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Page 88
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22115.
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Page 89
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22115.
×
Page 89
Page 90
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22115.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

88 AECOM Consult, Inc., Maier Consulting, Inc., and Peter Schauer Associates. 2006. TCRP Report 86, Public Transportation Security, Volume 10, Hazard and Security Plan Workshop, Instructor Guide. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Washington, D.C. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.nap.edu/ catalog/13695/tcrp-report-86-volume-10-hazard-and-security-plan-workshop. Amalgamated Transit Union (ATU). 2012. Fact sheet: Preventing Violence against Bus Operators. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.atu.org/atu-pdfs/conventiondocs/convention-docs/ATU-Violence-Fact- Sheet.pdf. American Public Transportation Association (APTA). 2008, revised 2012. Recommended Practice RP APTA SS- SRM-RP-001-09, Rev. 1. Recommended Practice for the Development and Implementation of a Security and Emergency Preparedness Plan (SEPP).Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.apta.com/resources/standards/ Documents/APTA-SS-SRM-RP-001-09.pdf. American Public Transportation Association (APTA). 2008. Recommended Practice APTA SS-SIS-RP-002-08. Recommended Practice for CCTV Camera Coverage and Field of View Criteria for Passenger Facilities. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/security/securityinitiatives/actionitems/Item2008/13/ CCTV_Passenger_Final_8-13.pdf. American Public Transportation Association (APTA). 2010. Recommended Practice SS-SIS-RP-008-10, Bus Stop Design and Placement, Security Considerations. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.apta.com/resources/ standards/Documents/APTA-SS-SIS-RP-008-10.pdf. American Public Transportation Association (APTA). 2011. Recommended Practice APTA IT-CCTV-RP-001-11. Selection of Cameras, Digital Recording Systems, Digital High-Speed Networks and Trainlines for Use in Transit- Related CCTV Systems. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.apta.com/resources/standards/Documents/ APTA-IT-CCTV-RP-001-11.pdf. American Public Transportation Association (APTA). 2013. Recommended Practice APTA SS-SIS-RP-011-13. Security Planning for Public Transit. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.apta.com/resources/standards/ Documents/APTA-SS-SIS-RP-011-13.pdf. ASME Innovative Technologies Institute. 2005. RAMCAP Framework: Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://files.asme.org/ASMEITI/RAMCAP/12604.pdf. Balog, J. N., Boyd, A., and Caton, J. E. 2003. The Public Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide. Federal Transit Administration. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/ PlanningGuide.pdf. Black’s Law Dictionary. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://thelawdictionary.org. Blake, R., Uccardi, M. Security Manpower Planning Model Instruction Manual. 2008. Springfield, Virginia. National Technical Information Service/NTIS. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fta.dot.gov/TSO/12527_13860. html. Block, R. L., and C. R. Block. 1995. Space, Place, and Crime: Hot Spot Areas and Hot Places of Liquor-Related Crime, in J. Eck and D. Weisburd (eds.) Crime and Place, Monsey, NY: Willow Tree Press. Boyd A., Caton, J., Singleton, A., Bromley, P., and Yorks, C. 2005. TCRP Report 86/NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 8, Continuity of Operations (COOP) Planning Guidelines for Transportation Agencies. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Brantingham P. L., and P. J. Brantingham. 1993. Nodes, Paths, and Edges: Considerations on the Complexity of Crime and Physical Environment, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 13, pp. 3–28. Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. 2012. TABLE A-1, Fatal Occupational Injuries by Industry and Event or Exposure, All United States. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/ cfoi/cftb0268.pdf. References

References 89 California Assembly Bill No. 1971—An Act to Amend Section 496a of, and to Add Section 594.05 to, the Penal Code, Relating to Theft (Filed July 10, 2012). Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/11-12/ bill/asm/ab_1951-2000/ab_1971_bill_20120710_chaptered.pdf. Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) Riders Code of Conduct (adapted from Charlotte Code Sec. 15-272 and 15-273). Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://charmeck.org/city/charlotte/cats/Bus/ridingcats/Pages/Code%20 of%20Conduct.aspx. Countermeasures Assessment & Security Experts, LLC. Forthcoming. TCRP Project F-21, “Tools and Strate- gies for Eliminating Assaults Against Transit Operators.” Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Washington, D.C. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay. asp?ProjectID=3544. DeGeneste, H. I., and Sullivan, J. P. 1994. Policing Transportation Facilities. Accessed May 6, 2015 at https://www. ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=151198. Department of Justice, Office of Domestic Preparedness. 2010. Transportation Risk Assessment Methodology (TRAM). Citation Not Available—see description of the Terrorism Risk Assessment and Management Toolkit on page 36 of Review of the Department of Homeland Security’s Approach to Risk Analysis (2010). Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12972/review-of-the-department-of-homeland- securitys-approach-to-risk-analysis. DHS. 2008. Risk Steering Committee: DHS Risk Lexicon, September 2008. dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs_risk_ lexicon.pdf. DHS. 2013. National Infrastructure Protection Plan. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/National-Infrastructure-Protection- Plan-2013-508.pdf. FBI. 2012. Crime in the United States 2012. USA. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/ crime-in-the-u.s/2012/crime-in-the-u.s.-2012. FBI. 2012. Hate Crime Statistics 2012. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fbi. gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/hate-crime/2012. FBI. 2012. Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/leoka/2012. FBI. 2012. National Incident-Based Reporting System 2012. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/nibrs/2012. FBI. Combined DNA Index System (CODIS). Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/biometric- analysis/codis. FBI. Precious Metal: Copper Theft Threatens U.S. Infrastructure. December 3, 2008. USA. Federal Bureau of Inves- tigation. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2008/december/copper_120308. Frazier, E. R. Sr.; Nakanishi, Y. J.; Lorimer, M. A. 2009. NCHRP Report 525, Volume 14: Security 101: A Physi- cal Security Primer for Transportation Agencies. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/162394.aspx. FTA. 2006. Transit Agency Security and Emergency Management Protective Measures. Washington, D.C. http:// www.fta.dot.gov/TSO/EmergencyManagement.html. GAO. 2008. DHS Risk-Based Grant Methodology Is Reasonable, But Current Version’s Measure of Vulnerability is Limited. U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.gao.gov/ products/GAO-08-852. Interactive Elements, Incorporated. 1997. TCRP Web Document 15: Guidelines for the Effective Use of Uniformed Transit Police and Security Personnel. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_webdoc_15-a.pdf. Lamm Weisel, D. 2002. Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Series, Guide No. 9: Graffiti. Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. popcenter.org/problems/PDFs/Graffiti.pdf. Loukaitou-Sideris A, Liggett R, Iseki H, Thurlow W. 2001, Measuring the effects of built environment on bus stop crime. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 28(2) 255–280. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http:// www.uctc.net/papers/419.pdf. Mauri, R. A., Cooney, N. A., Prowe, G. J. 1984/Reprint 1997. Transit Security: A Description of Problems and Countermeasures. U.S. Department of Transportation. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fta.dot.gov/ documents/TS_Problem_Coutnermeasures.pdf. Nakanishi, Y. 2009. TCRP Synthesis 80: Transit Security Update. 2009. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/160791. aspx. Nakanishi, Y. J., Fleming, W. C., 2011. TCRP Synthesis 93: Practices to Protect Bus Operators from Passenger Assault. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http:// www.nap.edu/catalog/14609/tcrp-synthesis-93-practices-to-protect-bus-operators-from-passenger.

90 Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems National Council to Prevent Delinquency (NCPD) (now the Graffiti Resource Council (GRC). Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.anti-graffiti.org. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). 2013. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245. National Transit Database. Federal Transit Administration. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.ntdprogram. gov/ntdprogram/. NTI. Employee Guide to System Safety and Security. National Transit Institute (NTI). Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.ntionline.com/products/index.php?product_type=3. Pearlstein, A.; Wachs, M. 1982. Crime in Public Transit Systems: An Environmental Design Perspective. Trans- portation. September 1982, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp. 277–297. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00172653#. Perkins, D., J. Meeks, and R. Taylor (1992). The Physical Environment of Street Blocks and Resident Perceptions of Crime and Disorder: Implications for Theory and Measurement, Journal of Environmental Criminology, Vol. 12, pp. 21–34. Rabkin, M., Brodesky, R., Ford, F., Haines, M., Karp, J., Lovejoy, K., Regan, T., Sharpe, L., and Zirker, M. 2004. Transit Security Design Considerations. Federal Transit Administration. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www. fta.dot.gov/documents/ftasesc.pdf. Rugala, E. A., Isaacs, A. R., editors. Workplace Violence: Issues in Response. 2002. Federal Bureau of Investigation. National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/ publications/workplace-violence. Science Applications International Corporation, and PB Consult. 2009. NCHRP Report 525, Surface Transporta- tion Security, Volume 15, Costing Asset Protection: An All Hazards Guide for Transportation Agencies (CAPTA). Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Shaner, Z. May 11, 2012. BREAKING: 4.2 Miles of Copper Wire Stolen from LINK. Seattle Transit Blog. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://seattletransitblog.com/2012/05/11/breaking-4-2-miles-of-copper-wire-stolen-from- link/. Skogan, W. G. (1990). Disorder and Decline: Crime and the Spiral of Decay in American Neighborhoods, New York: MacMillan. TCRP. 1996. Transit Cooperative Research Program Research Results Digest 9: Responding to Vandalism of Transit Bus and Rail Vehicle Passenger Windows. 1996. Washington, D.C. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/153749.aspx. TRB Public Transportation Marketing and Fare Policy Research Needs Statements. 2013. Transit Fare Evasion: Measurement, Prevention, Economics, and Societal Factors. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Washington, D.C. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://rns.trb.org/dproject.asp?n=33883. TSA/FTA. Security and Emergency Management Action Items for Transit Agencies. Federal Transit Administra- tion. Accessed May 6, 2015 at http://transit-safety.volpe.dot.gov/security/securityinitiatives/ActionItems/ default.asp. U.S. Department of Justice. Vulnerability Assessment of Federal Facilities. 1995. Accessed May 6, 2015 at https:// www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/156412NCJRS.pdf. Wilson, J. Q., and Kelling, G. L. 1982. “Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety,” Atlantic Monthly, 249(3), 29–38.

Next: Appendix A - Agencies Participating in the F-18 Study of Agency Size Large, Medium, Small »
Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems Get This Book
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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 180: Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems explores the current state of practice and identifies and responds to the specific challenges and issues associated with the security of small- and medium-sized transit agencies. The report follows the five stages of protection activity (prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) by providing baseline options and identifying potential security countermeasures that could be deployed by both of these sizes of transit agencies.

The report is accompanied by a PowerPoint presentation.

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