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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Design and Load Testing of Large Diameter Open-Ended Driven Piles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22110.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Design and Load Testing of Large Diameter Open-Ended Driven Piles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22110.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Design and Load Testing of Large Diameter Open-Ended Driven Piles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22110.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Design and Load Testing of Large Diameter Open-Ended Driven Piles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22110.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Design and Load Testing of Large Diameter Open-Ended Driven Piles. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22110.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

NAT IONAL COOPERAT IVE H IGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 478 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration SubScriber categorieS Design • Highways • Materials Design and Load Testing of Large Diameter Open-Ended Driven Piles A Synthesis of Highway Practice conSultantS Dan A. Brown and W. Robert Thompson III Dan Brown and Associates Sequatchie, Tennessee

Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP SYNTHESIS 478 Project 20-05, Topic 45-05 ISSN 0547-5570 ISBN 978-0-309-27185-1 Library of Congress Control No. 2015933593 © 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their manuscripts and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that non of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMSCA, FTA, or Transit development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any development or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are con- sidered essential to the object of the report. NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

TOPIC PANEL 45-05 RODRIGO A. HERRERA, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee FRANK RAUSCHE, Pile Dynamics, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio JAWDAT SIDDIQI, Ohio Department of Transportation, Columbus JAN L. SIX, Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem THOMAS SONG, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento HANI H. TITI, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee CHING-NIEN TSAI, Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Baton Rouge NASER ABU-HEJLEH, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) JENNIFER E. NICKS, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER HEDGES, Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-05 CHAIR BRIAN A. BLANCHARD, Florida DOT MEMBERS STUART D. ANDERSON, Texas A&M University SOCORRO “COCO” BRISENO, California Department of Transportation CYNTHIA J. BURBANK, FHWA (retired) CYNTHIA L. JONES, Ohio Department of Transportation MALCOLM T. KERLEY, Virginia DOT (retired) JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University CATHERINE NELSON, Salem, Oregon RANDALL R. “RANDY” PARK, Utah Department of Transportation ROGER C. OLSON, Minnesota DOT BENJAMIN I. ORSBON, South Dakota Department of Transportation ROBERT L. SACK, New York State DOT JOYCE N. TAYLOR, Maine Department of Transportation FRANCINE SHAW WHITSON, Federal Highway Administration FHWA LIAISONS JACK JERNIGAN MARY LYNN TISCHER TRB LIAISON STEPHEN F. MAHER Cover figure: Pier 6 and 7 piles, 42-in. diameter open-ended steel piles for Hastings Bridge, Minnesota (Dan Brown and Associates, PC).

FOREWORD This report compiles and documents information regarding the current state of practice with respect to the selection, use, design, construction, and quality control of large diameter open-ended driven piles (LDOEPs) for transportation structures. This report is intended to provide agencies with information to develop guidance and methods to be incorporated into technical guides and design codes, as well as to identify gaps in knowledge to guide future research. Information used in this study was acquired through a literature review, personal experi- ences, a survey of public agencies, consultations with private-sector experts, and documen- tation of case histories where piles have been employed for bridge construction. Dan A. Brown and W. Robert Thompson III, Dan Brown and Associates, Sequatchie, Tennessee, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway commu- nity, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials—through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program—authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Proj- ect 20-5, “Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems,” searches out and syn- thesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE By Tanya M. Zwahlen Consultant Transportation Research Board

CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 5 Study Purpose and Objectives, 6 Key Issues to Be Addressed, 6 Study Approach, 6 Synthesis Organization, 6 8 CHAPTER TWO STATE OF PRACTICE AND LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction, 8 Selection of Large Diameter Open-Ended Piles (LDOEPs) for Transportation Structures, 8 Types and Characteristics of Piles, 9 Steel Pipe Piles, 9 Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Piles, 10 Factors Affecting Design and Axial Resistance, 11 A Simplified Examination of the Dynamic Behavior of a Soil Plug, 12 Issues Affecting Behavior of Steel LDOEPs During and After Installation, 13 Issues Affecting Prestressed Concrete LDOEPs During and After Installation, 16 Structural Connection to Top of an LDOEP, 17 Design of Large Diameter Open-Ended Piles, 18 Design for Axial Loading, 18 Design for Lateral Loading, 21 Design for Settlement/Uplift/Serviceability, 22 Summary, 22 24 CHAPTER THREE AGENCY STATE OF PRACTICE FOR LARGE DIAMETER OPEN-ENDED PILES Introduction, 24 Agencies Not Using Large Diameter Open-Ended Piles, 24 Survey Responses, 25 Agencies That Responded, 25 Applications, Selection, and Pile Types, 25 Standard Plans and Specifications, 26 Design, 27 Pile Plugging, 29 Setup and Relaxation, 30 Drivability and Driving Criteria, 30 Testing, 30 Driving Aids, 31 Observations, Challenges, and Lessons Learned, 31 Research Needs Identified by Agencies, 32

33 CHAPTER FOUR PRIVATE-SECTOR PERSPECTIVES ON LARGE DIAMETER OPEN-ENDED PILES Participants, 33 Issues and Experiences, 33 Pile Plug Behavior, 33 Dynamic and Static Testing, 34 Static Axial Resistance Calculations, 35 Driving Behavior, 36 Driving Piles to Bear on Rock, 36 Research Needs Identified by Private Sector, 37 38 CHAPTER FIVE CASE HISTORIES Project Examples, 38 Hastings Bridge (Hastings, Minnesota), 38 Stoney Creek Bridge (California), 41 Woodrow Wilson Bridge (Virginia/Maryland), 42 St. George Island Bridge (Apalachicola, Florida), 43 Cross Bay Boulevard over North Channel (Queens County, New York), 43 Rigolets Pass Bridge Replacement (Slidell, Louisiana), 45 Reported Installation Problems and Adopted Solutions, 45 St. George Island Bridge (Apalachicola, Florida), 45 Trout River Bridge (Jacksonville, Florida), 46 Load Test Case Histories and Research Reports, 46 CAPWAP®-Based Correlations for Estimating the Static Axial Capacity of Open-Ended Steel Pipe Piles in Alaska, 46 Kentucky Lake Bridge Pile Load Test Program, 47 Determination of Axial Pile Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Piles, 48 Oregon Inlet (North Carolina), 50 A Comparison of Dynamic and Static Pile Test Results, 50 US 378 Bridge over Pee Dee River (South Carolina), 50 52 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS Pile Behavior, 52 Modeling, 53 Estimating Static Axial Resistance, 53 Testing, 53 Research Needs, 54 55 GLOSSARY 56 REFERENCES 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY 61 APPENDIX A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 77 APPENDIX B SUMMARY REPORT OF SURVEY RESPONSES OF STATES USING LDOEPs 102 APPENDIX C INTERVIEW NOTES OF SELECTED STATES USING LDOEPs 119 APPENDIX D INTERVIEW NOTES OF PRIVATE PRACTICE Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 478: Design and Load Testing of Large Diameter Open-Ended Driven Piles documents information regarding the current state of practice with respect to the selection, use, design, construction, and quality control of large diameter open-ended driven piles for transportation structures. This report may provide agencies with information to develop guidance and methods for technical guides and design codes, as well as to identify gaps in knowledge to guide future research.

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