and local highway agency personnel, railroad officials, consulting engineers, and educators involved with railroad–highway grade crossing safety and operation. The late William J. Hedley contributed generously of his background and experience toward the completion of this handbook. This is the second printing of the second edition of the handbook. The only change from the first printing is a revision of Figure 24, page 103, to reflect the guidance for placement of the railroad crossing pavements marking symbol in relation to the location of the advance warning sign. A standard distribution of the handbook was made to the FHWA Region and Division offices, the state highway agencies, and the T2 Centers in 1986. Copies of the handbook were also provided to the Federal Railroad Administration and the Associa- tion of American Railroads for their use. A limited number of copies are available from the Railroads, Utilities and Programs Branch, HNG-12, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. 20590 and the RD&T Report Center, HRD-11, Federal Highway Administration, 6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, Va. 22101-2396. Copies may be purchased from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161. Report FHWA-TS-86-215. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/86215/intro.htm. RED LIGHT GREEN LIGHT—INTERSECTION SAFETY Video Tape and CD-ROM Intersection-related crashes account for approximately 50% of the combined fatal and injury crashes and more than 20% of all fatal crashes in the United States each year. As a result, transportation organizations, including representatives from the educa- tion, enforcement, and engineering communities, are working together to address intersection safety deficiencies. This video provides the general traveling public and the entire transportation community with an increased awareness of the critical importance of intersection safety. The video allows the viewers to identify steps they can take to improve their own safety, as well as provides information on what the transportation profession is doing to help create safer intersections. This video was prepared by the Institute of Transportation Engineers under contract with the U.S. Department of Transportation. RESIDENTIAL STREETS, THIRD EDITION Updated throughout, this third edition takes a practical approach to planning and designing streets that is cost-effective and enhances the livability of subdivisions and master-planned and new urbanist communities. It offers a fresh look at street widths, geometrics, traffic flow, and other design considerations, as well as intersections, drainage systems, and pavement. Endorsed by traffic engineers and in compliance with the requirements of state highway officials, the book provides street designs that can save on land costs, reduce the environmental impacts of runoff, provide a marketing advantage, and win approval. It will be useful to developers, builders, designers, and local officials who wish to create streets in residential com- munities that encourage walking and bicycling and that discourage speeding by through traffic. Urban Land Institute, National Association of Home Builders, American Society of Civil Engineers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2001, 76 pp., ISBN No. 0-874208-79-3. ROADSIDE IMPROVEMENTS FOR LOCAL ROADS AND STREETS Introduction This pamphlet is intended as a general guide to effective, low-cost methods of improving and enhancing roadside safety. It is not intended as a design manual or a substitute for engineering knowledge, experience, or judgment. Technical safety hardware information such as hardware standards, warrants for selecting safety hardware, installation details, and cost-effectiveness analysis can be found in the material listed in the references. The guidelines and examples included in the pamphlet are based on actual situations and observations made in a series of national reviews. They reflect the actual needs and opportunities for highway safety improvements existing on many local roads and streets.

50 There are three general types of changes that can be made to improve highway safety. These include: Roadway improvements—help drivers stay on the roadway and in their own lanes; consists of improvements made to the geometric features of the roadway such as lane and shoulder width, horizontal and vertical alignment, and pavement cross slope. Roadway improvements can reduce the number of accidents occurring by providing consistent and uniform conditions and improving driving comfort. Operational improvements—provide the driver with necessary and important information; consists of improvements generally made to the signs, pavement markings, traffic signals, delineation, and other features. Operational improvements are often used to supplement or mitigate the effects of substandard or unexpected roadway features by providing the driver with informa- tion on potential hazards ahead or establishing rules (speed limit, etc.) under which the section of road can be safely negotiated. Roadside improvements—provide the driver with a better chance of recovering from an accident and/or reduce the potential severity of accidents along the edge of the highway. These improvements include such work as slope flattening, culvert exten- sions, tree removal, ditch shaping, and installing guardrail. This pamphlet deals only with the area of roadside improvements and was originally published October 1986. Full text available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/00002/00002.pdf. ROADSIDE SAFETY ISSUES This circular features papers/presentations on: Evolution of Roadside Safety; The Roadside Safety Program; The Evolution of Vehicle Safety and Crashworthiness; Evolution of Vehicle Crashworthiness as Influenced by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Methods for Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Roadside Features; and Applications of Simulation in Design and Analysis of Roadside Safety Features; Data and Analysis Needs; Selection and Design of Roadside Safety Treat- ments; Efficacy of Simulation Methods; and Assessing and Developing Roadside Hardware. TRB, 1995 SAFER ROADS: A GUIDE TO ROAD SAFETY ENGINEERING A comprehensive review of the best practice approaches of road safety engineering from Europe, North America, and Australia— illuminating the practices and procedures used in the identification of hazardous sites and the development of road and traffic countermeasures. Outlines the key components of creating and maintaining a database, methods of statistical analysis, and the essential features of human behavior as they influence road and traffic design. Also covered are the economic appraisal of road safety projects and methods of project monitoring. The intended audience includes those in local government; road and traffic agencies; consultants in road safety engineering, traffic engineering, or highway engineering; and students of courses in these disciplines and in road safety. By K.W. Ogden. Ashgate, Brookfield, Vt., 1996, 516 pp. SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR LOW-VOLUME RURAL ROADS Abstract The justification of safety improvements for low-volume rural roads has been difficult. Roadblocks of a primarily economic nature have prevented the improvement of many features associated with this type of road; features that have been known to have adverse safety implications for many years. In this report, traditional methods of developing a safety index for these roads have been explored and found unsuitable. These methods include the correlation of accident rates with specific roadway features and the location of “black spots” where atypical numbers of accidents occur. Neither of these approaches in general is of value on low-volume (ADT ≤ 1000) rural roads. The combination of two relatively new concepts for safety improvements is recommended as a result of this study. They are process-based improvements and low-cost safety improvements. For example, one process is to eliminate all hazardous concrete culvert headwalls in a district. The low-cost aspect relates to either breaking the headwall off at ground level or building up the soil of the roadside to the level of the headwall top surface. A procedure is presented here to identify those combinations of processes and low-cost improvements that should be given

51 priority in a low-volume roadway safety improvement program. FHWA Research Report TX-90/1130-2F, 1990. SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety management is a systematic process that can help states reduce the number and severity of traffic crashes through highway safety improvement programs. The process provides ways for planning, implementing, and evaluating safety programs and projects. Through safety management, all opportunities to improve highway safety are identified, considered, implemented as appropriate, and evaluated in all phases of highway planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operations. The procedural guides on this CD show how to develop a highway safety improvement program, how to conduct highway safety engineering studies, and how to conduct highway safety evaluations. Other publications present information about different safety data-collection technologies and the use of GIS for safety analysis. GIS safety-analysis techniques are tools to analyze and manipulate safety data in a spatial environment. The data-collection technologies include mobile computers, Global Positioning Systems, expert systems, bar-code readers, GIS, and others. The National Model is a partnership of FHWA, Iowa, and others to demonstrate the successful integration of technologies for data collection, management, and communication of safety information. The National Model was recognized by Vice- President Gore with a National Partnership for Reinventing Government Hammer Award. The objectives of the National Model are to improve data acquisition for roadway incidents, leverage proven technology for law enforcement, streamline the communication of safety information to key stakeholders, and enhance the use of this information for safety programs. New approaches are being used to shorten data-collection time, minimize disruption to traffic, increase officer safety and effi- ciency, and improve data quality. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/safety.htm. SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY RESEARCH RELATED TO SPEED AND SPEED MANAGEMENT Introduction This document provides a review of safety research related to speed and speed management. This review builds on a similar synthesis prepared in 1982. The current synthesis highlights the relationships among vehicle speed and safety; factors influ- encing speeds; and the effects on speed and crashes of speed limits, speed enforcement, traffic calming, and other engineering measures intended to manage speed. Despite the substantial social and technological changes that have occurred since the original speed synthesis was published, vehicle speed remains an important public policy, engineering, and traffic safety issue. Speed is cited as a related factor in 30% of fatal crashes and 12% of all crashes (Bowie and Walz 1994). Based on on-scene investigations of more than 2,000 crashes in Indiana by teams of trained technicians, excessive speed for conditions was identified as the second most frequent causal factor out of approximately 50 driver, vehicle, and environmental factors (Treat et al. 1977). Excessive vehicle speed reduces a driver’s ability to negotiate curves or maneuver around obstacles in the roadway, extends the distance necessary for a vehicle to stop, and increases the distance a vehicle travels while the driver reacts to a hazard. Presented are the results of a systematic review of the literature concerning safety research related to speed and speed management. Initial listings of citations were generated using multiple keyword filters on several bibliographic databases. The most productive databases were those of the National Technical Information Service, the Knight–Ridder Transportation Resources Index, and the Transportation Research Information Service. The initial inventory of approximately 700 citations was supple- mented by searches of the ITE index and more than 100 items that either predated the on-line databases or otherwise were known to be pertinent.

52 Bowie, N.N., Jr., and M. Walz, “Data Analysis of the Speed-Related Crash Issue,” Auto and Traffic Safety, Vol. 1, No. 2, Winter 1994, pp. 31–38. Treat, J.R., et al., “Tri-Level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents, Vol. I: Causal Factor Tabulations and Assessment,” Report No. DOT-HS-805-085, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C., 1977. Full text available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/speed/spdtoc.htm. TRADITIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT STREET DESIGN GUIDELINES: RECOMMENDED PRACTICE This report is an ITE recommended practice on traditional neighborhood development (TND) street design guidelines. The report includes a discussion of the concepts of TND, also referred to as The New Urbanism, as they relate to the role of streets in TND communities; a discussion of the community design parameters under which the guidelines would apply; presentation of the design principles underlying the guidelines; specific guidance on geometric street design; and an appendix that summa- rizes some recent findings on the relationship between urban design and travel demand. Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1999, 44 pp., ISBN No. 0-935403-34-5. TRAFFIC CONFLICT TECHNIQUES FOR SAFETY AND OPERATIONS: OBSERVER’S MANUAL Foreword This Observer’s Manual provides basic background information for persons who are assigned to observe traffic conflicts in the field. The manual contains definitions of traffic conflicts that typically occur at intersections as well as step-by-step instruc- tions for conducting the survey. Experienced observers and engineers will find the manual to be a handy reference source and an aid in training new personnel. Persons who have not previously conducted a traffic conflict survey should read this manual carefully as a first step in learning how to accurately observe and record traffic conflicts. Chapter 1: Introduction A traffic conflict is a traffic event involving the interaction of two or more road users, usually motor vehicles, where one or both drivers take evasive action such as braking or swerving to avoid a collision. A traffic conflict survey is a systematic method of observing and recording traffic conflicts and other events associated with safety operations. A person who conducts the field survey is known as a traffic conflict observer. This manual provides basic background information and standard procedures for traffic conflict observers. The manual contains definitions of traffic conflicts that typically occur at inter- sections, as well as step-by-step instructions for conducting the survey. Experienced observers and engineers will find the manual to be a handy reference source and an aid in training new personnel. Persons who have not previously conducted a traffic conflict survey should carefully read this manual as a first step in learning how to observe and record conflicts. Because the results of a traffic conflict survey are used to make important decisions concerning traffic safety and operations, it is imperative that conflicts be recorded in a uniform or standard manner. Observers must participate in a formal training program to help them recognize conflicts under a variety of traffic and roadway condi- tions. One should not be expected to count conflicts based on reading this manual alone. The training program, conducted by an engineer, is essential to ensure uniform and accurate data collection. Training procedures, as well as methods for analyzing and interpreting conflict data, are described in the engineer’s guide. The survey techniques described in this manual provide a cost-effective method for accurately measuring traffic conflicts at signalized and unsignalized intersections. The definitions and procedures are based on the results of years of extensive research, experimentation, and practice. In the future, it is anticipated that standardized procedures will be developed for other roadway situations such as freeway entrances and exits, weaving areas, midblock locations, and construction zones. Report FHWA-IP-88-027, 1998. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/88027/intro.htm.

53 VEGETATION CONTROL FOR SAFETY Foreword The purpose of this handbook is to help maintenance workers be aware of safe ways to increase traffic safety. • Mow, • Cut brush, and • Control other vegetation. During the growing season, grass, weeds, and brush often limit a driver’s view of approaching vehicles. Likewise, lush vegetation can act as a screen that hides pedestrians and bikers from drivers, and vice versa. Be alert for places where vegeta- tion needs to be cut back. Report FHWA-RT-90-003, 1990. Full text is available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/90003/intro.htm.

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 321: Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies examines the safety tools and procedures that are practical and relatively easy to apply, and that can be implemented by agencies with limited financial support and personnel. Recognizing the wide variation in the operations and responsibilities of local agencies, the report acknowledges that the level of expertise in transportation safety analysis also varies greatly.

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