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Chapter 3: Roles and Stakeholders Todayâs airports are large-scale facilities comprised of complex systems and many types of infrastructure, including buildings, bridges, seawalls, underground utilities, mechanical systems, electrical systems, baggage handling systems, plumbing systems, drainage, roadways, vehicle fleets, and many other diverse assets. It is inefficient to manage these many types of assets in traditional manual methods with the vast amounts of asset data required to do so. Maintenance management systems built on databases are well suited to manage the volume of data associated with maintenance activities. High cost labor and decreasing availability of resources exacerbate the issues for airport maintenance managers. The incentive for a CMMS for maintenance managers is clear, but there are other stakeholders within the airport for CMMS. This section identifies the CMMS stakeholders and describes their functions and their involvement in the CMMS evaluation, selection, and implementation processes. Airports are similar to other large-scale facilities, however, they have the added responsibility of needing to provide a safe environment for the millions of passengers who pass through these facilities each year. Thus, while the roles and stakeholders for an airport CMMS are similar to the roles and stakeholders for a CMMS for any large-scale facility, the airport facility, as an open environment, can be subject to a higher level of scrutiny and oversight. One difference is the immediacy of safety issues at an airport; hence a more focused approach to situations that can pose potential dangers to the traveling public and work staff exists. Airports have the additional requirement of compliance with FAA Part 139 rules to retain certification. In the airport environment, typical stakeholders of the CMMS can be divided into two groups: internal and external. Tables 3-1 and 3-2 provide typical roles for both internal and external stakeholders, respectively, although specific roles may vary from airport to airport. Internal Stakeholders Organizational Role Airport Facilities Maintenance Deploy, manage, and account for the results and effectiveness of the CMMS. This group has access to the skill sets needed to perform the work orders needed at the airport. Airport Construction Acquisition of new assets and the commissioning of new facilities. Data from these activities are needed to populate the CMMS so that these new assets can be managed properly. This group will enforce the airport policies, procedures, and standards needed to keep the CMMS data up to date and accurate. Airport Operations Assurance of safety at the airport. This includes proscribed inspections, regulated reporting requirements, activity logs, and due diligence. Initiate work orders to the CMMS and utilize historical information for reporting purposes. Airport Information Technology Integrate information sources and assure quality of data, timeliness of information, accuracy and availability of the system. The CMMS in an airport environment will be active 24 hours a day 7 days a week. High availability and support is crucial for the successful operation of an airport CMMS. 22
Internal Stakeholders Organizational Role Airport Finance & Accounting Group responsible for accurate recording and portrayal of cost information related to the operation of the airport maintenance function. Cost information gathered in the CMMS must be processed carefully for the airport rates and charges process in order to assess airlines as part of operating and maintenance expenses. Airport Business & Property Management Group responsible for management of airport property spaces for lease to tenants and other revenue sources. Accurate understanding of the levels of maintenance and costs associated to facilities factor into the calculation of the lease rates. Airport Planning Group responsible for the future layout of the airport, the planning function would be supplemented with accurate maintenance and cost information associated to the current facility layout in order to determine future requirements. Airport Environmental Group responsible for the tracking and the remediation of environmental concerns particularly as they relate to the facilities. The CMMS provides a record of maintenance to areas that may be affected by environmental mandates, particularly for asbestos locations and areas that have underground environmental plumes to manage. Airport Legal and Risk Management Group responsible to deal with potential liability issues arising from accidents and accusations of insufficiently maintained assets. The CMMS should provide accurate accounting of ongoing maintenance schedules; preventive and well as reactive that is compliant to a prescribed industry accepted schedule. Table 3-1 Internal Stakeholders Roles External Stakeholders Organizational Role Traveling Public Airport travelers are stakeholders in the sense that they are affected by how well the airport is able to maintain its facilities in a safe manner. The traveling public is the reason that an airport exists in the first place. Government Regulators Group responsible for the direct oversight of safety and proper procedure execution particularly in the airside operating areas of the airport. FAA mandates are minimum requirements necessary to operate the airport for certification purposes and best practices. Airport Vendors Group that provides materials and equipment to the airport. Historical experiences, reliability records, warranty applications, and expected life cycles that are all managed within a CMMS in part determine specifications needed by the airport. Airport Tenants Group that can initiate and demand service requests that are contractually obligated from the airport by virtue of the relationship. Tenants will track requests and are affected by any assessed charges that may arise from a work order request. Contracted Companies Group that is contracted by the airport as an extension of the services being provided and subject to oversight by the airport for compliance to the contracts and any service level agreements that may be in place. A contracted company will have a connection to the CMMS if their contract demands services that are dispatched through work orders that are either reactive or preventative in nature. Table 3-2 External Stakeholdersâ Roles 23
With respect to CMMS evaluation, selection, and implementation, each stakeholder has specific roles at various stages in the CMMS project. These stages are defined as: â¢ Define requirements (evaluate) â¢ Select a solution â¢ Implement a solution â¢ Maintain and support the solution (post implementation) Tables 3-3 and 3-4 use a RACI matrix (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed) matrix to define roles for the stakeholders in a CMMS project. This is a common methodology used to assign roles within a team to clarify responsibilities. In the RACI matrix, for each stage of the project, every stakeholder is assigned to be accountable, consulted, responsible, or informed for the work in that stage. The terms accountable, consulted, responsible, and informed are defined as: â¢ Responsible â Those who do the work to achieve the task. â¢ Accountable â The person or role ultimately answerable for the correct and thorough completion of the specific deliverable or task, and the one who delegates the work to those who are responsible. â¢ Consulted â Those whose opinions are sought, typically subject matter experts. There is a two- way communication between the consultants and the projectâs responsible staff. â¢ Informed â Those who are kept up-to-date on progress, often only on completion of the task or deliverable. There is generally just a one-way communication to those informed. In addition to the RACI assignments, certain stakeholders are considered primary in a role while others are considered secondary. The assigned responsibilities for the CMMS by stakeholder for each stage are shown in Tables 3-3 and 3-4. Internal Stakeholder Define Requirements Select Solution Implement Solution Support Solution Airport Facilities Maintenance Primary Accountable Primary Accountable Primary Accountable Primary Accountable Airport Construction Consulted Consulted Informed Consulted Airport Operations Secondary Accountable Consulted Informed Informed Airport Information Technology Responsible Responsible Responsible Responsible Airport Finance & Accounting Consulted Consulted Informed Informed Airport Business & Property Management Consulted Consulted Informed Informed Airport Planning Consulted Consulted Informed Informed Airport Environmental Consulted Consulted Informed Informed Airport Legal and Risk Management Consulted Consulted Informed Informed Table 3-3 Internal Stakeholdersâ Roles during the CMMS Life cycle 24
External Stakeholder Define Requirements Select Solution Implement Solution Support Solution Traveling Public Consulted n/a n/a n/a Government Regulators Consulted n/a n/a n/a Airport Vendors Consulted n/a n/a Informed Airport Tenants Consulted n/a n/a Consulted Contracted Companies Consulted Informed Informed Consulted Table 3-4 External Stakeholdersâ Roles during the CMMS Life cycle While it is important to have active participation from stakeholder groups across the airport, it is also relevant to consider the impact of the optimal size of the stakeholder group. Smaller groups tend to take less time to organize and act more quickly. Larger groups allow more representation and allow the work of the group to be spread among more staff. Although there will most likely be a minimum number of staff required to represent all stakeholder groups, it is important to keep the group size in mind when forming the stakeholder committee. A good rule of thumb is that ten to fifteen members is a manageable committee size. 25