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26 chapter six Case examples To supplement the results obtained through the web-based survey, interviews with personnel from a dozen airports were conducted during the summer of 2014, with each interview lasting at least an hour. The airport personnel were extremely generous with their time and knowledge, giving deeper insights into the drivers, aids, and barriers encountered when designing and implementing sustainability initiatives and programs at smaller airports. The airports that granted interviews are listed in Table 4, and the interviews are summarized in the case examples presented. All of the case examples followed a similar format, providing information in each of the following categories: spe- cial circumstances, drivers, definition of sustainability, airport sustainability planning, aids/barriers to implementation, major focus areas and sample initiatives, and lessons learned and sage advice. In each case, additional information was provided with respect to a particular topic, called the case example focus; those topics are noted in Table 4. Case example 1: BUFFalO NIaGaRa INTeRNaTIONal aIRpORT aND NIaGaRa Falls INTeRNaTIONal aIRpORT, NeW YORK special Circumstances The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA), which is a public benefit corporation, owns Buffalo Niagara Inter- national Airport (BUF), Niagara Falls International Airport (IAG), and all public busing and light rail rapid transit in Buffalo. Having one entity control both air and surface trans- portation provides synergies in planning, funding, and imple- mentation. IAG is owned jointly by NFTA and the United States Air Force Reserve. Drivers NFTA is beginning a systemwide sustainability program and will draw on the experience of BUF and IAG. Definition of sustainability Sustainability projects and programs have to be practical while addressing economic, social, and environmental issues. airport sustainability planning Both airports had sustainability master plans and wanted to update them through the mechanism of overall master plans. The master plan for BUF was completed in 2013, and the IAG master plan is set for completion by the end of 2015. Master plan projects will be established under the 5-year capital improvement plan (CIP), and sustainability will be integrated at both airports on a project- by-project basis within the 5-year CIP. Every new project will weigh sustainability and National Environmental Policy Act impacts, and airport sustainability projects will be folded into the NFTA umbrella sustainability plan. The BUF plan was funded by a combination of FAA entitlement funds,
27 New York State Department of Transportation, and NFTA allocation of PFCs. The IAG plan was funded by local (NFTA/PFCs and Bridge Commission) monies, the Empire State Development, New York State Department of Transportation support, and a small portion of FAA AIP funds. Neither BUF nor IAG participated in FAA pilot sustainability programs. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâAccess to federal, state, and local funding. Having an airport planner who is passionate about sustainability. Being part of a larger entity (NFTA) that is implementing sustainability measures. BarriersâHaving bills for energy and water sent to a central office and paid by NFTA staff and not airport staff makes tracking of usage difficult. major Focus areas and sample InitiativesâReducing Carbon Footprint and managing surface Transportation Surface transportation is a major focus area. Initiatives: â¢ Reconfiguration of the circulator load system around BUF by installing an overpass for fly- overs, thus reducing airport traffic and lowering the carbon footprint. Airport Case Example Focus 1 Buffalo Niagara International Airport (BUF) and Niagara Falls International Airport (IAG), New York Identifying capital and diverse funding sources 2 Deer Valley Airport (DVT) and Goodyear Airport (GYR), Arizona Leveraging resources from large hub airport 3 Huntington Tri-State Airport (HTS), West Virginia Building comprehensive program from ad hoc roots 4 Ithaca Tompkins Regional Airport (ITH), New York Harnessing the power of a sustainability champion 5 Kent State University Airport (1G3), Ohio Ensuring airport viability with effective noise control 6 Nantucket Memorial Airport (ACK), Massachusetts Pioneering carbon neutrality 7 Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport (XNA), Arkansas Generating clear objectives and focus areas 8 Outagamie County Regional Airport (ATW), Wisconsin Advancing energy-efficient building 9 Portland International Jetport (PWM), Maine Pursuing deicing excellence 10 Renton Municipal Airport (RNT), Washington Integrating sustainability plans with construction 11 Roberts Field, Redmond Municipal Airport (RDM), Oregon Delivering sustainability linked to customer service 12 Teterboro Airport (TEB) and Stewart International Airport (SWF), New Jersey and New York Enhancing strategic use of reliever airports TABLE 4 AIRPORT SUSTAINABILITY CASE EXAMPLE LIST
28 â¢ Construction of a high-speed turn-off to save fuel and reduce taxi time. â¢ Installation of a parallel taxiway near the FBO to enhance safety and shorten taxi time. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Have someone in airport leadership take ownership of sustainability. â¢ Build sustainability into the master planning process. â¢ Involve tenants and the local community by conducting workshops on the sustainability program. â¢ Enlist the local colleges and universities to get ideas on sustainability projects. â¢ Be aware that the community may be more interested in cheap flights than in environmental issues, and ultimately the airlines care most about efficient operations. â¢ To support tracking of utilities, meter tenants individually where possible. â¢ Consider that some projects, such as surface transportation improvements, can benefit both the sustainability program and the daily operations. Case example FocusâIdentifying Capital and Diverse Funding sources BUF and IAG provide good examples of how airports can be creative in finding funding for sus- tainability programs. At IAG, development of the master plan, including the consulting contract, cost approximately $1.5 million and was funded by a combination of the Empire State Development (which covered the bulk of the cost), FAA AIP, and the local bridge commission. However, the Empire State Development pays only upon completion of a project, so the airport self-funded nearly a million dollars and then sought reimbursement. The FAA provided additional funds for administrative pur- poses. The BUF master plan was funded through a different allocation: 75% of the funds were from AIP, 12.5% from Empire State Development, and 12.5% were sourced locally and through NFTA. Case example 2: DeeR ValleY aIRpORT aND GOODYeaR aIRpORT, aRIZONa special Circumstances Goodyear (GYR) and Deer Valley (DVT) airports are owned and operated by Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX), which allows the smaller, reliever airports to have access to sustainability experience and dedicated staff resources from PHX. DVT is one of the busiest gen- eral aviation airports in the United States, with more than 350,000 aircraft operations a year. GYR has more than 120,000 aircraft operations annually and is the home of the Lufthansa Flight Training Center and an aircraft main- tenance, repair, and overhaul facility. Drivers The city of Phoenix adopted requirements that all new build- ings use LEED standards and has goals of a 20% energy reduction for the period 2009 to 2020; a reduction of 15% by 2015 of the 2005 levels of greenhouse gas emissions; and a 50% waste stream diversion by 2020. Definition of sustainability The city of Phoenix Aviation Department is committed to incorporating sustainability principles and practices into our operational, management, and administrative processes. Our vision is to have an informed workforce and engaged business partners that deliver a well-planned, accessible, and world class airport experience for our customers. Further, we demonstrate our environmental responsibility to our community as we strive to enhance local, regional, and national economic benefits from the Phoenix airports.
29 airport sustainability planning Sustainability planning at PHX and its airports began as part of the strategic plan, which lists sus- tainability as one pillar for its vision. Recently, Phoenix airports have been developing a self-funded sustainability management plan. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâStaff involvement and training. City requirements for LEED certification for buildings and energy conservation. BarriersâMoney. Staff time. Entrenched practices. Tendency for resources to go to larger airport (PHX). major Focus areas and sample InitiativesâRecycling and Resource Conservation Initiatives: â¢ Extensive use of recycled asphalt for new pavement projects. â¢ Installation of LED lights. â¢ Expansion of recycling program. â¢ Energy and water conservation. â¢ Storm water management, including a quarterly newsletter for most effective management practices and tenant communication. â¢ Tracking of costs (including tipping fees) and savings from recycling programs. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Get staff and tenants involved to increase ideas and enhance implementation. â¢ To save time, effort, and money, include sustainability planning from the beginning of a project so that facilities, operations, and maintenance are aware and can contribute ideas. â¢ For smaller airports, it is important that sustainability initiatives be easy to implement. â¢ Recycling and energy reduction are low-cost, low-hanging fruit. â¢ Smaller airports can take advantage of resources from the larger airport. â¢ Use experts from consulting firms to help design the sustainability initiatives and plan implementation. â¢ Even if tenants cannot be separately billed for energy use, have discussions with them to raise awareness and consider submetering to track usage. â¢ To gain greater acceptance and involvement for sustainability initiatives, demonstrate the finan- cial savings before, during, and after implementation. Case example Focusâleveraging Resources from a large Hub airport The city of Phoenix Aviation Department uses USGBC LEED standards for building design and construction and in 2010 developed an engineering design and construction guide for nonbuilding âhorizontalâ projects, such as pavements. This Design and Construction Green Guide includes life- cycle cost analysis tools that are used for these projects. Engineering staff at PHX are trained in LEED (six are accredited) and the Design and Construction Green Guide, and therefore they engi- neer the projects at the DVT and GYR reliever airports using these standards. Likewise, maintenance staff from PHX sent to perform work at the two airports are aware of opportunities for energy con- servation. It is important for these subject matter experts to be available and use the same approaches and procedures for the general aviation airports as they do at PHX. During the recent development of the sustainability management plan, the managers of DVT and GYR and their staff were involved during interviews of current initiatives, in the review of tenant
30 interest surveys, and in discussions of ânext stepsâ for their current sustainability programs. This collaboration clearly brought into focus that the staff and users at DVT and GYR are ready for more robust sustainability programs at their airports. Case example 3: HUNTINGTON TRI-sTaTe aIRpORT, WesT VIRGINIa special Circumstances The airport staff and police and fire departments share the same facilities at Huntington Tri-State Airport (HTS). Alto- gether, the three services employ 64 peopleâ26 full-time and 38 part-time staff. Drivers The airport director believed that a sustainability program would encourage the airport to be a proper steward of the planet, the community, and the airport. Definition of sustainability Sustainability is about people, the environment, and economic viability. The Sustainability Master Plan (SMP) will safeguard the publicâs investment in the airport and allow the airport to focus on cutting costs and not just on boosting revenue. airport sustainability planning Although discussions and ad hoc sustainability initiatives inspired by research and periodicals began in 2011, the sustainability program was started formally in 2013 with the receipt of AIP and state funding. Ad hoc initiatives included an energy assessment and policies on paper use and paper and waste recycling. By contrast, the SMP provides a more comprehensive, organized strategy. The SMP follows and is the companion document to the airport master plan, both of which have 20-year goals and objectives. SMP focus areas include social process, natural resources, carbon footprint, energy efficiency, operating costs, passenger experience, and the local and regional economies. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâFAA AIP funding for 90% of the sustainability program and state funding for the remain- ing 10%, which paid for both the energy assessment and design of the SMP. The advisory task force, which was composed of the local universities, city and county officials, and all airport tenants; the task force contributed ideas and generated buy-in from stakeholders. BarriersâCultural resistance to changing habits regarding energy use, recycling, and other activ- ities with environmental impacts. major Focus areas and sample InitiativesâResource Conservation and stakeholder Involvement Major focus areas: energy, waste management, air quality, green construction, and community connections. Initiatives: â¢ Energy assessment. â¢ No smoking policy.
31 â¢ Storm water pollution prevention. â¢ Wildlife management. â¢ Paper and waste recycling plan (considering aluminum recycling). â¢ Signs regarding recycling (considering signs and motion sensors for lights). â¢ Spill prevention and clean-up plan. â¢ Instant rewards to employees in the form of $25 gift cards. â¢ Paperless board meetings. â¢ Tenant outreach regarding energy conservation and programs such as the fuel-recycling program. â¢ LED lighting in taxiways. â¢ Recycling asphalt from taxiways to use in other projects. â¢ Energy efficient backup generator for lighting. â¢ Stream restoration and tree planting after runway extension project. â¢ Plan to feature sustainability initiatives on website. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ As a first step, involve the stakeholders to inform them about the goals, generate ideas, and increase their personal investment. â¢ Look at which projects make sense culturally and financially, and then seek funding. â¢ Sustainability initiatives have an added benefit of reducing operational costs, and many green initiatives can be implemented at no additional cost. â¢ Ultimately, everyone has a responsibility to sustain people, planet, and prosperity and to enhance the well-being of employees and the community. Case example FocusâBuilding Comprehesive program from ad Hoc Roots HTS is a good example of a smaller airport that first approached sustainability through ad hoc proj- ects. Information gained through various sources and periodicals, including ACRP studies, served as a guide for initial activities. However, the limitations of that approach soon became apparent, so the airport sought and received FAA AIP funding, which allowed HTS to retain a consultant to design a more thorough and comprehensive program. The sustainability program benefits greatly from having an SMP with written goals, objectives, and milestones, and the SMP would not have been possible without external funding. Having consultants involved in the preparation of the SMP was viewed as being extremely helpful, since their expertise in sustainability programs allowed for easier iden- tification of projects that needed to be accomplished. For example, the energy efficiency projects at HTS would not have been as robust without input from the consultants. According to HTS, the only detriment to having an SMP would be if the plan is completed and then sits on the shelf because tax money and employee time would then have been wasted. Case example 4: ITHaCa TOmpKINs ReGIONal aIRpORT, NeW YORK special Circumstances The Ithaca Tompkins Regional Airport (ITH) building houses airport administration, maintenance, and a fire station. ITH is in a community with a prestigious college and university. Drivers The airport director was inspired by environmental initia- tives of European airports and asked that sustainability proj- ects be included in the master plan that was being developed.
32 Definition of sustainability Actions should not affect the ability of future generations to do what they want to do. airport sustainability planning The airportâs sustainability activities began in 2008, making ITH attractive to serve as a precursor airport for FAAâs pilot program in sustainability. The airport has adopted a sustainable airport master plan that incorporated sustainability initiatives. The implementation occurs in three phases from 2010 through 2030. Sustainability is now considered in every airport project and in daily operations. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâEarly FAA AIP funding for the sustainability plan. County support for sustainability initiatives. Ideas contributed by students at Ithaca College and Cornell and by the community. major Focus areas and sample InitiativesâResource Conservation and Recycling Major focus areas: buildings and facilities, air quality, climate change, energy, materials, surface trans- portation, water, land use, natural resources, noise, community, design, and construction. Initiatives: â¢ Removed a dozen trees to extend a parking lot and planted 50 more around the airport. â¢ Replaced main section of terminal roof and used shingles made of recycled materials that will last 50 years. â¢ Renovated and expanded administrative building, installing windows, reusing bricks from old section and putting high polish on concrete floors to avoid plastics and carpet. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Gaining the support of the local community and the governing legislative body is crucial, so invest time in educating the applicable stakeholders about why sustainability is important. â¢ Make presentations to the local Chamber of Commerce and Rotary Club, and display posters in the airport departures lounge to educate passengers and tenants. â¢ Involve the employees to get their buy-in and cooperation. â¢ Make sure that initiatives make financial sense, but avoid dismissing a sustainable alternative simply because the up-front costs may appear a little higher. Case example FocusâHarnessing the power of a sustainability Champion The history of sustainability at ITH illustrates how an idea can start with one person and then take on momentum as more people get involved. Bob Nicholas, the long-time airport director who recently retired, hails from the United Kingdom and wanted to adopt more environmentally friendly practices at ITH. An additional goal was to address the airportâs contribution toward global warming. Bob asked that sustainability be incorporated into the master plan that was being developed, and the consultant suggested that sustainability be treated as a separate component of the plan. Because incorporating sustainability initiatives requires higher initial expenditures, approval of the county legislature was necessary. FAA approval of the concept also had to be obtained because ITH also sought AIP fund- ing. ITH and its consultants scheduled a meeting with FAAâs head of aviation planning at ACI-NA offices in Washington, D.C. When the meeting commenced, FAA announced that it had already embraced support of sustainability and presented its plan to do a pilot project of ten airports. ITH asked to go first because it wanted to set an example for the airport industry in the United States. Because the project was new, a lot of time was required for the early stages. Local academic institu- tions Ithaca College and Cornell University were invited to participate, and both the students and the local community contributed ideas on projects to do at the airport. ITH received the Airports Going Green award in Chicago and several other local awards, and the county legislature was delighted with the local and national exposure.
33 Case example 5: KeNT sTaTe UNIVeRsITY aIRpORT, OHIO special Circumstances Kent State University Airport (1G3) is a general aviation air- port owned by Kent State University. From 85% to 90% of its operations support flight training, and the airport is finan- cially self-sufficient. 1G3 will become ENT/KENT as soon as it implements the Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS). Drivers Bolstered by increased environmental awareness among the student body, the university developed a vision for a sus- tainable future and retained a sustainability manager who is available to the airport. The primary driver for the sustain- ability program is reducing costs through energy efficiency, renewable energy, waste reduction, and increased recycling. Definition of sustainability Kent State University Airport follows the definition of sustainability provided by the Airport Coun- cil InternationalâNorth America as ensuring Economic viability, Operational efficiency, Natural resource conservation, and Social responsibility (EONS). The objective is to balance the benefits and impacts to these elements while identifying synergies among them. In order to achieve this, sustainability will be integrated into each step of the Airport Master Plan. airport sustainability planning The airport is developing a master plan with a sustainability component that is targeted for comple- tion by late 2015. The baseline assessments have been completed, and goals and associated projects have been identified. Facility upgrades and improvements that are included in the master plan will provide opportunities for integrating sustainable designs and practices and developing sustainability elements and measurements. 1G3 is part of the second group of more than 40 airports selected for FAA sustainability program, along with other Ohio-based airports such as Dayton International, Dayton Wright Brothers, and Akron Canton Regional. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâAIP funding. A full-time sustainability manager who serves as a resource and focal point. The culture and leadership at the university. High student awareness of environmental issues. Staff availability. BarriersâLimited financial resources to implement initiatives. Airport location in a different county from main university campus. Vocal community aversion to airport noise and traffic. major Focus areas and sample InitiativesâNoise abatement and Resource Conservation Most activities have been ad hoc while awaiting the master plan and its sustainability component. Initiatives: â¢ Active noise abatement program. â¢ Energy-efficient lighting (part of universitywide program). â¢ Storm water monitoring and control. â¢ Recycling program.
34 â¢ Preheating systems for aircraft. â¢ Waste and energy audits. â¢ Aggressive pavement maintenance to lengthen useful life. â¢ Groundwater contamination prevention. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Having senior leadership buy-in and support is the most critical aspect. â¢ Ad hoc projects can help with initial acceptance of a sustainability program. â¢ Maintain good community relations and be aware of airport noise impacts on the community. â¢ Retain an environmental professional to get an accurate assessment of current conditions and conduct audits for waste and energy. â¢ Weave the sustainability plan and program into the full master plan and airport activities. â¢ Look at all potential revenue streams. 1G3 sells fuel as its primary revenue but also leases unneeded space, provides aircraft washing, runs a bookstore, and collects rent from the college for training. Case example Focusâensuring airport Viability with effective Noise Control The airport operates a flight training school in an urban area, resulting in aircraft noise being gener- ated over the community. Growing the flight-training program provided a financial benefit to the air- port, but it also generated noise and other social impacts, such as increased surface traffic. In response to complaints from the community, some of which demanded closure of the airport, 1G3 initiated an aggressive noise reduction and noise management program. Air traffic routing was changed, as were procedures for takeoff and landing. Enhanced reporting procedures were put into place, and the airport held monthly meetings with the tenants to review every noise complaint. Because of these proactive measures, noise complaints were reduced by 64% during the period 2010 to 2014. Case example 6: NaNTUCKeT memORIal aIRpORT, massaCHUseTTs special Circumstances Nantucket Memorial Airport (ACK) is primarily a general aviation airport serving an island (Nantucket Island). In November 2012, ACK was selected as the pilot airport for the Carbon Neutral Airport Program (CNAP), a project administered by the Massachusetts Department of Transpor- tation and Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, to reduce fossil fuel emissions and greenhouse gas emissions. Drivers Current and projected increases in cost of electricity. Definition of sustainability Efficient and long-term management of resources. airport sustainability planning Drafting of the master plan was nearing completion at the time of the interview. The master plan is funded under the AIP, and the majority of funding for the sustainability initiatives to date came from state programs, utility rebates, and ACK operating revenues.
35 aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâMunicipality with progressive attitude toward environmental protection and energy use and conservation. Island ethos to recycle materials and compost; island mandate to reduce energy consumption and recycle. Financing for energy efficiency improvements at 0% that is repaid through energy bills. Zero emissions vehicle rebates from state program. State funding for a geothermal system retro-commissioning program, in accordance with National Grid. State rebates for zero emissions vehicles. BarriersâProcedure for obtaining bond financing. Town meetings. Burdensome state purchasing regulations. Lack of climate change awareness. Ineligibility for VALE funding as a result of primarily general aviation operations. major Focus areas and sample Initiativesâenergy Reduction and Biodiversity protection Energy reduction has been a major focus area. Initiatives: â¢ Lighting upgrades. â¢ HVAC repairs. â¢ Solar panels. â¢ Biodiversity protection for indigenous plants, moss, and wildlife. â¢ Donation of an old administration building to a construction company. â¢ Donation of an old FBO to a school. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Planning needs to be a team effort, so engage stakeholders, especially employees, early and often. â¢ Compare utility and fuel costs against the budget quarterly, preferably on a department basis to facilitate tracking and assign responsibility. â¢ Submeter wherever possible. â¢ Establish a baseline performance level and start tracking energy use. â¢ Conduct an energy audit. â¢ Recognize that information technology equipment requires significant amounts of energy for computers, screens, servers, printers, and fax machines. Case example Focusâpioneering Carbon Neutrality Nantucket Island became connected to the mainland energy supplies only 7 or 8 years ago; until then energy had to be self-generated by the island. Airports use a lot of energy and have a baseline level of consumption that is difficult to reduce. For example, runway and control tower lights are constantly illuminated, and security operations require space, light, and HVAC. ACKâs budget allocates more than $300,000 for energy, which is 72% of the utility budget. In March 2015, a 30% increase in rates is anticipated. The incentives for ACK to address energy costs and consumption are obvious, and the airport has taken several initiatives. It applied for and was accepted as a pilot project for the CNAP. CNAP has a goal of 100% net annual energy neutrality, to be achieved 30% through energy efficiency and 70% through solar energy. CNAP funded an investment grade energy audit (IGA), which revealed specific areas for improvement. For example, the IGA found that the geothermal system in general was not functioning properly. Phase I of the CNAP project has been completed, and the airport will begin building in 2015, with target completion in 2017. Submetering will be installed to track usage in specific departments (oper- ations, maintenance, and buildings) and buildings (the airfield, terminal, and tower). Functions will
36 be also tracked, such as HVAC and lighting. For lighting upgrades, ACK accessed zero-percentage on-bill financing, which permitted the airport to finance energy efficiency measures through the util- ity and repay the loan as part of the utility bill. Solar energy implementation may be financed through a power purchase agreement. A payback analysis suggests that many efficiency initiatives are cost- effective, but the municipality will invest in renewables only if they are cost-effective. Case example 7: NORTHWesT aRKaNsas ReGIONal aIRpORT, aRKaNsas special Circumstances For the Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport (XNA), the cities of Bentonville, Fayetteville, Rogers, Siloam Springs, and Springdale, along with Benton and Washington counties, created the Airport Authority as a separate public entity, one of only two in Arkansas. The airport site is centrally located. close to all the communities of northwest Arkansas. XNA is also far enough away from populated areas to minimize adverse impact from aircraft operations. Drivers The availability of FAA funding was a key driver. In addi- tion, board members and the airport had a strong desire to be a more efficient and sustainable operation. Definition of sustainability The Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport strives to provide an operationally safe and efficient air- port that is financially sound, promotes economic growth in the region, and enhances environmental sustainability and social responsibility. airport sustainability planning The airport will soon complete a sustainable master plan study, with goals of saving money, energy, and time and improving the passenger experience. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâFAA AIP funding. Stakeholder involvement, including various airport departments, airlines, FBOs, and tenants. Community involvement, including an advisory group, regional planning processes, and a website for the public. BarriersâStaff time to monitor results and measure benefits and costs. Prior building projects that were completed without sustainability awareness or input. major Focus areas and sample InitiativesâResource Conservation and passenger Comfort Initiatives: â¢ Recycled all the pavement, steel, and copper from the Runway Rehab Project. â¢ Reduced electrical bills by retrofitting the building with more efficient lighting fixtures and removing every other light from Airport Boulevard. â¢ Currently installing low-flush toilets, hands-free soap dispensers and water faucets at the sinks and Dyson hand dryers in all restrooms.
37 â¢ Implemented significant changes in HVAC operation, including use of controlling zones, adjusting temperatures to reflect time of day and occupancy schedules, and optimizing use of the outside air economizer. â¢ Changed set points on boilers and chillers for optimum operating parameters. â¢ Purchased rocking chairs, made with recycled seat belts, for the new concourse addition (people love them!). â¢ Initiated a cart service and a valet service to improve the passenger experience. â¢ Began providing umbrellas with XNA logo that can be used to get to the parking lot and then deposited in drop-off boxes. â¢ Converted old space into a small, publicly available conference room that has a TV and hook- ups for presentations. â¢ Converted old space into a âQuiet Roomâ or âYoga Room,â complete with mats and pillows. â¢ Installed large (10-ft Ã 10-ft) floor chess and checkers games as well as card tables in terminal for passenger use. â¢ Refinanced and combined long-term debt, reducing annual debt service by almost a million dollars a year at a fixed rate through 2027. â¢ Performed a financial analysis to determine the priority of future projects and analyzed methods to fund them; a future parking garage, a 3-mile access road, and pavement replacement are the three major projects that were targeted. â¢ Began protecting endangered fish species by collecting, holding, and then testing rainfall runoff from pavement before releasing the water into the downstream discharge area. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Small airports have a significant challenge to deliver on the things that larger airports commit to do and must look carefully at the financial payback of sustainability initiatives. â¢ Adopting a sustainability program before major renovations or construction allows for inclu- sion of sustainability concepts from the beginning. â¢ Be wary of optimistic predictions of financial returns and products advertising long lives. Many LED lights are not lasting as long as promised. â¢ Take the time to track results, even though an Excel spreadsheet can be tedious and time- consuming to use and staff availability can be difficult to secure for monitoring and measuring benefits and costs. â¢ Highlight sustainability drivers when applying for FAA grants. â¢ Closely review the payoff of some sustainable implementations when existing equipment is nearing end of life. â¢ When approaching the daily operations, project planning, and financial security, take time to consider projects carefully and analyze how they can be done better. â¢ Find outside resources and lessons learned. â¢ The community of airport personnel is eager to share experiences and results from tests and trials. Use the available knowledge to make your operation more sustainable. Case example FocusâGenerating Clear Objectives and Focus areas The airport formally identified the following objectives to meet the identified vision: â¢ Providing a high standard for safety and customer satisfaction; â¢ Providing a high standard for operational efficiency; â¢ Demonstrating environmental stewardship; â¢ Providing a financially and socially beneficial resource to the community/region; and â¢ Providing positive partnerships with tenants, neighbors, regulators, and other stakeholders. Primary focus areas include airport finance; energy consumption/greenhouse gases; operations and maintenance of airport facilities; waste management/recycling, and construction management. Secondary focus areas include water quality; community relations and education; and natural habitats and air quality.
38 Case example 8: OUTaGamIe COUNTY ReGIONal aIRpORT, WIsCONsIN special Circumstances The Outagamie County Regional Airport (ATW) has 29 build- ings, two runways, and numerous taxiways and paved air- craft aprons. The airport property occupies approximately 1,739 acres of land owned by Outagamie County, much of which is available for future development of new airside and landside facilities. The airport controls 29 acres of land through purchase of aviation easements. It owns an additional 9.7 acres through a runway protection zone easement. ATW has more than 250,000 annual enplanements and hosts a FedEx cargo sorting and handling facility and a wide variety of GA activities. More than 2,400 badged employees work at the airport. Drivers Prompted by rising utility costs and a volatile air service industry, the airport championed sustain- ability initiatives and in 2008 undertook a facilities assessment to reduce energy usage in the pas- senger terminal and other buildings. The assessment led to numerous changes, including the addition of a 50-kW photovoltaic array and a 12-panel solar thermal system on the airport terminal, removal of high-energyâuse equipment, and installation of energy-efficient lighting and room occupancy sensors. The success of that program brought Outagamie to the attention of FAA, which led to AIP funding through the Sustainable Airport Master Plan Pilot Program. Definition of sustainability Sustainable practices allow the current generation to meet current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs, and they foster environmental protection, natural resource conservation, social progress, and stable economic growth and employment. airport sustainability planning The sustainable airport master plan was produced in 2012. The master planâs sustainability initia- tives focus almost exclusively on reducing the energy use of airport-owned buildings by 70% by 2030 through a combination of new construction, energy-efficient retrofits, and the use of renewable energy sources. Under the plan, 50% of energy needs would be produced by renewables, and annual greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced by 85%. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâExecutive management support. FAA funding. Engineering consultants. Strong support from tenants and community. BarriersâCost. Lengthy local procurement process. major Focus areas and sample Initiativesâenergy Reduction and employee programs Initiatives: â¢ Adopted mission statement of being carbon neutral by 2030. â¢ Installed energy-efficient lighting, room occupancy sensors, and ground power and a pre- conditioned air unit in a new passenger boarding bridge (PBB) to allow aircraft to shut off engines when parked on the apron.
39 â¢ Conducted energy modeling that resulted in installation of timers on the baseboard heater of each PBB. â¢ Using a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, installed a 50-kW solar photovoltaic panel on the terminal concourse; solar monitoring stations provide education for the public. â¢ Reduced energy use through variable frequency drives on equipment; high-efficiency electri- cal, mechanical, and plumbing systems; room occupancy sensors; and natural lighting provided by skylights and large windows in the concourse and hangar. â¢ Studied a net-zero energy building for the FBO operations (the ATW Platinum Flight Center). â¢ Created a framework for measuring, tracking, and reducing the airportâs baseline energy usage and operational emissions footprints. â¢ Addressed employee programs, such as health risk analyses, absenteeism-reduction strategies, construction of new walking and biking paths on airport grounds, and provision of exercise facilities. â¢ Conducted a recycling and solid waste audit; developed strategies for diverting more waste from landfills. â¢ Evaluated wastewater management strategies; developed strategies for reusing water and better management of storm water runoff. â¢ Implemented rainwater collection, low-flow fixtures, and point-of-use hot water. â¢ Examined current and potential airport procurement practices to obtain sustainably produced supplies. â¢ Utilized enhanced wall and roof envelope insulation, in-floor radiant conditioning, high- performance Solarban 80 glazing, and a geothermal heat pump to boost efficiency and reduce the operational costs of heating and cooling systems. â¢ Utilized native plantings on airport grounds to reduce fertilizers and irrigation. â¢ Investigated ground transportation possibilities, such as mass transit, pedestrian and biking options, and plug-ins for electric cars in the parking lots. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Although ad hoc projects may build momentum, a comprehensive plan is necessary for defining goals and setting the direction. â¢ Owing to staff time constraints, retaining an outside consultant to conduct audits and develop a sustainability plan ultimately saves both time and money. â¢ Pursue both AIP and local funding. â¢ If budget constraints prevent design and implementation of a fully developed plan, use local electric utilities and electric supply companies for advice, especially for low-hanging fruit such as LED lighting. â¢ Review life cycles and have long-term data to see if the sustainability plan and projects actually save money; engineers occasionally get the projections wrong. â¢ To understand the impact of initiatives and build a case for future projects, track everything and use an intern to input the data. â¢ Be sure to link the capital improvement plan and the sustainability plan. Case example Focusâadvancing energy efficient Buildings Following the planning goals set forth in the sustainable airport master plan, ATW established a GA campus south of the commercial air service passenger terminal that includes an FBO, a corpo- rate hangar, and a storage hangar for corporate jets. The Platinum Flight Center GA terminal was designed to achieve LEED certification, and the terminal building is designed to be the nationâs first aviation building to achieve Net Zero Energy status by producing renewable energy equivalent to the amount of energy it consumes for building operations in a calendar year. The building design includes the following energy efficiency measures: â¢ geothermal heating and cooling; â¢ in-floor radiant conditioning;
40 â¢ photovoltaic solar energy roof panels; â¢ high-performance glazing; â¢ thermal mass with enhanced envelope insulation; â¢ occupancy sensors for lighting and mechanical systems; â¢ natural ventilation; â¢ rainwater capture cistern for water reuse; and â¢ high-efficiency electrical, mechanical, and plumbing systems. Case example 9: pORTlaND INTeRNaTIONal JeTpORT, maINe special Circumstances Portland International Jetport (PWM) has 45 full-time employ- ees. The airport is owned by the city of Portland, which man- ages the procurement process, enacts mandatory policies and procedures, and acts as the final decision maker. Drivers PWM has a vocal local community with respect to environ- mental impacts stemming from the airport, and FAA, the U.S. EPA, and the Maine Department of Environmental Pro- tection (DEP) have become more focused on environmental issues. Availability of FAA AIP funding for the sustainability master plan also helped spur the airportâs program. Definition of sustainability Use only what you need and replace what you use. Sustainability must be based on economic viabil- ity, environmental impact, and importantly, the societal/organizational effect. airport sustainability planning PWM began work on a sustainability airport master plan (SAMP) in the summer of 2014, with an estimated completion in fall of 2015. The airport started with ad hoc projects, but the SAMP serves as a more robust and comprehensive vehicle for identifying issues and facilitates coalescing groups to set goals and find solutions. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâAIP funding for SAMP. VALE funding for geothermal. Supportive airport director. BarriersâLack of awareness and/or commitment at the municipal level. Bureaucratic processes (must get three bids for any procurement over $1,000). Staff resources. Low passenger facility charges. major Focus areas and sample Initiativesâenergy Reduction and employee Involvement Major SAMP focus areas: environmental compliance; air quality and greenhouse gases; economic impact; energy; governance and organizational readiness; ground transportation access; people and waste management; and recycling. Initiatives: â¢ Surveyed employees to obtain opinions and suggestions. â¢ Conducted environmental training.
41 â¢ Installed more efficient drives, lights, reflective roof, multistack heat pump system, and room occupancy sensors. â¢ Replacing all lights with LEDs to produce 70% energy savings plus lower maintenance costs. â¢ Achieved LEED Gold in new terminal expansion. â¢ Used VALE funds to install a geothermal system, which will pay for itself in 18 months and has a 30-year life. â¢ Reduced light pollution from airport deck by installing an airfoil to direct the light away from the town. â¢ Using software to track each flight for noise purposes. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Make a decision to be environmentally responsible and then look for funding. â¢ Adopt initiatives that have a positive return on financial investment but understand that nothing will work well unless the social/community pillar is solid. â¢ Always seek public/employee/tenant involvement. â¢ Sound decisions require data and trends; use spreadsheets to track metrics that are not automati- cally tabulated (geothermal automatically provides data). â¢ Seek funding from governmental and other sources such as utilities. For example, Efficiency Maine has funded the LED lights. â¢ Be aware that some initiatives reduce operational or maintenance costs but could have a high greenhouse gas footprint; the heat pump for geothermal units consumes surprising amounts of energy. â¢ Smaller airports do not have the capacity to employ a full-time sustainability coordinator, and appeals to people to do the right thing can produce significant results. Case example Focusâpursuing Deicing excellence In 2007, the EPA demanded a study on deicing fluid mixing with storm water. Maine DEP found low oxygen levels in the local river and presented the airport with several options, which included gather- ing glycol and shipping it elsewhere for treatment. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 funded shovel-ready projects, leading the airport to apply for a grant to install pipes with a valve to direct glycol into a container. The FAA funded $500,000 for a tank to store the glycol. Both the EPA and the Maine DEP prohibited glycol from entering the river after November 1, 2010, and by October 2010, the storage tank was operational. All storm runoff is also diverted into the tank. Through this system of direct capture and diversion of the storm water-glycol mix, approximately 70% of the glycol is retained on site, and airport glycol leaving the site is less than half the permit- ted amount. Originally the captured glycol mix was sent off-site for separation and distillation, but now both separation and distillation are performed on site. Indeed, during the summer, other airports send their glycol to PWM for distillation. Currently, the recycled glycol is sold to firms in Canada to coat bearings on coal-mining equipment. However, PWM would like to have its on-site distilla- tion process certified to allow recycled glycol to be reused on aircraft; EPA funding is available for recapture but not for distillation, so other funding sources will have to be found. Case example 10: ReNTON mUNICIpal aIRpORT, WasHINGTON special Circumstances Renton Municipal Airport (RNT) was built in 1922 and expanded in 1943 for B-29 production during World War II. In the 1950s, the airport was prepared for jet aircraft produc- tion and served as the departure airport for all new Boeing KC135, 707, 727, 757, and 737 and P8A aircraft delivered from the Boeing Renton factory to the U.S. military and commercial airlines worldwide.
42 Drivers The airport director believed that launching a sustainability program was critical to ensuring that the airport was operated and maintained with a long-term vision while also balancing the goals of the residents living in the community around the airport. RNT was one of the 10 pilot airports for AIP sustainability funding. Definition of sustainability Sustainability is not just economic and social, nor is it just environment; it also includes operations and maintenance. It is important that all airports need look at all aspects of sustainability, especially those that ensure that the airport meets its main mission to support aviation while also being fiscally responsible, maintaining the infrastructure for the next 100 years, and operating the airport in a man- ner that ensures the airport is an asset for the community in which it is located. airport sustainability planning The sustainability master plan (SMP) was completed in 2012, and the airport master plan (AMP) process, which will align and implement the SMP goals, began in the fall of 2014. The goal of the 2012 SMP was to fully apply the EONS model for RNT to see if a holistic approach to sustainability would work and, most importantly, contribute to the longevity of the airport. The SMP serves as the umbrella program by addressing daily operations and balancing competing needs. The AMP is a facilities plan, one component of many in implementing the SMP. The airport has embarked on an aggressive construction program, and having the SMP allowed for more thoughtful decisions and resulted in cost savings. With ad hoc projects, the airport may not get credit for taking actions that have an impact on sustainability because lack of awareness and weak documentation prevent a clear link. A comprehensive plan explains the sustainability program and provides a framework for action. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâAIP funding that paid consultants to help develop the plan and the data âtoolâ that is used to align the goals with the implementation strategies and contain the data sets for analysis. Knowl- edgeable FAA staff in the airport regional office. The 20-person Airport Advisory Committee, with representatives from tenant and community stakeholders. BarriersâSustainability viewed as only pertaining to the environment and not the financial, operational, or long-term health of the airport infrastructure. Lack of process for gathering data. Lack of standardized data sets to use in decision making. Lack of staff time for col- lecting data. major Focus areas and sample InitiativesâWater protection and Community Outreach Focus areas that are tracked: airport financials, local and airport economic values, community out- reach and education, energy conservation/greenhouse gases, noise, facilities operation and mainte- nance, and water quality. Initiatives: â¢ Improved runway pavement rating from 30 to 100. â¢ To protect the adjacent river, replaced storm water pipes and installed drainage swales to sequester tire rubber and heavy metals from entering the adjacent river and lake. â¢ Acquired runway broom to reduce usage of E36 runway deicer and improve airport operationsâ response to winter ice/snow events. â¢ Replaced infield mower, which reduced staff hours and diesel consumption (greenhouse gases). â¢ Dredged seaplane base to maintain safe operations and designed a shoreline restoration project.
43 â¢ Conducted airport tours for preschool students, high school students, and Boy Scouts and held quarterly meetings with the Airport Advisory Committee to maintain and improve community acceptance of the airport. â¢ Maintain airport cash flow model on a weekly basis to ensure a financially healthy airport. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ To succeed, the program requires a long-term focus, and there must be a commitment and understanding from the top of the organization. â¢ Develop a process and a tool for gathering and tracking data; RNT tracks data related to the EONS balloons in an Excel spreadsheet. â¢ One of RNTâs six staff members inputs data into spreadsheets that track every metric, thus providing accurate, long-term data that inform decisions. Case example FocusâIntegrating sustainability plans with Construction In 2001, RNT was showing clear signs of neglect. Not much maintenance had been performed since the 1950s. The runways were in bad condition. Sections of the perimeter fence were miss- ing. The ramp and docks for the seaplane base had rotted. Vehicles drove down taxiways and runways. Financial planning extended only a year or two into the future. Fuel spilled into the lake and river. Poor relationships and communication between and among the community, the city, the airport, and the tenants prevented problems from getting resolved. Understanding the status quo was complicated by a lack of data. Remodeling projects failed to balance public policy goals, and opinions were not based on data. New airport management began by gathering data to get a snapshot of the current situation and determined to follow a more sustainable path. Despite best intentions, the myriad demands on the small staff (six employees) made a concentrated effort difficult. RNT was awarded an FAA AIP grant to develop an SMP. After a number of drafts and iterations to address RNTâs specific situations, the SMP was completed in 2012, just in time to implement sustainability strategies in the $18 million of major construction projects that were undertaken in 2013. With the help of a robust and detailed Excel platform that aligns with the SMP, the airport now keeps accurate and precise data to enable tracking of performance against sustainability and other goals. Case example 11: ROBeRTs FIelD, ReDmOND mUNICIpal aIRpORT, OReGON special Circumstances Redmond Municipal Airport (RDM) is the only commer- cial airport serving as a regional hub in central and eastern Oregon. Drivers The city of Redmond owns and operates the airport and financed expansion of the terminal from 16,000 square feet to 132,000 square feet in 2010. That expansion opened opportuni- ties to implement some ad hoc sustainability projects. Definition of sustainability Sustainability involves more than just environmental aspects, and although many environmental initiatives result in cost reductions, in the event of conflict, finan- cial responsibilities such as maintenance take priority over green initiatives.
44 airport sustainability planning RDM has a master plan but does not currently have a dedicated sustainability plan, so the airport has implemented sustainability measures on a self-funded, ad hoc basis. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâStrong community support. Staff and stakeholder buy-in. BarriersâLimited staff and budget. Potential negative cost-benefit of project. major Focus areas and sample Initiativesâsolar panels and energy Conservation Initiatives: â¢ As part of the terminal expansion, installed glass in many areas to utilize and maximize ambi- ent light. â¢ Installed a 44-kW DC solar panel array on the terminal roof in 2010; the airport web page (www.FLYRDM.com) has a monitoring link to show the total energy generated, total CO2 off- set (Total Energy Generated = X Tons of CO2 Saved), and total gallons of gas saved. â¢ Performed an energy audit of the airport terminal. â¢ Upgraded lights in terminal and parking lots to LED. â¢ Changed from paper to air dryers in restrooms. â¢ Installed sensors in all sinks and faucets. â¢ Implemented recycling program. â¢ Working with restaurants to reduce their environmental footprint. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Having a good relationship with the community and local government is vital. â¢ Read the TRB reports and other information available online. â¢ Environmental issues are becoming more critical, as are social aspects resulting from social media, so airport priorities need to evolve with the times. â¢ With smaller airports, the financial aspect is critical, so initiatives must make good business sense. â¢ Look at nontraditional sources of funding, such federal and state environmental agencies. â¢ Attendance at airport conferences promotes networking and provides opportunities for people to exchange ideas. â¢ When completing long-term financial and capital improvement planning, consider how to incorporate sustainability aspects; build on actions taken in prior plans and allow the plans and projects to build on each other. â¢ Eliminate silos within the organization; build relationships with local governments and others to access the benefits of synergies and obtain information. â¢ With green initiatives such as solar, look carefully at the installation and maintenance costs and anticipated life cycle. Financial projections may be overly optimistic. Case example FocusâDelivering sustainability linked to Customer service One of the goals for the airport director has been to make the airport experience more pleasant and encourage people to come to the airport for reasons other than flights. Relationship building with the city and county has been a priority, and as a result, the airport is well supported by the community. For example, taking the local governing body for a tour around the terminal and the airport property helps familiarize the members with the airport design and operations. To engage the local com- munity, the airport would communicate about its activities to increase understanding of the airport. However, those communications could take into account the differences in how each generation pro- cesses information. In todayâs environment, people want to stay electronically connected, so terminal
45 designs could provide more outlets for charging personal electronic devices, especially in the seating areas. At RDM, many of the older staff are nearing retirement, which requires recruitment in ways that take into account current expectations of employees. Case example 12: TeTeRBORO aIRpORT aND sTeWaRT INTeRNaTIONal aIRpORT, NeW JeRseY/NeW YORK special Circumstances Teterboro (TEB) and Stewart International (SWF) airports are operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) and are critical pieces of PANYNJâs airport net- work of five airports. TEB serves as a general aviation reliever airport for the region, and SWF serves as a vital gateway to the Mid-Hudson Valley. In 2010, FAA selected TEB for inclusion in its Sustainability Pilot Program. Drivers PANYNJ views sustainability programs as vital to the busi- ness case of an organization because a focus on sustainability can aid in evaluating long-term risk and can increase cohesion between the airport and local communities. Definition of sustainability A robust sustainability program can serve as a catalyst to help an airport meet its overall business objectives, balancing the airportâs financial needs with environmental and social goals. PANYNJ uses the EONS definition of sustainability and has established the following goals for all of its operations and facilities: an 80% reduction in all greenhouse gas emissions related to its facilities from 2006 levels by 2050; net zero greenhouse gas emissions from Port Authority operations; proactive engagement with tenants and others to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions; and development of strategies for climate change adaptation. airport sustainability planning An environmental sustainability plan has been in place at SWF since 2010, with an update under way. A sustainable management plan has been in place at TEB since 2012. Sustainability manage- ment plans help serve as enterprise-level, decision-making frameworks involving staff at all levels of the organization. A comprehensive plan allows for deployment of consistent decision-making tools and optimal use of resources among facilities. aids/Barriers to Implementation AidsâArticulating the business case for every sustainability initiative, whether it is a financial or a more qualitative business case. Industry momentum around sustainability and case examples of other airports successfully deploying strategies. High-level organizational and policy sup- port for sustainability. BarriersâEngaging field staff on a meaningful level as sustainability plans are developed. Mindset that sustainability planning is limited to the environmental field.
46 major Focus areas and sample InitiativesâClimate Change planning and energy audit Focus areas for both airports: climate risk mitigation, air quality improvement, and cost reduction. Initiatives: â¢ TEB: â Planning for the effects of climate change on critical infrastructure. â Hosts community events and career fairs. â Adopted operational efficiency improvements on the airfield. â Completed a Global Reporting Initiative sustainability report for 2013, which will serve as a template for future PANYNJ sustainability reporting. â¢ SWF: â Developed a recycling program. â Collaborated with local businesses on sustainability initiatives. â Conducted a whole facility energy audit and retrofit, including installation of smart meters. â Utilizing alternative-fuel vehicles. â Installed high-albedo roofing and pervious pavement. â Collecting and treating deicing fluid. â Engaging in community outreach and encouraging community involvement. lessons learned and sage advice â¢ Sustainability planning could be a way of (1) recognizing the efforts that staff has engaged in and that are under way, (2) grouping current efforts into broader strategic initiatives where cumulative benefits can be recognized, and (3) developing an enterprise-level, decision-making framework that weaves sustainable choices into all levels of the airport business. â¢ Sustainability can be viewed both as a tool to achieve better bottom line results and as a revenue driver. â¢ Business strategy and sustainability are beginning to merge because having a sustainability program helps airports think strategically and ultimately serve customers more effectively. â¢ Lighting retrofits can pay for themselves; look to utilities as a funding source. â¢ Have workshops with local stakeholders, who can be sources of goals and initiatives. â¢ When brainstorming projects, consider all that appear feasible, and then make selection based on practicality and cost. â¢ When implementing a recycling program, first do a ground waste audit to understand what proportion of waste items is recyclable or compostable. A basic level of human sorting is prob- ably unavoidable. Case example Focusâenhancing strategic Use of Reliever airports From the perspective of PANYNJ, the small reliever airports in the network can serve as ideal test cases for broader organizational initiatives. For example, the Aviation Department completed its first sustainability plan at SWF to test strategies for planning and implementation. Also at SWF, PANYNJ deployed a pilot smart-metering project to understand the benefits of submetering and active utility management. Deploying new initiatives on a small scale allows PANYNJ to limit its risk profile while determining how the initiatives can be deployed on a larger scale at the rest of its facilities.