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L. J. FILER, JR. Introductory Remarks Through a variety of media the public is being urged to eat less, exer- cise more, enjoy better health, and live longer. Where does the fat content of animal products fit into these admonitions? Modification of the fat composition of animal products from current composition could bring about nutritional and economic gains. The nutritional gains relate primarily to the potential for reduction in total dietary fat, cholesterol, saturated fat, and an alteration in polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio. Since fat and water enjoy a reciprocal relationship in body composition, other nutrients associated with animal products will not vary on a fat-free basis, as illustrated by the data given in Table 1. The projected economic gains include an increase in available grain supply and potential stabilization or reduction in consumer costs. With respect to available grain supply, it should be noted that in a recent report by the University of California Food Task Force (1974) it was estimated that in 1985 37% of the world's crop production will be consumed by livestock and poultry. This becomes even more critical in light of the recent report by the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), indicating that the gain in the world's food supply in 1974, which was estimated at 133% of the 1961-1965 average, was wiped out because world population grew faster. It has been estimated by the University of California Food Task Force that in 1985 world food production and demand expressed as energy 1
2 L. J. FILER, JR. TABLE 1 Carcass Composition of a One-Month-Old Pig Diet 1 Diet 2 Fresh Fat-Free Fresh Fat-Free Water (%) 56.8 76.5 60.7 77.0 Fat (%) 25.8 - 21.2 Ash(%) 3.8 5.1 3.7 4.7 Protein (%) 13.3 18.0 14.0 17.8 P (mg/lOOg) 599 810 550 700 Mg (mg/100 g) 28.4 38.4 28.6 36.4 K (mg/100 g) 199 268 212 270 Zn (mg/100 g) 2.5 3.4 2.4 3.5 and protein will be in balance (Figure 1 ) . This, however, is the global picture. Specific geographic areas such as Europe and Asia will have greater demand for energy and protein than production. This imbalance will be less acute in the USSR. All of these predictions will be greatly in- fluenced by the growth rate of populations. This volume will develop in detail each of the points discussed above, exploring means whereby these goals can be attained. First we will focus on man the consumer, with emphasis on the nutritional and health- related aspects of animal products. There are at least two ways in which the nutritional objectives can be achieved: (1) eating less of animal products or (2) eating animal products whose composition has been changed. For any individual, eating less is a practical solution. On a population basis, however, alterations in fat composition of animal products is an attractive means for meeting these objectives. Ideally, a combination of both approaches would be desirable. The average diet in the United States supplies 42% of total energy as fat. However, many nutritionists and physicians have recommended a reduction in the fat content of the U.S. diet so that 30% of total energy is obtained from such sources. How can animal products, specifically meat, be altered to meet this goal? From data supplied by the USDA, the daily per capita consumption of all meats can be calculated at 220 g, of which some 62% is beef and 35% pork. The composition of a cooked rump roast, according to USDA Hand- book No. 8, Tables of Food Composition, is shown in Table 2. Choice grade contains more fat and provides more energy per unit weight than Good grade beef; however, the fat and energy content of separable
Introductory Remarks WORLD 8000 6000 o' - 000 2000 1 500 o X 1 000 500 1500 o ~ 1 000 500 ~ 1500 CALORIES - 1000 _ 500 _ O ~ l _ CALORIES . _ _ _ PROTEIN EUROPE _ CALORIES PROTEIN _ _ ~ e e e e e ~ '''it_ U.S.S.R. CALORIES PROTEIN _ _ . _~ ~ NORTH AMERICA PROTEIN coo a; coo 0 00 Oo O ~ . 200 om D o, 100 - o 50 ~ o a. 2s 3000 2500 2000 ~, 1 500 :E 1 000 500 O O 80 m D o r, ~ 60~1 J z 40 _ 0 O D °, SO o X 4OO O ran ~ con Z: _ 80 m D c, _ 60 ~ 4 o o, o X' J 500 ~ ADECUATE ~ DEMAND ~ PRODUCTION 3 ASIA CALORIES _ ~ _ it, I/, , _ ~ PROTEIN OCEANIA CAL ORIES 500 PROTEIN LATIN AMERICA CALORIES PROTEIN 1 . 1 ~ 1 :~1~ AFRICA CALORIES PROTEIN -~1~ ~ OTHER USES 180 I ~ 1 1 ° 1 ~ 2Oo I m 1 :D 1 1 ~ 1 Z 1 1 ~ 20 O FIGURE 1 Projected calorie and protein balance by region.\ Reprinted from A Hungry World: The Challenge to Agriculture, p. 45, with permission of the Uni- versity of California Food Task Force ( 1974) . lean differs from that of the edible portion by a greater order of magnitude. Based on a daily diet providing 2,800 kcal of energy and 220 g of meat, it can be calculated that meat fat may provide from 5% to 25% of total daily fat calories with differences in grade bringing about less of a decrease than differences in trimming (Table 31. This table emphasizes
4 TABLE 2 Composition of Rump Roast Cooked L. J. FILER, JR. Edible Portion Separable Lean Energy Energy Grade (kcal/100 g) Fat (% ) (kcal/100 g) Fat (Jo ) Choice 347 27 208 9.3 Good 317 23 190 7.1 SOURCE: USDA Handbook No. 8. TABLE 3 Percent of Total Fat Calories from Meat Fat Based upon 220 Grams of Rump Roast Choice Grade Good Grade Energy as Fat Energy Total Energy Total Diet (kcals) Trim as Fat (% ) as Fat (% ) 2,800 Kcals 1,180 Total edible 207 18 160 14 42~o Fat 1,180 Lean 44 4 40 3 2,800 Kcals 840 Total edible 207 25 160 19 30% Fat 840 Lean 44 5 40 5 the fact that leanness of meat becomes increasingly important as total dietary fat is decreased. REFERENCE University of California Food Task Force. 1974. A hungry world: the challenge to agriculture. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California. 68 pp.