National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×

IN OUR OWN BACKYARD

Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure

COMMITTEE ON INFRASTRUCTURE

BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD

COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

Albert A. Grant

Andrew C. Lemer

Editors


NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1993

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Funding for the project was provided through the following agreements between the indicated federal agency and the National Academy of Sciences: Department of the Army Agreement CECWXX-90-N-5301 and DACA88-92-M-0283; Federal Highway Administration Agreement DTFH61-92-P-01352; and National Science Foundation Grant No. MSS-9009343, under master agreement 8618642.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 93-87112

International Standard Book Number 0-309-04878-8

Additional copies of this report are available from:
National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area)

B-134

Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×

COMMITTEE ON INFRASTRUCTURE

Chairman

ALBERT A. GRANT, Consultant,

Potomac, Maryland

Members

CLAIRE BARRETT, Special Assistant to the Director of Aviation,

MASSPORT, Logan International Airport, East Boston, Massachusetts

MICHAEL COHEN, Chief of the Urban Development Division,

The World Bank, Washington, D.C.

WILLIAM COLEMAN, President,

Leggatt McCall Properties Management, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts

ELLIS LANE JOHNSON, IBM Fellow and Coca-Cola Professor,

IBM T. J. Watson Research Center of Technology, Yorktown Heights, New York

GORDON S. KINO, Associate Dean of Engineering,

Edward L. Ginzon Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California

DAVID HUNTER MARKS, Director,

Programs in Environmental Engineering Education and Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

WILLIAM REES MORRISH, Dayton Hudson Professor in Urban Design, and Director,

Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

JOSEPH PERKOWSKI, Manager,

Advanced Civil Systems Research & Development, Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, California

JANICE ELAINE PERLMAN, Executive Director,

Mega-Cities Project, Urban Research Center, New York University, New York, New York

SERGIO RODRIGUEZ, AICP, Assistant City Manager/Planning Director,

City of Miami, Florida

GEORGE ROWE, Director of Public Works,

Department of Public Works, City of Cincinnati, Ohio

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×

RICHARD L. SIEGLE, P.E. Director of Facilities Services,

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

RAYMOND L. STERLING, Associate Professor and Director,

Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

NAN STOCKHOLM, Director,

Presidio Council, Golden Gate National Park Association, San Francisco, California

National Research Council Liaison Representatives

NANCY CONNERY, Consultant,

Woolwich, Maine

Federal Liaison Representatives

KEN P. CHONG,

National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.

CHARLES W. NEISSNER,

Federal Highway Administration, Reston, Virginia

KYLE SCHILLING,

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Belvoir, Virginia

ROBERT STEARNS,

Department of the Army, Washington, D.C.

Staff

ANDREW C. LEMER, Staff Officer

PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate

SUZETTE CODY, Project Assistant

MARY McCORMACK, Project Assistant

Acknowledgements

The committee would like to acknowledge the assistance of the many people in Phoenix, Cincinnati, and Boston who guided and participated in this study. While many of these individuals are listed in the Appendixes of this report there were many others who provided invaluable services. In particular the committee would like to thank the American Public Works Association for providing meeting rooms, hotel and other logistical arrangements in Boston.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×

BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD (1992–1993)

Chairman

HAROLD J. PARMELEE, President,

Turner Construction Company, New York, New York

Members

RICHARD T. BAUM*, (Retired) Partner,

Jaros, Baum and Bolles,

Consulting Engineers,

New York, New York

LYNN S. BEEDLE, University Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering and Director,

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

CATHERINE BROWN, Director of Special Projects,

Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

GERALD L. CARLISLE*, Secretary-Treasurer,

International Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C.

NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant,

Woolwich, Maine

C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT*, Chairman,

EDAW, Inc., San Francisco, California

AUGUSTINE A. DiGIACOMO, Partner,

Jaros, Baum and Bolles,

Consulting Engineers,

New York, New York

ELISHA C. FREEDMAN*, Regional Manager,

The Par Group—Paul A. Reaume, Ltd., West Hartford, Connecticut

DELON HAMPTON,

Delon Hampton & Associates, Washington, D.C.

DONALD G. ISELIN, U.S.N. Retired, Consultant,

Santa Barbara, California

FREDERICK KRIMGOLD*, Associate Dean for Research and Extension,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria

GARY T. MOORE, Professor of Architecture and Director,

Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×

WALTER P. MOORE, President and Chairman of the Board,

Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc., Houston, Texas

J. W. MORRIS, U.S.A. Retired, President,

J. W. Morris Ltd., Arlington, Virginia

BRIAN P. MURPHY, Senior Vice President,

Prudential Property Company, Prudential Plaza, Newark, New Jersey

LESLIE E. ROBERTSON*, Director,

Design and Construction, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York, New York

JEROME J. SINCOFF, AIA, President,

Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri

JAMES E. WOODS*, William E. Jamerson Professor of Building Construction,

College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg

APRIL L. YOUNG*, CRA Coordinator,

First American Metro Corporation, McLean, Virginia

Staff

ANDREW C. LEMER, Director

HENRY A. BORGER, Executive Secretary,

Federal Construction Council

PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate

SUZETTE CODY, Project Assistant

LENA B. GRAYSON, Program Assistant

MARY McCORMACK, Project Assistant

*  

Term completed

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×

2-A.

 

Cincinnati's cable suspension bridge across the Ohio River continues to carry traffic more than 100 years after its construction. The bridge, in 1866 America's longest span, was designed by John Roebling, whose technical achievement and artistry in the Brooklyn Bridge established him as one of the most famous of America's infrastructure professionals

 

29

3-A.

 

By questioning the state's standard bridge design originally planned for the Thomas Road Overpass, part of the Squaw Peak Parkway in Phoenix, the artist invited to "beautify" an austere structure motivated a money-saving custom design and created an award-winning community asset

 

49

3-B.

 

The engineer-artist team responsible for design of Phoenix's 27th Avenue Solid Waste Management Facility, here under construction, created an entry to the building that would illustrate to the public something about how structures work

 

53

3-C.

 

Accumulated "superficial" deterioration and subsequent structural damage on Cincinnati's Ludlow Viaduct were a direct result of the neglect of maintenance, attributable to legislative budgetary decisions. Until repairs could be made, the bridge had to be closed to truck traffic, adding substantially to street congestion and the costs to businesses located in the area

 

66

3-D.

 

Cincinnati's Ault Park Pavilion was renovated in 1992 and returned to service as a popular place for strolling and a center for community recreation. Parks, open space, and such public facilities are likely to become increasingly important as elements of infrastructure

 

73

3-E.

 

This approach to downtown Boston—lined with houses and small shops, and passing through flower and vegetable gardens, parks and playgrounds—is built above the Metropolitan Boston Transportation Authority's Orange Line. Much of the rapid rail transit line is, in turn, located in a right of way cleared in the 1960s for construction of a segment of the interstate highway system. Community questioning of the balance and distribution of costs and benefits of this segment led to the nation's first major reprogramming of federal transportation funds from one mode to another

 

80

3-F.

 

Infrastructure construction projects are often among the largest and most complex and costly civil engineering undertakings. Operations of this dredge working on Boston's Third Harbor Tunnel project adjust to seasonal fish migrations as well as tides and storms

 

86

4-A.

 

In Boston's South End neighborhood, matching the design of the subway transit's ventilation tower to the style of adjacent residences converted a potential eyesore and source of community resentment to an attractive and accepted addition to the urban landscape

 

96

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1993. In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2205.
×
Page R10
Next: Executive Summary »
In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure Get This Book
×
Buy Hardback | $44.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

This volume takes a fresh look—primarily from a technological perspective—at the nation's "infrastructure": a collection of diverse modes that function as a system supporting a wide range of economic and social activities. Within an infrastructure system, operating and maintenance procedures, management practices, and development policies (i.e., the software) must work together with the facilities' hardware.

This study has a strongly local perspective, drawing valuable information from workshops held in Phoenix, Cincinnati, and Boston. These workshops illustrated common elements of local experience that offer infrastructure practitioners, policymakers, and the public at large both understanding and guidance in the form of specific strategies that can lead toward "win-win" situations, where parties with potentially opposing interests seek a way to resolve infrastructure issues so that all parties gain.

Local issues, combined across many regions, give infrastructure its strategic national significance. The book recommends specific principles that should be applied in national policy to support effective local infrastructure development and management.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!