National Academies Press: OpenBook

Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity (2015)

Chapter: Appendix C - Countermeasures

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Countermeasures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22116.
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94 Following is a categorized and prioritized list of countermeasures that airports should consider when addressing vulnerabilities to reduce their likelihood of a successful cybersecurity attack. References refer to NIST 800-53 (Joint Task Force Transformation Initiative 2012) where additional information on each countermeasure can be found. A P P E N D I X C Countermeasures

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance PL-1 Management Planning Security Planning Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented security planning policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the security planning policy and associated security planning controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the security planning family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The security planning policy addresses the overall policy requirements for confidentiality, integrity, and availability and can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Security planning procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the security planning policy. Related control: PM-9. PL-2 Management Planning System Security Plan P1 The organization: a. Develops a security plan for the information system that: - Is consistent with the organization’s enterprise architecture; - Explicitly defines the authorization boundary for the system; - Describes the operational context of the information system in terms of missions and business processes; - Provides the security categorization of the information system including supporting rationale; - Describes the operational environment for the information system; - Describes relationships with or connections to other information systems; - Provides an overview of the security requirements for the system; - Describes the security controls in place or planned for meeting those requirements including a rationale for the tailoring and supplementation decisions; and - Is reviewed and approved by the authorizing official or designated representative prior to plan implementation; b. Reviews the security plan for the information system [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]; and c. Updates the plan to address changes to the information system/environment of operation or problems identified during plan implementation or security control assessments. The security plan contains sufficient information (including specification of parameters for assignment and selection statements in security controls either explicitly or by reference) to enable an implementation that is unambiguously compliant with the intent of the plan and a subsequent determination of risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation if the plan is implemented as intended. Related controls: PM-1, PM-7, PM-8, PM-9, PM-11. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance PL-4 Management Planning Rules of Behavior P1 The organization: a. Establishes and makes readily available to all information system users, the rules that describe their responsibilities and expected behavior with regard to information and information system usage; and b. Receives signed acknowledgment from users indicating that they have read, understand, and agree to abide by the rules of behavior, before authorizing access to information and the information system. The organization considers different sets of rules based on user roles and responsibilities, for example, differentiating between the rules that apply to privileged users and rules that apply to general users. Electronic signatures are acceptable for use in acknowledging rules of behavior. Related control: PS-6. PL-5 Management Planning Privacy Impact Assessment P1 The organization conducts a privacy impact assessment on the information system in accordance with OMB policy. None. PL-6 Management Planning Security-Related Activity Planning P3 The organization plans and coordinates security-related activities affecting the information system before conducting such activities in order to reduce the impact on organizational operations (i.e., mission, functions, image, and reputation), organizational assets, and individuals. Security-related activities include, for example, security assessments, audits, system hardware and software maintenance, and contingency plan testing/exercises. Organizational advance planning and coordination includes both emergency and nonemergency (i.e., planned or nonurgent unplanned) situations. PM-1 Management Program Management Information Security Program Plan P1 The organization: a. Develops and disseminates an organization-wide information security program plan that: - Provides an overview of the requirements for the security program and a description of the security program management controls and common controls in place or planned for meeting those requirements; - Provides sufficient information about the program management controls and common controls (including specification of parameters for any assignment and selection operations either explicitly or by reference) to enable an implementation that is unambiguously compliant with the intent of the plan and a determination of the risk to be incurred if the plan is implemented as intended; - Includes roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; - Is approved by a senior official with responsibility and accountability for the risk being incurred to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, and reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation; b. Reviews the organization-wide information security program plan [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]; and c. Revises the plan to address organizational changes and problems identified during plan implementation or security control assessments. The information security program plan can be represented in a single document or compilation of documents at the discretion of the organization. The plan documents the organization-wide program management controls and organization-defined common controls. The security plans for individual information systems and the organization-wide information security program plan together, provide complete coverage for all security controls employed within the organization. Common controls are documented in an appendix to the organization’s information security program plan unless the controls are included in a separate security plan for an information system (e.g., security controls employed as part of an intrusion detection system providing organization-wide boundary protection inherited by one or more organizational information systems). The organization-wide information security program plan will indicate which separate security plans contain descriptions of common controls. Organizations have the flexibility to describe common controls in a single document or in multiple documents. In the case of multiple documents, the documents describing common controls are included as attachments to the information security program plan. If the information security program plan contains multiple documents, the organization specifies in each document the organizational official or officials responsible for the development, implementation, assessment, authorization, and monitoring of the respective common controls. For example, the organization may require that the Facilities Management Office develop, implement, assess, authorize, and continuously monitor common physical and environmental protection controls from the PE family when such controls are not associated with a particular information system but instead, support multiple information systems. Related control: PM-8.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance PM-2 Management Program Management Senior Information Security Officer P1 The organization appoints a senior information security officer with the mission and resources to coordinate, develop, implement, and maintain an organization-wide information security program. The security officer described in this control is an organizational official. For a federal agency (as defined in applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, or regulations) this official is the Senior Agency Information Security Officer. Organizations may also refer to this organizational official as the Senior Information Security Officer or Chief Information Security Officer. PM-3 Management Program Management Information Security Resources P1 The organization: a. Ensures that all capital planning and investment requests include the resources needed to implement the information security program and documents all exceptions to this requirement; b. Employs a business case/Exhibit 300/Exhibit 53 to record the resources required; and c. Ensures that information security resources are available for expenditure as planned. Organizations may designate and empower an Investment Review Board (or similar group) to manage and provide oversight for the information security- related aspects of the capital planning and investment control process. Related controls: PM-4, SA-2. PM-4 Management Program Management Plan of Action and Milestones Process P1 The organization implements a process for ensuring that plans of action and milestones for the security program and the associated organizational information systems are maintained and document the remedial information security actions to mitigate risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation. The plan of action and milestones is a key document in the information security program and is subject to federal reporting requirements established by OMB. The plan of action and milestones updates are based on the findings from security control assessments, security impact analyses, and continuous monitoring activities. OMB FISMA reporting guidance contains instructions regarding organizational plans of action and milestones. Related control: CA-5. PM-5 Management Program Management Information System Inventory P1 The organization develops and maintains an inventory of its information systems. This control addresses the inventory requirements in FISMA. OMB provides guidance on developing information systems inventories and associated reporting requirements. PM-6 Management Program Management Information Security Measures of Performance P1 The organization develops, monitors, and reports on the results of information security measures of performance. Measures of performance are outcome-based metrics used by an organization to measure the effectiveness or efficiency of the information security program and the security controls employed in support of the program. PM-7 Management Program Management Enterprise Architecture P1 The organization develops an enterprise architecture with consideration for information security and the resulting risk to organizational operations, organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation. The enterprise architecture developed by the organization is aligned with the Federal Enterprise Architecture. The integration of information security requirements and associated security controls into the organization’s enterprise architecture helps to ensure that security considerations are addressed by organizations early in the system development life cycle and are directly and explicitly related to the organization’s mission/business processes. This also embeds into the enterprise architecture, an integral security architecture consistent with organizational risk management and information security strategies. Security requirements and control integration are most effectively accomplished through the application of the Risk Management Framework and supporting security standards and guidelines. The Federal Segment Architecture Methodology provides guidance on integrating information security requirements and security controls into enterprise architectures. Related controls: PL-2, PM-11, RA-2. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance PM-8 Management Program Management Critical Infrastructure Plan P1 The organization addresses information security issues in the development, documentation, and updating of a critical infrastructure and key resources protection plan. The requirement and guidance for defining critical infrastructure and key resources and for preparing an associated critical infrastructure protection plan are found in applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Related controls: PM-1, PM-9, PM-11, RA-3. PM-9 Management Program Management Risk Management Strategy P1 The organization: a. Develops a comprehensive strategy to manage risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation associated with the operation and use of information systems; and b. Implements that strategy consistently across the organization. An organization-wide risk management strategy includes, for example, an unambiguous expression of the risk tolerance for the organization, acceptable risk assessment methodologies, risk mitigation strategies, a process for consistently evaluating risk across the organization with respect to the organization’s risk tolerance, and approaches for monitoring risk over time. The use of a risk executive function can facilitate consistent, organization-wide application of the risk management strategy. The organization-wide risk management strategy can be informed by risk-related inputs from other sources both internal and external to the organization to ensure the strategy is both broad- based and comprehensive. Related control: RA-3. PM-10 Management Program Management Security Authorization Process P1 The organization: a. Manages (i.e., documents, tracks, and reports) the security state of organizational information systems through security authorization processes; b. Designates individuals to fulfill specific roles and responsibilities within the organizational risk management process; and c. Fully integrates the security authorization processes into an organization-wide risk management program. The security authorization process for information systems requires the implementation of the Risk Management Framework and the employment of associated security standards and guidelines. Specific roles within the risk management process include a designated authorizing official for each organizational information system. Related control: CA-6. PM-11 Management Program Management Mission/Business Process Definition P1 The organization: a. Defines mission/business processes with consideration for information security and the resulting risk to organizational operations, organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation; and b. Determines information protection needs arising from the defined mission/business processes and revises the processes as necessary, until an achievable set of protection needs is obtained. Information protection needs are technology- independent, required capabilities to counter threats to organizations, individuals, or the Nation through the compromise of information (i.e., loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability). Information protection needs are derived from the mission/business needs defined by the organization, the mission/business processes selected to meet the stated needs, and the organizational risk management strategy. Information protection needs determine the required security controls for the organization and the associated information systems supporting the mission/business processes. Inherent in defining an organization’s information protection needs is an understanding of the level of adverse impact that could result if a compromise of information occurs. The security categorization process is used to make such potential impact determinations. Mission/business process definitions and associated information protection requirements are documented by the organization in accordance with organizational policy and procedure. Related controls: PM-7, PM-8, RA-2.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance RA-1 Management Risk Assessment Risk Assessment Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented risk assessment policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the risk assessment policy and associated risk assessment controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the risk assessment family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The risk assessment policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Risk assessment procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the risk assessment policy. Related control: PM-9. RA-2 Management Risk Assessment Security Categorization P1 The organization: a. Categorizes information and the information system in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance; b. Documents the security categorization results (including supporting rationale) in the security plan for the information system; and c. Ensures the security categorization decision is reviewed and approved by the authorizing official or authorizing official designated representative. A clearly defined authorization boundary is a prerequisite for an effective security categorization. Security categorization describes the potential adverse impacts to organizational operations, organizational assets, and individuals should the information and information system be comprised through a loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability. The organization conducts the security categorization process as an organization-wide activity with the involvement of the chief information officer, senior information security officer, information system owner, mission owners, and information owners/stewards. The organization also considers potential adverse impacts to other organizations and, in accordance with the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and Homeland Security Presidential Directives, potential national-level adverse impacts in categorizing the information system. The security categorization process facilitates the creation of an inventory of information assets, and in conjunction with CM-8, a mapping to the information system components where the information is processed, stored, and transmitted. Related controls: CM-8, MP-4, SC-7. RA-3 Management Risk Assessment Risk Assessment P1 The organization: a. Conducts an assessment of risk, including the likelihood and magnitude of harm, from the unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction of the information system and the information it processes, stores, or transmits; b. Documents risk assessment results in [Selection: security plan; risk assessment report; [Assignment: organization-defined document]]; c. Reviews risk assessment results [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]; and d. Updates the risk assessment [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] or whenever there are significant changes to the information system or environment of operation (including the identification of new threats and vulnerabilities), or other conditions that A clearly defined authorization boundary is a prerequisite for an effective risk assessment. Risk assessments take into account vulnerabilities, threat sources, and security controls planned or in place to determine the level of residual risk posed to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation based on the operation of the information system. Risk assessments also take into account risk posed to organizational operations, organizational assets, or individuals from external parties (e.g., service providers, contractors operating information systems on behalf of the organization, individuals accessing organizational information systems, outsourcing entities). In accordance with OMB policy and related E-authentication initiatives, authentication of public users accessing federal may impact the security state of the system. information systems may also be required to protect (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance nonpublic or privacy-related information. As such, organizational assessments of risk also address public access to federal information systems. The General Services Administration provides tools supporting that portion of the risk assessment dealing with public access to federal information systems. Risk assessments (either formal or informal) can be conducted by organizations at various steps in the Risk Management Framework including: information system categorization; security control selection; security control implementation; security control assessment; information system authorization; and security control monitoring. RA-3 is a noteworthy security control in that the control must be partially implemented prior to the implementation of other controls in order to complete the first two steps in the Risk Management Framework. Risk assessments can play an important role in the security control selection process during the application of tailoring guidance for security control baselines and when considering supplementing the tailored baselines with additional security controls or control enhancements. RA-5 Management Risk Assessment Vulnerability Scanning P1 The organization: a. Scans for vulnerabilities in the information system and hosted applications [Assignment: organization-defined frequency and/or randomly in accordance with organization-defined process] and when new vulnerabilities potentially affecting the system/applications are identified and reported; b. Employs vulnerability scanning tools and techniques that promote interoperability among tools and automate parts of the vulnerability management process by using standards for: - Enumerating platforms, software flaws, and improper configurations; - Formatting and making transparent, checklists and test procedures; and - Measuring vulnerability impact; c. Analyzes vulnerability scan reports and results from security control assessments; d. Remediates legitimate vulnerabilities [Assignment: organization-defined response times] in accordance with an organizational assessment of risk; and e. Shares information obtained from the vulnerability scanning process and security control assessments with designated personnel throughout the organization to help eliminate similar vulnerabilities in other information systems (i.e., systemic weaknesses or deficiencies). The security categorization of the information system guides the frequency and comprehensiveness of the vulnerability scans. Vulnerability analysis for custom software and applications may require additional, more specialized techniques and approaches (e.g., web-based application scanners, source code reviews, source code analyzers). Vulnerability scanning includes scanning for specific functions, ports, protocols, and services that should not be accessible to users or devices and for improperly configured or incorrectly operating information flow mechanisms. The organization considers using tools that express vulnerabilities in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) naming convention and that use the Open Vulnerability Assessment Language (OVAL) to test for the presence of vulnerabilities. The Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) and the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) are also excellent sources for vulnerability information. In addition, security control assessments such as red team exercises are another source of potential vulnerabilities for which to scan. Related controls: CA-2, CM-6, RA-3, SI-2. CA-1 Management Security Assessment & Authorization Security Assessment and Authorization Policies and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. Formal, documented security assessment and authorization policies that address purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the security assessment and authorization family. The policies and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the security assessment and authorization policies and associated security assessment and authorization controls. guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The security assessment/authorization policies can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Security assessment/authorization procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the security assessment and authorization policy. Related control: PM-9. CA-2 Management Security Assessment & Authorization Security Assessments P2 The organization: a. Develops a security assessment plan that describes the scope of the assessment including: - Security controls and control enhancements under assessment; - Assessment procedures to be used to determine security control effectiveness; and - Assessment environment, assessment team, and assessment roles and responsibilities; b. Assesses the security controls in the information system [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly, operating as intended, and producing the desired outcome with respect to meeting the security requirements for the system; c. Produces a security assessment report that documents the results of the assessment; and d. Provides the results of the security control assessment, in writing, to the authorizing official or authorizing official designated representative. The organization assesses the security controls in an information system as part of: (i) security authorization or reauthorization; (ii) meeting the FISMA requirement for annual assessments; (iii) continuous monitoring; and (iv) testing/evaluation of the information system as part of the system development life cycle process. The assessment report documents the assessment results in sufficient detail as deemed necessary by the organization, to determine the accuracy and completeness of the report and whether the security controls are implemented correctly, operating as intended, and producing the desired outcome with respect to meeting the security requirements of the information system. The FISMA requirement for (at least) annual security control assessments should not be interpreted by organizations as adding additional assessment requirements to those requirements already in place in the security authorization process. To satisfy the FISMA annual assessment requirement, organizations can draw upon the security control assessment results from any of the following sources, including but not limited to: (i) assessments conducted as part of an information system authorization or reauthorization process; (ii) continuous monitoring (see CA-7); or (iii) testing and evaluation of an information system as part of the ongoing system development life cycle (provided that the testing and evaluation results are current and relevant to the determination of security control effectiveness). Existing security control assessment results are reused to the extent that they are still valid and are supplemented with additional assessments as needed. Subsequent to the initial authorization of the information system and in accordance with OMB policy, the organization assesses a subset of the security controls annually during continuous monitoring. The organization establishes the security control selection criteria and subsequently selects a subset of the security controls within the information system and its environment of operation for assessment. Those security controls that are the most volatile (i.e., controls most affected by ongoing changes to the information system or its environment of operation) or deemed critical by the organization to (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance protecting organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation are assessed more frequently in accordance with an organizational assessment of risk. All other controls are assessed at least once during the information system’s three-year authorization cycle. The organization can use the current year’s assessment results from any of the above sources to meet the FISMA annual assessment requirement provided that the results are current, valid, and relevant to determining security control effectiveness. External audits (e.g., audits conducted by external entities such as regulatory agencies) are outside the scope of this control. Related controls: CA-6, CA-7, PM-9, SA-11. CA-3 Management Security Assessment & Authorization Information System Connections P1 The organization: a. Authorizes connections from the information system to other information systems outside of the authorization boundary through the use of Interconnection Security Agreements; b. Documents, for each connection, the interface characteristics, security requirements, and the nature of the information communicated; and c. Monitors the information system connections on an ongoing basis verifying enforcement of security requirements. This control applies to dedicated connections between information systems and does not apply to transitory, user-controlled connections such as email and website browsing. The organization carefully considers the risks that may be introduced when information systems are connected to other systems with different security requirements and security controls, both within the organization and external to the organization. Authorizing officials determine the risk associated with each connection and the appropriate controls employed. If the interconnecting systems have the same authorizing official, an Interconnection Security Agreement is not required. Rather, the interface characteristics between the interconnecting information systems are described in the security plans for the respective systems. If the interconnecting systems have different authorizing officials but the authorizing officials are in the same organization, the organization determines whether an Interconnection Security Agreement is required, or alternatively, the interface characteristics between systems are described in the security plans of the respective systems. Instead of developing an Interconnection Security Agreement, organizations may choose to incorporate this information into a formal contract, especially if the interconnection is to be established between a federal agency and a nonfederal (private sector) organization. In every case, documenting the interface characteristics is required, yet the formality and approval process vary considerably even though all accomplish the same fundamental objective of managing the risk being incurred by the interconnection of the information systems. Risk considerations also include information systems sharing the same networks. Information systems may be identified and authenticated as devices in accordance with IA-3. Related controls: AC-4, IA-3, SC-7, SA-9. CA-5 Management Security Assessment & Authorization Plan of Action and Milestones P3 The organization: a. Develops a plan of action and milestones for the information system to document the organization’s planned remedial actions to correct weaknesses or deficiencies noted during the assessment of the security controls and to reduce or eliminate known vulnerabilities in the system; and The plan of action and milestones is a key document in the security authorization package and is subject to federal reporting requirements established by OMB. Related control: PM-4.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance b. Updates existing plan of action and milestones [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] based on the findings from security controls assessments, security impact analyses, and continuous monitoring activities. CA-6 Management Security Assessment & Authorization Security Authorization P3 The organization: a. Assigns a senior-level executive or manager to the role of authorizing official for the information system; b. Ensures that the authorizing official authorizes the information system for processing before commencing operations; and c. Updates the security authorization [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]. Security authorization is the official management decision, conveyed through the authorization decision document, given by a senior organizational official or executive (i.e., authorizing official) to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls. Authorizing officials typically have budgetary oversight for information systems or are responsible for the mission or business operations supported by the systems. Security authorization is an inherently federal responsibility and therefore, authorizing officials must be federal employees. Through the security authorization process, authorizing officials are accountable for the security risks associated with information system operations. Accordingly, authorizing officials are in management positions with a level of authority commensurate with understanding and accepting such information system-related security risks. Through the employment of a comprehensive continuous monitoring process, the critical information contained in the authorization package (i.e., the security plan (including risk assessment), the security assessment report, and the plan of action and milestones) is updated on an ongoing basis, providing the authorizing official and the information system owner with an up-to-date status of the security state of the information system. To reduce the administrative cost of security reauthorization, the authorizing official uses the results of the continuous monitoring process to the maximum extent possible as the basis for rendering a reauthorization decision. OMB policy requires that federal information systems are reauthorized at least every three years or when there is a significant change to the system. The organization defines what constitutes a significant change to the information system. Related controls: CA-2, CA-7, PM-9, PM-10. CA-7 Management Security Assessment & Authorization Continuous Monitoring P3 The organization establishes a continuous monitoring strategy and implements a continuous monitoring program that includes: a. A configuration management process for the information system and its constituent components; b. A determination of the security impact of changes to the information system and environment of operation; c. Ongoing security control assessments in accordance with the organizational continuous monitoring strategy; and d. Reporting the security state of the information system to appropriate organizational officials [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]. A continuous monitoring program allows an organization to maintain the security authorization of an information system over time in a highly dynamic environment of operation with changing threats, vulnerabilities, technologies, and missions/business processes. Continuous monitoring of security controls using automated support tools facilitates near real-time risk management and promotes organizational situational awareness with regard to the security state of the information system. The implementation of a continuous monitoring program results in ongoing updates to the security plan, the security assessment report, and the plan of action and milestones, the three principal documents (continued on next page)

acquisition procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the system and services acquisition policy. Related control: PM-9. SA-2 Management System & Services Acquisition Allocation of Resources P1 The organization: a. Includes a determination of information security requirements for the information system in mission/business process planning; b. Determines, documents, and allocates the resources required to protect the information system as part of its capital planning and investment control process; and c. Establishes a discrete line item for information security in organizational programming and budgeting documentation. Related controls: PM-3, PM-11. SA-3 Management System & Services Acquisition Life Cycle Support P1 The organization: a. Manages the information system using a system development life cycle methodology that includes information security considerations; b. Defines and documents information system security roles and responsibilities throughout the system development life cycle; and c. Identifies individuals having information system security roles and responsibilities. Related control: PM-7. SA-4 Management System & Services Acquisition Acquisitions P1 The organization includes the following requirements and/or specifications, explicitly or by reference, in information system acquisition contracts based on an assessment of risk and in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and standards: a. Security functional requirements/specifications; b. Security-related documentation requirements; and c. Developmental and evaluation-related assurance requirements. The acquisition documents for information systems, information system components, and information system services include, either explicitly or by reference, security requirements that describe: (i) required security capabilities (i.e., security needs and, as necessary, specific security controls and other specific FISMA requirements); (ii) required design and development processes; (iii) required test and evaluation procedures; and (iv) required documentation. The requirements in the acquisition documents permit updating security controls as new threats/vulnerabilities are identified and as new technologies are implemented. Acquisition documents also include requirements for appropriate information system documentation. The documentation addresses Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance in the security authorization package. A rigorous and well executed continuous monitoring program significantly reduces the level of effort required for the reauthorization of the information system. Continuous monitoring activities are scaled in accordance with the security categorization of the information system. Related controls: CA-2, CA-5, CA-6, CM-3, CM-4. SA-1 Management System & Services Acquisition System and Services Acquisition Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented system and services acquisition policy that includes information security considerations and that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the system and services acquisition policy and associated system and services acquisition controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the system and services acquisition family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The system and services acquisition policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. System and services

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance - Known vulnerabilities regarding configuration and use of administrative (i.e., privileged) functions; and b. Obtains, protects as required, and makes available to authorized personnel, user documentation for the information system that describes: - User-accessible security features/functions and how to effectively use those security features/functions; - Methods for user interaction with the information system, which enables individuals to use the system in a more secure manner; and - User responsibilities in maintaining the security of the information and information system; and c. Documents attempts to obtain information system documentation when such documentation is either unavailable or nonexistent. SA-6 Management System & Services Acquisition Software Usage Restrictions P1 The organization: a. Uses software and associated documentation in accordance with contract agreements and copyright laws; b. Employs tracking systems for software and associated documentation protected by quantity licenses to control copying and distribution; and c. Controls and documents the use of peer-to-peer file sharing technology to ensure that this capability is not used for the unauthorized distribution, display, performance, or reproduction of copyrighted work. Tracking systems can include, for example, simple spreadsheets or fully automated, specialized applications depending on the needs of the organization. SA-7 Management System & Services Acquisition User-Installed Software P1 The organization enforces explicit rules governing the installation of software by users. If provided the necessary privileges, users have the ability to install software. The organization identifies what types of software installations are permitted (e.g., updates and security patches to existing software) and what types of installations are prohibited (e.g., software whose pedigree with regard to being potentially malicious is unknown or suspect). Related control: CM-2. SA-8 Management System & Services Acquisition Security Engineering Principles P1 The organization applies information system security engineering principles in the specification, design, development, implementation, and modification of the information system. The application of security engineering principles is primarily targeted at new development information systems or systems undergoing major upgrades and is integrated into the system development life cycle. For legacy information systems, the organization applies security engineering principles to system upgrades and modifications to the extent feasible, given the current state of the hardware, software, and firmware within the user and system administrator guidance and information regarding the implementation of the security controls in the information system. The level of detail required in the documentation is based on the security categorization for the information system. In addition, the required documentation includes security configuration settings and security implementation guidance. FISMA reporting instructions provide guidance on configuration requirements for federal information systems. SA-5 Management System & Services Acquisition Information System Documentation P2 The organization: a. Obtains, protects as required, and makes available to authorized personnel, administrator documentation for the information system that describes: - Secure configuration, installation, and operation of the information system; - Effective use and maintenance of security features/functions; and The inability of the organization to obtain necessary information system documentation may occur, for example, due to the age of the system and/or lack of support from the vendor/contractor. In those situations, organizations may need to recreate selected information system documentation if such documentation is essential to the effective implementation and/or operation of security controls. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SA-9 Management System & Services Acquisition External Information System Services P1 The organization: a. Requires that providers of external information system services comply with organizational information security requirements and employ appropriate security controls in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance; b. Defines and documents government oversight and user roles and responsibilities with regard to external information system services; and c. Monitors security control compliance by external service providers. An external information system service is a service that is implemented outside of the authorization boundary of the organizational information system (i.e., a service that is used by, but not a part of, the organizational information system). Relationships with external service providers are established in a variety of ways, for example, through joint ventures, business partnerships, outsourcing arrangements (i.e., contracts, interagency agreements, lines of business arrangements), licensing agreements, and/or supply chain exchanges. The responsibility for adequately mitigating risks arising from the use of external information system services remains with the authorizing official. Authorizing officials require that an appropriate chain of trust be established with external service providers when dealing with the many issues associated with information security. For services external to the organization, a chain of trust requires that the organization establish and retain a level of confidence that each participating provider in the potentially complex consumer-provider relationship provides adequate protection for the services rendered to the organization. The extent and nature of this chain of trust varies based on the relationship between the organization and the external provider. Where a sufficient level of trust cannot be established in the external services and/or service providers, the organization employs compensating security controls or accepts the greater degree of risk. The external information system services documentation includes government, service provider, and end user security roles and responsibilities, and any service-level agreements. Service-level agreements define the expectations of performance for each required security control, describe measurable outcomes, and identify remedies and response requirements for any identified instance of noncompliance. SA-10 Management System & Services Acquisition Developer Configuration Management P1 The organization requires that information system developers/integrators: a. Perform configuration management during information system design, development, implementation, and operation; b. Manage and control changes to the information system; c. Implement only organization-approved changes; d. Document approved changes to the information system; and e. Track security flaws and flaw resolution. Related controls: CM-3, CM-4, CM-9. system. Examples of security engineering principles include, for example: (i) developing layered protections; (ii) establishing sound security policy, architecture, and controls as the foundation for design; (iii) incorporating security into the system development life cycle; (iv) delineating physical and logical security boundaries; (v) ensuring system developers and integrators are trained on how to develop secure software; (vi) tailoring security controls to meet organizational and operational needs; and (vii) reducing risk to acceptable levels, thus enabling informed risk management decisions.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SA-12 Management System & Services Acquisition Supply Chain Protection P1 The organization protects against supply chain threats by employing: [Assignment: organization-defined list of measures to protect against supply chain threats] as part of a comprehensive, defense-in-breadth information security strategy. A defense-in-breadth approach helps to protect information systems (including the information technology (IT) products that compose those systems) throughout the system development life cycle (i.e., during design and development, manufacturing, packaging, assembly, distribution, system integration, operations, maintenance, and retirement). This is accomplished by the identification, management, and elimination of vulnerabilities at each phase of the life cycle and the use of complementary, mutually reinforcing strategies to mitigate risk. SA-13 Management System & Services Acquisition Trustworthiness P1 The organization requires that the information system meets [Assignment: organization-defined level of trustworthiness]. The intent of this control is to ensure that organizations recognize the importance of trustworthiness and making explicit trustworthiness decisions when designing, developing, and implementing organizational information systems. Trustworthiness is a characteristic or property of an information system that expresses the degree to which the system can be expected to preserve the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the information being processed, stored, or transmitted by the system. Trustworthy information systems are systems that are capable of being trusted to operate within defined levels of risk despite the environmental disruptions, human errors, and purposeful attacks that are expected to occur in the specified environments of operation. Two factors affecting the trustworthiness of an information system include: (i) security functionality (i.e., the security features or functions employed within the system); and (ii) security assurance (i.e., the grounds for confidence that the security functionality is effective in its application). Appropriate security functionality for the information system can be obtained by using the Risk Management Framework (Steps 1, 2, and 3) to select and implement the necessary management, operational, and technical security controls necessary to mitigate risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation. Appropriate security assurance can be obtained by: (i) the actions taken by developers and implementers of security controls with regard to the design, development, implementation, and operation of those controls; and (ii) the actions taken by assessors to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly, operating as intended, and producing the desired outcome with respect to meeting the security requirements for the information system. SA-11 Management System & Services Acquisition Developer Security Testing P2 The organization requires that information system developers/integrators, in consultation with associated security personnel (including security engineers): a. Create and implement a security test and evaluation plan; b. Implement a verifiable flaw remediation process to correct weaknesses and deficiencies identified during the security testing and evaluation process; and c. Document the results of the security testing/evaluation and flaw remediation processes. Developmental security test results are used to the greatest extent feasible after verification of the results and recognizing that these results are impacted whenever there have been security-relevant modifications to the information system subsequent to developer testing. Test results may be used in support of the security authorization process for the delivered information system. Related control: CA-2, SI-2. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance functionality. Operational evidence may include flaw reporting and remediation, the results of security incident reporting, and the results of the ongoing monitoring of security controls. Independent assessments by qualified assessors may include analyses of the evidence as well as testing, inspections, and audits. Explicit trustworthiness decisions highlight situations where achieving the information system resilience and security capability necessary to withstand cyberattacks from adversaries with certain threat capabilities may require adjusting the risk management strategy, the design of mission/business processes with regard to automation, the selection and implementation rigor of management and operational protections, or the selection of IT components with higher levels of trustworthiness. Trustworthiness may be defined on a component-by-component, subsystem-by-subsystem, or function-by-function basis. It is noted, however, that typically functions, subsystems, and components are highly interrelated, making separation by trustworthiness perhaps problematic and at a minimum, something that likely requires careful attention in order to achieve practically useful results. Related controls: RA-2, SA-4, SA-8, SC-3. SA-14 Management System & Services Acquisition Critical Information System Components P0 The organization: a. Determines [Assignment: organization-defined list of critical information system components that require re- implementation]; and b. Re-implements or custom develops such information system components. The underlying assumption is that the list of IT products defined by the organization cannot be trusted due to threats from the supply chain that the organization finds unacceptable. The organization re-implements or custom develops such components to satisfy requirements for high assurance. Related controls: SA-12, SA-13. AT-1 Operational Awareness & Training Security Awareness and Training Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented security awareness and training policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the security awareness and training policy and associated security awareness and training controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the security awareness and training family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The security awareness and training policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Security awareness and training procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the security awareness and training policy. Related control: PM-9. Developers and implementers can increase the assurance in security controls by employing well-defined security policy models, structured, disciplined, and rigorous hardware and software development techniques, and sound system/security engineering principles. Assurance is also based on the assessment of evidence produced during the initiation, acquisition/development, plementation, and operations/maintenance phases of the system development life cycle. For example, developmental evidence may include the techniques and methods used to design and develop security im

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance AT-3 Operational Awareness & Training Security Training P1 The organization provides role-based security-related training: (i) before authorizing access to the system or performing assigned duties; (ii) when required by system changes; and (iii) [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] thereafter. The organization determines the appropriate content of security training based on assigned roles and responsibilities and the specific requirements of the organization and the information systems to which personnel have authorized access. In addition, the organization provides information system managers, system and network administrators, personnel performing independent verification and validation activities, security control assessors, and other personnel having access to system-level software, adequate security-related technical training to perform their assigned duties. Organizational security training addresses management, operational, and technical roles and responsibilities covering physical, personnel, and technical safeguards and countermeasures. The organization also provides the training necessary for these individuals to carry out their responsibilities related to operations security within the context of the organization’s information security program. Related controls: AT-2, SA-3. AT-4 Operational Awareness & Training Security Training Records P3 The organization: a. Documents and monitors individual information system security training activities including basic security awareness training and specific information system security training; and b. Retains individual training records for [Assignment: organization-defined time period]. While an organization may deem that organizationally mandated individual training programs and the development of individual training plans are necessary, this control does not mandate either. Documentation for specialized training may be maintained by individual supervisors at the option of the organization. AT-5 Operational Awareness & Training Contacts With Security Groups and Associations P0 The organization establishes and institutionalizes contact with selected groups and associations in the US and internationally, within the security community: - To facilitate ongoing security education and training for organizational personnel; - To stay up to date with the latest recommended security practices, techniques, and technologies; and - To share current security-related information including threats, vulnerabilities, and incidents. Ongoing contact with security groups and associations is of paramount importance in an environment of rapid technology changes and dynamic threats. Security groups and associations can include, for example, special interest groups, specialized forums, professional associations, news groups, and/or peer groups of security professionals in similar organizations. The groups and associations selected are consistent with the organization’s mission/business requirements. Information-sharing activities regarding threats, vulnerabilities, and incidents related to information systems are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. and user actions to maintain security and to respond to suspected security incidents. The content also addresses awareness of the need for operations security as it relates to the organization’s information security program. Security awareness techniques can include, for example, displaying posters, offering supplies inscribed with security reminders, generating email advisories/notices from senior organizational officials, displaying logon screen messages, and conducting information security awareness events. AT-2 Operational Awareness & Training Security Awareness P1 The organization provides basic security awareness training to all information system users (including managers, senior executives, and contractors) as part of initial training for new users, when required by system changes, and [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] thereafter. The organization determines the appropriate content of security awareness training and security awareness techniques based on the specific requirements of the organization and the information systems to which personnel have authorized access. The content includes a basic understanding of the need for information security (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance CM-1 Operational Configuration Management Configuration Management Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented configuration management policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the configuration management policy and associated configuration management controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the configuration management family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The configuration management policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Configuration management procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the configuration management policy. Related control: PM-9. CM-2 Operational Configuration Management Baseline Configuration P1 The organization develops, documents, and maintains under configuration control, a current baseline configuration of the information system. This control establishes a baseline configuration for the information system and its constituent components including communications and connectivity-related aspects of the system. The baseline configuration provides information about the components of an information system (e.g., the standard software load for a workstation, server, network component, or mobile device including operating system/installed applications with current version numbers and patch information), network topology, and the logical placement of the component within the system architecture. The baseline configuration is a documented, up-to-date specification to which the information system is built. Maintaining the baseline configuration involves creating new baselines as the information system changes over time. The baseline configuration of the information system is consistent with the organization’s enterprise architecture. Related controls: CM-3, CM-6, CM-8, CM-9. CM-3 Operational Configuration Management Configuration Change Control P1 The organization: a. Determines the types of changes to the information system that are configuration controlled; b. Approves configuration-controlled changes to the system with explicit consideration for security impact analyses; c. Documents approved configuration-controlled changes to the system; d. Retains and reviews records of configuration- controlled changes to the system; e. Audits activities associated with configuration- controlled changes to the system; and f. Coordinates and provides oversight for configuration change control activities through [Assignment: organization-defined configuration change control element (e.g., committee, board)] that convenes [Selection: (one or more): [Assignment: organization- defined frequency]; [Assignment: organization-defined configuration change conditions]]. The organization determines the types of changes to the information system that are configuration controlled. Configuration change control for the information system involves the systematic proposal, justification, implementation, test/evaluation, review, and disposition of changes to the system, including upgrades and modifications. Configuration change control includes changes to components of the information system, changes to the configuration settings for IT products (e.g., operating systems, applications, firewalls, routers), emergency changes, and changes to remediate flaws. A typical organizational process for managing configuration changes to the information system includes, for example, a chartered Configuration Control Board that approves proposed changes to the system. Auditing of changes refers to changes in activity before and after a change is made to the information system and the auditing activities required to implement the change. Related controls: CM-4, CM-5, CM-6, SI-2.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance CM-4 Operational Configuration Management Security Impact Analysis P2 The organization analyzes changes to the information system to determine potential security impacts prior to change implementation. Security impact analyses are conducted by organizational personnel with information security responsibilities, including for example, Information System Administrators, Information System Security Officers, Information System Security Managers, and Information System Security Engineers. Individuals conducting security impact analyses have the appropriate skills and technical expertise to analyze the changes to information systems and the associated security ramifications. Security impact analysis may include, for example, reviewing information system documentation such as the security plan to understand how specific security controls are implemented within the system and how the changes might affect the controls. Security impact analysis may also include an assessment of risk to understand the impact of the changes and to determine if additional security controls are required. Security impact analysis is scaled in accordance with the security categorization of the information system. Related controls: CA-2, CA-7, CM-3, CM-9, SI-2. CM-5 Operational Configuration Management Access Restrictions for Change P1 The organization defines, documents, approves, and enforces physical and logical access restrictions associated with changes to the information system. Any changes to the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of the information system can potentially have significant effects on the overall security of the system. Accordingly, only qualified and authorized individuals are allowed to obtain access to information system components for purposes of initiating changes, including upgrades and modifications. Additionally, maintaining records of access is essential for ensuring that configuration change control is being implemented as intended and for supporting after-the- fact actions should the organization become aware of an unauthorized change to the information system. Access restrictions for change also include software libraries. Examples of access restrictions include, for example, physical and logical access controls (see AC-3 and PE- 3), workflow automation, media libraries, abstract layers (e.g., changes are implemented into a third-party interface rather than directly into the information system component), and change windows (e.g., changes occur only during specified times, making unauthorized changes outside the window easy to discover). Some or all of the enforcement mechanisms and processes necessary to implement this security control are included in other controls. For measures implemented in other controls, this control provides information to be used in the implementation of the other controls to cover specific needs related to enforcing authorizations to make changes to the information system, auditing changes, and retaining and review records of changes. Related controls: AC-3, AC-6, PE-3. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance CM-6 Operational Configuration Management Configuration Settings P1 The organization: a. Establishes and documents mandatory configuration settings for IT products employed within the information system using [Assignment: organization-defined security configuration checklists] that reflect the most restrictive mode consistent with operational requirements; b. Implements the configuration settings; c. Identifies, documents, and approves exceptions from the mandatory configuration settings for individual components within the information system based on explicit operational requirements; and d. Monitors and controls changes to the configuration settings in accordance with organizational policies and procedures. Configuration settings are the configurable security- related parameters of IT products that are part of the information system. Security-related parameters are those parameters impacting the security state of the system including parameters related to meeting other security control requirements. Security-related parameters include, for example, registry settings; account, file, and directory settings (i.e., permissions); and settings for services, ports, protocols, and remote connections. Organizations establish organization-wide mandatory configuration settings from which the settings for a given information system are derived. A security configuration checklist (sometimes referred to as a lockdown guide, hardening guide, security guide, security technical implementation guide [STIG], or benchmark) is a series of instructions or procedures for configuring an information system component to meet operational requirements. Checklists can be developed by IT developers and vendors, consortia, academia, industry, federal agencies (and other government organizations), and others in the public and private sectors. An example of a security configuration checklist is the Federal Desktop Core Configuration (FDCC) which potentially affects the implementation of CM-6 and other controls such as AC-19 and CM-7. The Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) and defined standards within the protocol (e.g., Common Configuration Enumeration) provide an effective method to uniquely identify, track, and control configuration settings. OMB establishes federal policy on configuration requirements for federal information systems. Related controls: CM-2, CM-3, SI-4. CM-7 Operational Configuration Management Least Functionality P1 The organization configures the information system to provide only essential capabilities and specifically prohibits or restricts the use of the following functions, ports, protocols, and/or services: [Assignment: organization-defined list of prohibited or restricted functions, ports, protocols, and/or services]. Information systems are capable of providing a wide variety of functions and services. Some of the functions and services, provided by default, may not be necessary to support essential organizational operations (e.g., key missions, functions). Additionally, it is sometimes convenient to provide multiple services from a single component of an information system, but doing so increases risk over limiting the services provided by any one component. Where feasible, organizations limit component functionality to a single function per device (e.g., email server or web server, not both). The functions and services provided by organizational information systems, or individual components of information systems, are carefully reviewed to determine which functions and services are candidates for elimination (e.g., Voice Over Internet Protocol, Instant Messaging, auto-execute, file sharing). Organizations consider disabling unused or unnecessary physical and logical ports and protocols (e.g., Universal Serial Bus [USB], File Transfer Protocol [FTP], Internet Protocol Version 6 [IPv6], Hyper Text Transfer Protocol [HTTP]) on information system components to prevent unauthorized connection of devices, unauthorized transfer of information, or unauthorized tunneling. Organizations can utilize network scanning tools,

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance intrusion detection and prevention systems, and end- point protections such as firewalls and host-based intrusion detection systems to identify and prevent the use of prohibited functions, ports, protocols, and services. Related control: RA-5. CM-8 Operational Configuration Management Information System Component Inventory P1 The organization develops, documents, and maintains an inventory of information system components that: a. Accurately reflects the current information system; b. Is consistent with the authorization boundary of the information system; c. Is at the level of granularity deemed necessary for tracking and reporting; d. Includes [Assignment: organization-defined information deemed necessary to achieve effective property accountability]; and e. Is available for review and audit by designated organizational officials. Information deemed to be necessary by the organization to achieve effective property accountability can include, for example, hardware inventory specifications (manufacturer, type, model, serial number, physical location), software license information, information system/component owner, and for a networked component/device, the machine name and network address. Related controls: CM-2, CM-6. CM-9 Operational Configuration Management Configuration Management Plan P1 The organization develops, documents, and implements a configuration management plan for the information system that: a. Addresses roles, responsibilities, and configuration management processes and procedures; b. Defines the configuration items for the information system and when in the system development life cycle the configuration items are placed under configuration management; and c. Establishes the means for identifying configuration items throughout the system development life cycle and a process for managing the configuration of the configuration items. Configuration items are the information system items (hardware, software, firmware, and documentation) to be configuration managed. The configuration management plan satisfies the requirements in the organization’s configuration management policy while being tailored to the individual information system. The configuration management plan defines detailed processes and procedures for how configuration management is used to support system development life cycle activities at the information system level. The plan describes how to move a change through the change management process, how configuration settings and configuration baselines are updated, how the information system component inventory is maintained, how development, test, and operational environments are controlled, and finally, how documents are developed, released, and updated. The configuration management approval process includes designation of key management stakeholders that are responsible for reviewing and approving proposed changes to the information system, and security personnel that would conduct an impact analysis prior to the implementation of any changes to the system. Related control: SA-10. CP-1 Operational Contingency Planning Contingency Planning Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented contingency planning policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the contingency planning policy and associated contingency planning controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the contingency planning family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The contingency planning policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Contingency planning procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the contingency planning policy. Related control: PM-9. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance CP-2 Operational Contingency Planning Contingency Plan P1 The organization: a. Develops a contingency plan for the information system that: - Identifies essential missions and business functions and associated contingency requirements; - Provides recovery objectives, restoration priorities, and metrics; - Addresses contingency roles, responsibilities, assigned individuals with contact information; - Addresses maintaining essential missions and business functions despite an information system disruption, compromise, or failure; - Addresses eventual, full information system restoration without deterioration of the security measures originally planned and implemented; and - Is reviewed and approved by designated officials within the organization; b. Distributes copies of the contingency plan to [Assignment: organization-defined list of key contingency personnel (identified by name and/or by role) and organizational elements]; c. Coordinates contingency planning activities with incident handling activities; d. Reviews the contingency plan for the information system [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]; e. Revises the contingency plan to address changes to the organization, information system, or environment of operation and problems encountered during contingency plan implementation, execution, or testing; and f. Communicates contingency plan changes to [Assignment: organization-defined list of key contingency personnel (identified by name and/or by role) and organizational elements]. Contingency planning for information systems is part of an overall organizational program for achieving continuity of operations for mission/business operations. Contingency planning addresses both information system restoration and implementation of alternative mission/business processes when systems are compromised. Information system recovery objectives are consistent with applicable laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, standards, or regulations. In addition to information system availability, contingency plans also address other security-related events resulting in a reduction in mission/business effectiveness, such as malicious attacks compromising the confidentiality or integrity of the information system. Examples of actions to call out in contingency plans include, for example, graceful degradation, information system shutdown, fall back to a manual mode, alternate information flows, or operating in a mode that is reserved solely for when the system is under attack. Related controls: AC-14, CP-6, CP-7, CP-8, IR-4, PM-8, PM-11. CP-3 Operational Contingency Planning Contingency Training P2 The organization trains personnel in their contingency roles and responsibilities with respect to the information system and provides refresher training [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]. None. CP-4 Operational Contingency Planning Contingency Plan Testing and Exercises P2 The organization: a. Tests and/or exercises the contingency plan for the information system [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] using [Assignment: organization-defined tests and/or exercises] to determine the plan’s effectiveness and the organization’s readiness to execute the plan; and b. Reviews the contingency plan test/exercise results and initiates corrective actions. There are several methods for testing and/or exercising contingency plans to identify potential weaknesses (e.g., checklist, walk-through/tabletop, simulation: parallel, full interrupt). Contingency plan testing and/or exercises include a determination of the effects on organizational operations and assets (e.g., reduction in mission capability) and individuals arising due to contingency operations in accordance with the plan. CP-6 Operational Contingency Planning Alternate Storage Site P1 The organization establishes an alternate storage site including necessary agreements to permit the storage and recovery of information system backup information. Related controls: CP-2, CP-9, MP-4.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance CP-7 Operational Contingency Planning Alternate Processing Site P1 The organization: a. Establishes an alternate processing site including necessary agreements to permit the resumption of information system operations for essential missions and business functions within [Assignment: organization- defined time period consistent with recovery time objectives] when the primary processing capabilities are unavailable; and b. Ensures that equipment and supplies required to resume operations are available at the alternate site or contracts are in place to support delivery to the site in time to support the organization-defined time period for resumption. Related control: CP-2. CP-8 Operational Contingency Planning Telecommunications Services P1 The organization establishes alternate telecommunications services including necessary agreements to permit the resumption of information system operations for essential missions and business functions within [Assignment: organization-defined time period] when the primary telecommunications capabilities are unavailable. Related control: CP-2. CP-9 Operational Contingency Planning Information System Backup P1 The organization: a. Conducts backups of user-level information contained in the information system [Assignment: organization- defined frequency consistent with recovery time and recovery point objectives]; b. Conducts backups of system-level information contained in the information system [Assignment: organization-defined frequency consistent with recovery time and recovery point objectives]; c. Conducts backups of information system documentation including security-related documentation [Assignment: organization-defined frequency consistent with recovery time and recovery point objectives]; and d. Protects the confidentiality and integrity of backup information at the storage location. System-level information includes, for example, system-state information, operating system and application software, and licenses. Digital signatures and cryptographic hashes are examples of mechanisms that can be employed by organizations to protect the integrity of information system backups. An organizational assessment of risk guides the use of encryption for protecting backup information. The protection of system backup information while in transit is beyond the scope of this control. Related controls: CP-6, MP-4. CP-10 Operational Contingency Planning Information System Recovery and Reconstitution P1 The organization provides for the recovery and reconstitution of the information system to a known state after a disruption, compromise, or failure. Recovery is executing information system contingency plan activities to restore essential missions and business functions. Reconstitution takes place following recovery and includes activities for returning the information system to its original functional state before contingency plan activation. Recovery and reconstitution procedures are based on organizational priorities, established recovery point/time and reconstitution objectives, and appropriate metrics. Reconstitution includes the deactivation of any interim information system capability that may have been needed during recovery operations. Reconstitution also includes an assessment of the fully restored information system capability, a potential system reauthorization and the necessary activities to prepare the system against another disruption, compromise, or failure. Recovery and reconstitution capabilities employed by the organization can be a combination of automated mechanisms and manual procedures. Related controls: CA-2, CA-6, CA-7, SC-24. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance IR-1 Operational Incident Response Incident Response Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented incident response policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the incident response policy and associated incident response controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the incident response family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The incident response policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Incident response procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the incident response policy. Related control: PM-9. IR-2 Operational Incident Response Incident Response Training P2 The organization: a. Trains personnel in their incident response roles and responsibilities with respect to the information system; and b. Provides refresher training [Assignment: organization- defined frequency]. Incident response training includes user training in the identification and reporting of suspicious activities, both from external and internal sources. Related control: AT-3. IR-3 Operational Incident Response Incident Response Testing and Exercises P2 The organization tests and/or exercises the incident response capability for the information system [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] using [Assignment: organization-defined tests and/or exercises] to determine the incident response effectiveness and documents the results. None. IR-4 Operational Incident Response Incident Handling P1 The organization: a. Implements an incident handling capability for security incidents that includes preparation, detection and analysis, containment, eradication, and recovery; b. Coordinates incident handling activities with contingency planning activities; and c. Incorporates lessons learned from ongoing incident handling activities into incident response procedures, training, and testing/exercises, and implements the resulting changes accordingly. Incident-related information can be obtained from a variety of sources including, but not limited to, audit monitoring, network monitoring, physical access monitoring, and user/administrator reports. Related controls: AU-6, CP-2, IR-2, IR-3, PE-6, SC-5, SC-7, SI-3, SI-4, SI-7. IR-5 Operational Incident Response Incident Monitoring P1 The organization tracks and documents information system security incidents. Documenting information system security incidents includes, for example, maintaining records about each incident, the status of the incident, and other pertinent information necessary for forensics, evaluating incident details, trends, and handling. Incident information can be obtained from a variety of sources including, for example, incident reports, incident response teams, audit monitoring, network monitoring, physical access monitoring, and user/administrator reports.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance IR-6 Operational Incident Response Incident Reporting P1 The organization: a. Requires personnel to report suspected security incidents to the organizational incident response capability within [Assignment: organization-defined time-period]; and b. Reports security incident information to designated authorities. The intent of this control is to address both specific incident reporting requirements within an organization and the formal incident reporting requirements for federal agencies and their subordinate organizations. The types of security incidents reported, the content and timeliness of the reports, and the list of designated reporting authorities are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Current federal policy requires that all federal agencies (unless specifically exempted from such requirements) report security incidents to the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) within specified time frames designated in the US-CERT Concept of Operations for Federal Cyber Security Incident Handling. Related controls: IR-4, IR-5. IR-7 Operational Incident Response Incident Response Assistance P3 The organization provides an incident response support resource, integral to the organizational incident response capability, that offers advice and assistance to users of the information system for the handling and reporting of security incidents. Possible implementations of incident response support resources in an organization include a help desk or an assistance group and access to forensics services, when required. Related controls: IR-4, IR-6. IR-8 Operational Incident Response Incident Response Plan P1 The organization: a. Develops an incident response plan that: - Provides the organization with a roadmap for implementing its incident response capability; - Describes the structure and organization of the incident response capability; - Provides a high-level approach for how the incident response capability fits into the overall organization; - Meets the unique requirements of the organization, which relate to mission, size, structure, and functions; - Defines reportable incidents; - Provides metrics for measuring the incident response capability within the organization. - Defines the resources and management support needed to effectively maintain and mature an incident response capability; and - Is reviewed and approved by designated officials within the organization; b. Distributes copies of the incident response plan to [Assignment: organization-defined list of incident response personnel (identified by name and/or by role) and organizational elements]; c. Reviews the incident response plan [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]; d. Revises the incident response plan to address system/organizational changes or problems encountered during plan implementation, execution, or testing; and e. Communicates incident response plan changes to [Assignment: organization-defined list of incident response personnel (identified by name and/or by role) and organizational elements]. It is important that organizations have a formal, focused, and coordinated approach to responding to incidents. The organization’s mission, strategies, and goals for incident response help determine the structure of its incident response capability. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance MA-1 Operational Maintenance System Maintenance Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented information system maintenance policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the information system maintenance policy and associated system maintenance controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the system maintenance family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The information system maintenance policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. System maintenance procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the system maintenance policy. Related control: PM-9. MA-2 Operational Maintenance Controlled Maintenance P2 The organization: a. Schedules, performs, documents, and reviews records of maintenance and repairs on information system components in accordance with manufacturer or vendor specifications and/or organizational requirements; b. Controls all maintenance activities, whether performed on site or remotely and whether the equipment is serviced on site or removed to another location; c. Requires that a designated official explicitly approve the removal of the information system or system components from organizational facilities for off-site maintenance or repairs; d. Sanitizes equipment to remove all information from associated media prior to removal from organizational facilities for off-site maintenance or repairs; and e. Checks all potentially impacted security controls to verify that the controls are still functioning properly following maintenance or repair actions. The control is intended to address the information security aspects of the organization’s information system maintenance program. Related controls: MP-6, SI-2. MA-3 Operational Maintenance Maintenance Tools P2 The organization approves, controls, monitors the use of, and maintains on an ongoing basis, information system maintenance tools. The intent of this control is to address the security- related issues arising from the hardware and software brought into the information system specifically for diagnostic and repair actions (e.g., a hardware or software packet sniffer that is introduced for the purpose of a particular maintenance activity). Hardware and/or software components that may support information system maintenance, yet are a part of the system (e.g., the software implementing “ping,” “ls,” “ipconfig,” or the hardware and software implementing the monitoring port of an Ethernet switch) are not covered by this control. Related control: MP-6.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance MA-4 Operational Maintenance Non-Local Maintenance P1 The organization: a. Authorizes, monitors, and controls non-local maintenance and diagnostic activities; b. Allows the use of non-local maintenance and diagnostic tools only as consistent with organizational policy and documented in the security plan for the information system; c. Employs strong identification and authentication techniques in the establishment of non-local maintenance and diagnostic sessions; d. Maintains records for non-local maintenance and diagnostic activities; and e. Terminates all sessions and network connections when non-local maintenance is completed. Non-local maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities conducted by individuals communicating through a network; either an external network (e.g., the Internet) or an internal network. Local maintenance and diagnostic activities are those activities carried out by individuals physically present at the information system or information system component and not communicating across a network connection. Identification and authentication techniques used in the establishment of non-local maintenance and diagnostic sessions are consistent with the network access requirements in IA-2. Strong authenticators include, for example, PKI where certificates are stored on a token protected by a password, passphrase, or biometric. Enforcing requirements in MA-4 is accomplished in part, by other controls. Related controls: AC-2, AC-3, AC-6, AC-17, AU-2, AU-3, IA-2, IA-8, MA-5, MP-6, SC-7. MA-5 Operational Maintenance Maintenance Personnel P1 The organization: a. Establishes a process for maintenance personnel authorization and maintains a current list of authorized maintenance organizations or personnel; and b. Ensures that personnel performing maintenance on the information system have required access authorizations or designates organizational personnel with required access authorizations and technical competence deemed necessary to supervise information system maintenance when maintenance personnel do not possess the required access authorizations. Individuals not previously identified in the information system, such as vendor personnel and consultants, may legitimately require privileged access to the system, for example, when required to conduct maintenance or diagnostic activities with little or no notice. Based on a prior assessment of risk, the organization may issue temporary credentials to these individuals. Temporary credentials may be for one-time use or for a very limited time period. Related controls: IA-8, MA-5. MA-6 Operational Maintenance Timely Maintenance P1 The organization obtains maintenance support and/or spare parts for [Assignment: organization-defined list of security-critical information system components and/or key IT components] within [Assignment: organization- defined time period] of failure. The organization specifies those information system components that, when not operational, result in increased risk to organizations, individuals, or the Nation because the security functionality intended by that component is not being provided. Security-critical components include, for example, firewalls, guards, gateways, intrusion detection systems, audit repositories, authentication servers, and intrusion prevention systems. Related control: CP-2. MP-1 Operational Media Protection Media Protection Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented media protection policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the media protection policy and associated media protection controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the media protection family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The media protection policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Media protection procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the media protection policy. Related control: PM-9. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance MP-2 Operational Media Protection Media Access P1 The organization restricts access to [Assignment: organization-defined types of digital and non-digital media] to [Assignment: organization-defined list of authorized individuals] using [Assignment: organization- defined security measures]. Information system media includes both digital media (e.g., diskettes, magnetic tapes, external/removable hard drives, flash/thumb drives, compact disks, digital video disks) and non-digital media (e.g., paper, microfilm). This control also applies to mobile computing and communications devices with information storage capability (e.g., notebook/laptop computers, personal digital assistants, cellular telephones, digital cameras, and audio recording devices). An organizational assessment of risk guides the selection of media and associated information contained on that media requiring restricted access. Organizations document in policy and procedures, the media requiring restricted access, individuals authorized to access the media, and the specific measures taken to restrict access. Fewer protection measures are needed for media containing information determined by the organization to be in the public domain, to be publicly releasable, or to have limited or no adverse impact if accessed by other than authorized personnel. In these situations, it is assumed that the physical access controls where the media resides provide adequate protection. Related controls: MP-4, PE-3. MP-3 Operational Media Protection Media Marking P1 The organization: a. Marks, in accordance with organizational policies and procedures, removable information system media and information system output indicating the distribution limitations, handling caveats, and applicable security markings (if any) of the information; and b. Exempts [Assignment: organization-defined list of removable media types] from marking as long as the exempted items remain within [Assignment: organization-defined controlled areas]. The term marking is used when referring to the application or use of human-readable security attributes. The term labeling is used when referring to the application or use of security attributes with regard to internal data structures within the information system (see AC-16, Security Attributes). Removable information system media includes both digital media (e.g., diskettes, magnetic tapes, external/removable hard drives, flash/thumb drives, compact disks, digital video disks) and non-digital media (e.g., paper, microfilm). An organizational assessment of risk guides the selection of media requiring marking. Marking is generally not required for media containing information determined by the organization to be in the public domain or to be publicly releasable. Some organizations, however, may require markings for public information indicating that the information is publicly releasable. Organizations may extend the scope of this control to include information system output devices containing organizational information, including, for example, monitors and printers. Marking of removable media and information system output is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. MP-4 Operational Media Protection Media Storage P1 The organization: a. Physically controls and securely stores [Assignment: organization-defined types of digital and non-digital media] within [Assignment: organization-defined controlled areas] using [Assignment: organization- defined security measures]; b. Protects information system media until the media are destroyed or sanitized using approved equipment, techniques, and procedures. Information system media includes both digital media (e.g., diskettes, magnetic tapes, external/removable hard drives, flash/thumb drives, compact disks, digital video disks) and non-digital media (e.g., paper, microfilm). This control also applies to mobile computing and communications devices with information storage capability (e.g., notebook/laptop computers, personal digital assistants, cellular telephones, digital cameras, and audio recording devices). Telephone systems are

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance also considered information systems and may have the capability to store information on internal media (e.g., on voicemail systems). Since telephone systems do not have, in most cases, the identification, authentication, and access control mechanisms typically employed in other information systems, organizational personnel use extreme caution in the types of information stored on telephone voicemail systems. A controlled area is any area or space for which the organization has confidence that the physical and procedural protections are sufficient to meet the requirements established for protecting the information and/or information system. An organizational assessment of risk guides the selection of media and associated information contained on that media requiring physical protection. Fewer protection measures are needed for media containing information determined by the organization to be in the public domain, to be publicly releasable, or to have limited or no adverse impact on the organization or individuals if accessed by other than authorized personnel. In these situations, it is assumed that the physical access controls to the facility where the media resides provide adequate protection. As part of a defense-in-depth strategy, the organization considers routinely encrypting information at rest on selected secondary storage devices. The employment of cryptography is at the discretion of the information owner/steward. The selection of the cryptographic mechanisms used is based upon maintaining the confidentiality and integrity of the information. The strength of mechanisms is commensurate with the classification and sensitivity of the information. Related controls: AC-3, AC-19, CP-6, CP-9, MP-2, PE-3. MP-5 Operational Media Protection Media Transport P1 The organization: a. Protects and controls [Assignment: organization- defined types of digital and non-digital media] during transport outside of controlled areas using [Assignment: organization-defined security measures]; b. Maintains accountability for information system media during transport outside of controlled areas; and c. Restricts the activities associated with transport of such media to authorized personnel. Information system media includes both digital media (e.g., diskettes, magnetic tapes, removable hard drives, flash/thumb drives, compact disks, digital video disks) and non-digital media (e.g., paper, microfilm). This control also applies to mobile computing and communications devices with information storage capability (e.g., notebook/laptop computers, personal digital assistants, cellular telephones, digital cameras, and audio recording devices) that are transported outside of controlled areas. Telephone systems are also considered information systems and may have the capability to store information on internal media (e.g., on voicemail systems). Since telephone systems do not have, in most cases, the identification, authentication, and access control mechanisms typically employed in other information systems, organizational personnel use caution in the types of information stored on telephone voicemail systems that are transported outside of controlled areas. A controlled area is any area or space for which the organization has confidence that the physical and procedural protections provided are sufficient to meet the requirements established for protecting the information and/or information system. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance Physical and technical security measures for the protection of digital and non-digital media are commensurate with the classification or sensitivity of the information residing on the media, and consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Locked containers and cryptography are examples of security measures available to protect digital and non-digital media during transport. Cryptographic mechanisms can provide confidentiality and/or integrity protections depending upon the mechanisms used. An organizational assessment of risk guides: (i) the selection of media and associated information contained on that media requiring protection during transport; and (ii) the selection and use of storage containers for transporting non-digital media. Authorized transport and courier personnel may include individuals from outside the organization (e.g., U.S. Postal Service or a commercial transport or delivery service). Related controls: AC-19, CP-9. MP-6 Operational Media Protection Media Sanitization P1 The organization: a. Sanitizes information system media, both digital and non-digital, prior to disposal, release out of organizational control, or release for reuse; and b. Employs sanitization mechanisms with strength and integrity commensurate with the classification or sensitivity of the information. This control applies to all media subject to disposal or reuse, whether or not considered removable. Sanitization is the process used to remove information from information system media such that there is reasonable assurance that the information cannot be retrieved or reconstructed. Sanitization techniques, including clearing, purging, and destroying media information, prevent the disclosure of organizational information to unauthorized individuals when such media is reused or released for disposal. The organization uses its discretion on the employment of sanitization techniques and procedures for media containing information deemed to be in the public domain or publicly releasable, or deemed to have no adverse impact on the organization or individuals if released for reuse or disposal. PS-1 Operational Personnel Security Personnel Security Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented personnel security policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the personnel security policy and associated personnel security controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the personnel security family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The personnel security policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Personnel security procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the personnel security policy. Related control: PM-9. PS-2 Operational Personnel Security Position Categorization P1 The organization: a. Assigns a risk designation to all positions; b. Establishes screening criteria for individuals filling those positions; and c. Reviews and revises position risk designations [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]. Position risk designations are consistent with Office of Personnel Management policy and guidance. The screening criteria include explicit information security role appointment requirements (e.g., training, security clearance).

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance PS-3 Operational Personnel Security Personnel Screening P1 The organization: a. Screens individuals prior to authorizing access to the information system; and b. Rescreens individuals according to [Assignment: organization-defined list of conditions requiring rescreening and, where re-screening is so indicated, the frequency of such rescreening]. Screening and rescreening are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, guidance, and the criteria established for the risk designation of the assigned position. The organization may define different rescreening conditions and frequencies for personnel accessing the information system based on the type of information processed, stored, or transmitted by the system. PS-4 Operational Personnel Security Personnel Termination P2 The organization, upon termination of individual employment: a. Terminates information system access; b. Conducts exit interviews; c. Retrieves all security-related organizational information system-related property; and d. Retains access to organizational information and information systems formerly controlled by terminated individual. Information system-related property includes, for example, hardware authentication tokens, system administration technical manuals, keys, identification cards, and building passes. Exit interviews ensure that individuals understand any security constraints imposed by being former employees and that proper accountability is achieved for all information system-related property. Exit interviews may not be possible for some employees (e.g., in the case of job abandonment, some illnesses, and nonavailability of supervisors). Exit interviews are important for individuals with security clearances. Timely execution of this control is particularly essential for employees or contractors terminated for cause. PS-5 Operational Personnel Security Personnel Transfer P2 The organization reviews logical and physical access authorizations to information systems/facilities when personnel are reassigned or transferred to other positions within the organization and initiates [Assignment: organization-defined transfer or reassignment actions] within [Assignment: organization-defined time period following the formal transfer action]. This control applies when the reassignment or transfer of an employee is permanent or of such an extended duration as to make the actions warranted. In addition the organization defines the actions appropriate for the type of reassignment or transfer; whether permanent or temporary. Actions that may be required when personnel are transferred or reassigned to other positions within the organization include, for example: (i) returning old and issuing new keys, identification cards, and building passes; (ii) closing previous information system accounts and establishing new accounts; (iii) changing information system access authorizations; and (iv) providing for access to official records to which the employee had access at the previous work location and in the previous information system accounts. PS-6 Operational Personnel Security Access Agreements P3 The organization: a. Ensures that individuals requiring access to organizational information and information systems sign appropriate access agreements prior to being granted access; and b. Reviews/updates the access agreements [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]. Access agreements include, for example, nondisclosure agreements, acceptable use agreements, rules of behavior, and conflict-of-interest agreements. Signed access agreements include an acknowledgement that individuals have read, understand, and agree to abide by the constraints associated with the information system to which access is authorized. Electronic signatures are acceptable for use in acknowledging access agreements unless specifically prohibited by organizational policy. Related control: PL-4. PS-7 Operational Personnel Security Third-Party Personnel Security P1 The organization: a. Establishes personnel security requirements including security roles and responsibilities for third-party providers; b. Documents personnel security requirements; and c. Monitors provider compliance. Third-party providers include, for example, service bureaus, contractors, and other organizations providing information system development, IT services, outsourced applications, and network and security management. The organization explicitly includes personnel security requirements in acquisition-related documents. PS-8 Operational Personnel Security Personnel Sanctions P3 The organization employs a formal sanctions process for personnel failing to comply with established information security policies and procedures. The sanctions process is consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. The process is described in access agreements and can be included as part of the general personnel policies and procedures for the organization. Related controls: PL-4, PS-6. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance PE-1 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Physical and Environmental Protection Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented physical and environmental protection policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the physical and environmental protection policy and associated physical and environmental protection controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the physical and environmental protection family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The physical and environmental protection policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Physical and environmental protection procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the physical and environmental protection policy. Related control: PM-9. PE-2 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Physical Access Authorizations P1 The organization: a. Develops and keeps current a list of personnel with authorized access to the facility where the information system resides (except for those areas within the facility officially designated as publicly accessible); b. Issues authorization credentials; c. Reviews and approves the access list and authorization credentials [Assignment: organization- defined frequency], removing from the access list personnel no longer requiring access. Authorization credentials include, for example, badges, identification cards, and smart cards. Related controls: PE-3, PE-4. PE-3 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Physical Access Control P1 The organization: a. Enforces physical access authorizations for all physical access points (including designated entry/exit points) to the facility where the information system resides (excluding those areas within the facility officially designated as publicly accessible); b. Verifies individual access authorizations before granting access to the facility; c. Controls entry to the facility containing the information system using physical access devices and/or guards; d. Controls access to areas officially designated as publicly accessible in accordance with the organization’s assessment of risk; e. Secures keys, combinations, and other physical access devices; f. Inventories physical access devices [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]; and g. Changes combinations and keys [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] and when keys are lost, combinations are compromised, or individuals are transferred or terminated. The organization determines the types of guards needed, for example, professional physical security staff or other personnel such as administrative staff or information system users, as deemed appropriate. Physical access devices include, for example, keys, locks, combinations, and card readers. Workstations and associated peripherals connected to (and part of) an organizational information system may be located in areas designated as publicly accessible with access to such devices being safeguarded. Related controls: MP-2, MP-4, PE-2.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance PE-4 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Access Control for Transmission Medium P1 The organization controls physical access to information system distribution and transmission lines within organizational facilities. Physical protections applied to information system distribution and transmission lines help prevent accidental damage, disruption, and physical tampering. Additionally, physical protections are necessary to help prevent eavesdropping or in transit modification of unencrypted transmissions. Protective measures to control physical access to information system distribution and transmission lines include: (i) locked wiring closets; (ii) disconnected or locked spare jacks; and/or (iii) protection of cabling by conduit or cable trays. Related control: PE-2. PE-5 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Access Control for Output Devices P1 The organization controls physical access to information system output devices to prevent unauthorized individuals from obtaining the output. Monitors, printers, and audio devices are examples of information system output devices. PE-6 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Monitoring Physical Access P1 The organization: a. Monitors physical access to the information system to detect and respond to physical security incidents; b. Reviews physical access logs [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]; and c. Coordinates results of reviews and investigations with the organization’s incident response capability. Investigation of and response to detected physical security incidents, including apparent security violations or suspicious physical access activities, are part of the organization’s incident response capability. PE-7 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Visitor Control P1 The organization controls physical access to the information system by authenticating visitors before authorizing access to the facility where the information system resides other than areas designated as publicly accessible. Individuals (to include organizational employees, contract personnel, and others) with permanent authorization credentials for the facility are not considered visitors. PE-8 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Access Records P3 The organization: a. Maintains visitor access records to the facility where the information system resides (except for those areas within the facility officially designated as publicly accessible); and b. Reviews visitor access records [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]. Visitor access records include, for example, name/organization of the person visiting, signature of the visitor, form(s) of identification, date of access, time of entry and departure, purpose of visit, and name/organization of person visited. PE-9 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Power Equipment and Power Cabling P1 The organization protects power equipment and power cabling for the information system from damage and destruction. This control, to include any enhancements specified, may be satisfied by similar requirements fulfilled by another organizational entity other than the information security program. Organizations avoid duplicating actions already covered. PE-10 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Emergency Shutoff P1 The organization: a. Provides the capability of shutting off power to the information system or individual system components in emergency situations; b. Places emergency shutoff switches or devices in [Assignment: organization-defined location by information system or system component] to facilitate safe and easy access for personnel; and c. Protects emergency power shutoff capability from unauthorized activation. This control applies to facilities containing concentrations of information system resources, for example, data centers, server rooms, and mainframe computer rooms. PE-11 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Emergency Power P1 The organization provides a short-term uninterruptible power supply to facilitate an orderly shutdown of the information system in the event of a primary power source loss. This control, to include any enhancements specified, may be satisfied by similar requirements fulfilled by another organizational entity other than the information security program. Organizations avoid duplicating actions already covered. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance PE-12 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Emergency Lighting P1 The organization employs and maintains automatic emergency lighting for the information system that activates in the event of a power outage or disruption and that covers emergency exits and evacuation routes within the facility. This control, to include any enhancements specified, may be satisfied by similar requirements fulfilled by another organizational entity other than the information security program. Organizations avoid duplicating actions already covered. PE-13 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Fire Protection P1 The organization employs and maintains fire suppression and detection devices/systems for the information system that are supported by an independent energy source. Fire suppression and detection devices/systems include, for example, sprinkler systems, handheld fire extinguishers, fixed fire hoses, and smoke detectors. This control, to include any enhancements specified, may be satisfied by similar requirements fulfilled by another organizational entity other than the information security program. Organizations avoid duplicating actions already covered. PE-14 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Temperature and Humidity Controls P1 The organization: a. Maintains temperature and humidity levels within the facility where the information system resides at [Assignment: organization-defined acceptable levels]; and b. Monitors temperature and humidity levels [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]. This control, to include any enhancements specified, may be satisfied by similar requirements fulfilled by another organizational entity other than the information security program. Organizations avoid duplicating actions already covered. PE-15 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Water Damage Protection P1 The organization protects the information system from damage resulting from water leakage by providing master shutoff valves that are accessible, working properly, and known to key personnel. This control, to include any enhancements specified, may be satisfied by similar requirements fulfilled by another organizational entity other than the information security program. Organizations avoid duplicating actions already covered. PE-16 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Delivery and Removal P1 The organization authorizes, monitors, and controls [Assignment: organization-defined types of information system components] entering and exiting the facility and maintains records of those items. Effectively enforcing authorizations for entry and exit of information system components may require restricting access to delivery areas and possibly isolating the areas from the information system and media libraries. PE-17 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Alternate Work Site P1 The organization: a. Employs [Assignment: organization-defined management, operational, and technical information system security controls] at alternate work sites; b. Assesses as feasible, the effectiveness of security controls at alternate work sites; and c. Provides a means for employees to communicate with information security personnel in case of security incidents or problems. Alternate work sites may include, for example, government facilities or private residences of employees. The organization may define different sets of security controls for specific alternate work sites or types of sites. PE-18 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Location of Information System Components P2 The organization positions information system components within the facility to minimize potential damage from physical and environmental hazards and to minimize the opportunity for unauthorized access. Physical and environmental hazards include, for example, flooding, fire, tornados, earthquakes, hurricanes, acts of terrorism, vandalism, electromagnetic pulse, electrical interference, and electromagnetic radiation. Whenever possible, the organization also considers the location or site of the facility with regard to physical and environmental hazards. In addition, the organization considers the location of physical entry points where unauthorized individuals, while not being granted access, might nonetheless be in close proximity to the information system and therefore, increase the potential for unauthorized access to organizational communications (e.g., through the use of wireless sniffers or microphones). This control, to include any enhancements specified, may be satisfied by similar requirements fulfilled by another organizational entity other than the information security program. Organizations avoid duplicating actions already covered.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance PE-19 Operational Physical & Environmental Protection Information Leakage P0 The organization protects the information system from information leakage due to electromagnetic signals emanations. The security categorization of the information system (with respect to confidentiality) and organizational security policy guides the application of safeguards and countermeasures employed to protect the information system against information leakage due to electromagnetic signals emanations. SI-1 Operational System & Information Integrity System and Information Integrity Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented system and information integrity policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the system and information integrity policy and associated system and information integrity controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the system and information integrity family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The system and information integrity policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. System and information integrity procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the system and information integrity policy. Related control: PM-9. SI-2 Operational System & Information Integrity Flaw Remediation P1 The organization: a. Identifies, reports, and corrects information system flaws; b. Tests software updates related to flaw remediation for effectiveness and potential side effects on organizational information systems before installation; and c. Incorporates flaw remediation into the organizational configuration management process. The organization identifies information systems containing software affected by recently announced software flaws (and potential vulnerabilities resulting from those flaws) and reports this information to designated organizational officials with information security responsibilities (e.g., senior information security officers, information system security managers, information systems security officers). The organization (including any contractor to the organization) promptly installs security-relevant software updates (e.g., patches, service packs, and hot fixes). Flaws discovered during security assessments, continuous monitoring, incident response activities, or information system error handling, are also addressed expeditiously. Organizations are encouraged to use resources such as the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) or Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) databases in remediating flaws discovered in organizational information systems. By requiring that flaw remediation be incorporated into the organizational configuration management process, it is the intent of this control that required/anticipated remediation actions are tracked and verified. An example of expected flaw remediation that would be so verified is whether the procedures contained in US-CERT guidance and Information Assurance Vulnerability Alerts have been accomplished. Related controls: CA-2, CA-7, CM-3, MA-2, IR-4, RA-5, SA-11, SI-11. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SI-3 Operational System & Information Integrity Malicious Code Protection P1 The organization: a. Employs malicious code protection mechanisms at information system entry and exit points and at workstations, servers, or mobile computing devices on the network to detect and eradicate malicious code: - Transported by electronic mail, electronic mail attachments, web accesses, removable media, or other common means; or - Inserted through the exploitation of information system vulnerabilities; b. Updates malicious code protection mechanisms (including signature definitions) whenever new releases are available in accordance with organizational configuration management policy and procedures; c. Configures malicious code protection mechanisms to: - Perform periodic scans of the information system [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] and real- time scans of files from external sources as the files are downloaded, opened, or executed in accordance with organizational security policy; and - [Selection (one or more): block malicious code; quarantine malicious code; send alert to administrator; [Assignment: organization-defined action]] in response to malicious code detection; and d. Addresses the receipt of false positives during malicious code detection and eradication and the resulting Information system entry and exit points include, for example, firewalls, electronic mail servers, web servers, proxy servers, and remote-access servers. Malicious code includes, for example, viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and spyware. Malicious code can also be encoded in various formats (e.g., UUENCODE, Unicode) or contained within a compressed file. Removable media includes, for example, USB devices, diskettes, or compact disks. A variety of technologies and methods exist to limit or eliminate the effects of malicious code attacks. Pervasive configuration management and strong software integrity controls may be effective in preventing execution of unauthorized code. In addition to commercial off-the-shelf software, malicious code may also be present in custom-built software. This could include, for example, logic bombs, back doors, and other types of cyberattacks that could affect organizational missions and business functions. Traditional malicious code protection mechanisms are not built to detect such code. In these situations, organizations must rely instead on other risk mitigation measures to include, for example, secure coding practices, trusted procurement processes, configuration management and control, and monitoring practices to help ensure that software does not perform functions other than those intended. Related controls: SA-4, SA-8, SA-12, SA-13, SI-4, SI-7. potential impact on the availability of the information system. SI-4 Operational System & Information Integrity Information System Monitoring P1 The organization: a. Monitors events on the information system in accordance with [Assignment: organization-defined monitoring objectives] and detects information system attacks; b. Identifies unauthorized use of the information system; c. Deploys monitoring devices: (i) strategically within the information system to collect organization-determined essential information; and (ii) at ad hoc locations within the system to track specific types of transactions of interest to the organization; d. Heightens the level of information system monitoring activity whenever there is an indication of increased risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, or the Nation based on law enforcement information, intelligence information, or other credible sources of information; and e. Obtains legal opinion with regard to information system monitoring activities in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, or regulations. Information system monitoring includes external and internal monitoring. External monitoring includes the observation of events occurring at the system boundary (i.e., part of perimeter defense and boundary protection). Internal monitoring includes the observation of events occurring within the system (e.g., within internal organizational networks and system components). Information system monitoring capability is achieved through a variety of tools and techniques (e.g., intrusion detection systems, intrusion prevention systems, malicious code protection software, audit record monitoring software, network monitoring software). Strategic locations for monitoring devices include, for example, at selected perimeter locations and near server farms supporting critical applications, with such devices typically being employed at the managed interfaces associated with controls SC-7 and AC-17. The Einstein network monitoring device from the Department of Homeland Security is an example of a system monitoring device. The granularity of the information collected is determined by the organization based on its monitoring objectives and the capability of the information system to support such activities. An example of a specific type of transaction of interest to the organization with regard to monitoring is Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) traffic that bypasses organizational HTTP proxies, when use of such proxies is required. Related controls: AC-4, AC-8, AC-17, AU-2, AU-6, SI-3, SI-7.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SI-5 Operational System & Information Integrity Security Alerts, Advisories, and Directives P1 The organization: a. Receives information system security alerts, advisories, and directives from designated external organizations on an ongoing basis; b. Generates internal security alerts, advisories, and directives as deemed necessary; c. Disseminates security alerts, advisories, and directives to [Assignment: organization-defined list of personnel (identified by name and/or by role)]; and d. Implements security directives in accordance with established time frames, or notifies the issuing organization of the degree of noncompliance. Security alerts and advisories are generated by the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) to maintain situational awareness across the federal government. Security directives are issued by OMB or other designated organizations with the responsibility and authority to issue such directives. Compliance to security directives is essential due to the critical nature of many of these directives and the potential immediate adverse effects on organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation should the directives not be implemented in a timely manner. SI-6 Operational System & Information Integrity Security Functionality Verification P1 The information system verifies the correct operation of security functions [Selection (one or more): [Assignment: organization-defined system transitional states]; upon command by user with appropriate privilege; periodically every [Assignment: organization-defined time-period]] and [Selection (one or more): notifies system administrator; shuts the system down; restarts the system; [Assignment: organization-defined alternative action(s)]] when anomalies are discovered. The need to verify security functionality applies to all security functions. For those security functions that are not able to execute automated self-tests, the organization either implements compensating security controls or explicitly accepts the risk of not performing the verification as required. Information system transitional states include, for example, startup, restart, shutdown, and abort. SI-7 Operational System & Information Integrity Software and Information Integrity P1 The information system detects unauthorized changes to software and information. The organization employs integrity verification applications on the information system to look for evidence of information tampering, errors, and omissions. The organization employs good software engineering practices with regard to commercial off-the- shelf integrity mechanisms (e.g., parity checks, cyclical redundancy checks, cryptographic hashes) and uses tools to automatically monitor the integrity of the information system and the applications it hosts. SI-8 Operational System & Information Integrity Spam Protection P1 The organization: a. Employs spam protection mechanisms at information system entry and exit points and at workstations, servers, or mobile computing devices on the network to detect and take action on unsolicited messages transported by electronic mail, electronic mail attachments, web accesses, or other common means; and b. Updates spam protection mechanisms (including signature definitions) when new releases are available in accordance with organizational configuration management policy and procedures. Information system entry and exit points include, for example, firewalls, electronic mail servers, web servers, proxy servers, and remote-access servers. Related controls: SC-5, SI-3. SI-9 Operational System & Information Integrity Information Input Restrictions P2 The organization restricts the capability to input information to the information system to authorized personnel. Restrictions on organizational personnel authorized to input information to the information system may extend beyond the typical access controls employed by the system and include limitations based on specific operational/project responsibilities. Related controls: AC-5, AC-6. SI-10 Operational System & Information Integrity Information Input Validation P1 The information system checks the validity of information inputs. Rules for checking the valid syntax and semantics of information system inputs (e.g., character set, length, numerical range, acceptable values) are in place to verify that inputs match specified definitions for format and content. Inputs passed to interpreters are prescreened to prevent the content from being unintentionally interpreted as commands. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SI-11 Operational System & Information Integrity Error Handling P2 The information system: a. Identifies potentially security-relevant error conditions; b. Generates error messages that provide information necessary for corrective actions without revealing [Assignment: organization-defined sensitive or potentially harmful information] in error logs and administrative messages that could be exploited by adversaries; and c. Reveals error messages only to authorized personnel. The structure and content of error messages are carefully considered by the organization. The extent to which the information system is able to identify and handle error conditions is guided by organizational policy and operational requirements. Sensitive information includes, for example, account numbers, social security numbers, and credit card numbers. SI-12 Operational System & Information Integrity Information Output Handling and Retention P2 The organization handles and retains both information within and output from the information system in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and operational requirements. The output handling and retention requirements cover the full life cycle of the information, in some cases extending beyond the disposal of the information system. The National Archives and Records Administration provides guidance on records retention. Related controls: MP-2, MP-4. SI-13 Operational System & Information Integrity Predictable Failure Prevention P0 The organization: a. Protects the information system from harm by considering mean time to failure for [Assignment: organization-defined list of information system components] in specific environments of operation; and b. Provides substitute information system components, when needed, and a mechanism to exchange active and standby roles of the components. While mean time to failure is primarily a reliability issue, this control focuses on the potential failure of specific components of the information system that provide security capability. Mean time to failure rates are defendable and based on considerations that are installation-specific, not industry-average. The transfer of responsibilities between active and standby information system components does not compromise safety, operational readiness, or security (e.g., state variables are preserved). The standby component is available at all times except where a failure recovery is in progress or for maintenance reasons. Related control: CP-2. AC-1 Technical Access Control Access Control Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented access control policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the access control policy and associated access controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the access control family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The access control policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Access control procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the access control policy. Related control: PM-9. AC-2 Technical Access Control Account Management P1 The organization manages information system accounts, including: a. Identifying account types (i.e., individual, group, system, application, guest/anonymous, and temporary); b. Establishing conditions for group membership; c. Identifying authorized users of the information system and specifying access privileges; d. Requiring appropriate approvals for requests to establish accounts; e. Establishing, activating, modifying, disabling, and removing accounts; f. Specifically authorizing and monitoring the use of guest/anonymous and temporary accounts; The identification of authorized users of the information system and the specification of access privileges is consistent with the requirements in other security controls in the security plan. Users requiring administrative privileges on information system accounts receive additional scrutiny by organizational officials responsible for approving such accounts and privileged access. Related controls: AC-3, AC-4, AC-5, AC-6, AC-10, AC-17, AC-19, AC-20, AU-9, IA-4, IA-5, CM-5, CM-6, MA-3, MA-4, MA-5, SA-7, SC-13, SI-9.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance g. Notifying account managers when temporary accounts are no longer required and when information system users are terminated, transferred, or information system usage or need-to-know/need-to-share changes; h. Deactivating: (i) temporary accounts that are no longer required; and (ii) accounts of terminated or transferred users; i. Granting access to the system based on: (i) a valid access authorization; (ii) intended system usage; and (iii) other attributes as required by the organization or associated missions/business functions; and j. Creating a process for reviewing and notifying accounts' status [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]. AC-3 Technical Access Control Access Enforcement P1 The information system enforces approved authorizations for logical access to the system in accordance with applicable policy. Access control policies (e.g., identity-based policies, role-based policies, attribute-based policies) and access enforcement mechanisms (e.g., access control lists, access control matrices, cryptography) are employed by organizations to control access between users (or processes acting on behalf of users) and objects (e.g., devices, files, records, processes, programs, domains) in the information system. In addition to enforcing authorized access at the information-system level, access enforcement mechanisms are employed at the application level, when necessary, to provide increased information security for the organization. Consideration is given to the implementation of an audited, explicit override of automated mechanisms in the event of emergencies or other serious events. If encryption of stored information is employed as an access enforcement mechanism, the cryptography used is FIPS 140-2 (as amended) compliant. For classified information, the cryptography used is largely dependent on the classification level of the information and the clearances of the individuals having access to the information. Mechanisms implemented by AC-3 are configured to enforce authorizations determined by other security controls. Related controls: AC-2, AC-4, AC-5, AC-6, AC-16, AC-17, AC-18, AC-19, AC-20, AC-21, AC-22, AU-9, CM-5, CM-6, MA-3, MA-4, MA-5, SA-7, SC-13, SI-9. AC-4 Technical Access Control Information Flow Enforcement P1 The information system enforces approved authorizations for controlling the flow of information within the system and between interconnected systems in accordance with applicable policy. Information flow control regulates where information is allowed to travel within an information system and between information systems (as opposed to who is allowed to access the information) and without explicit regard to subsequent accesses to that information. A few examples of flow control restrictions include: keeping export controlled information from being transmitted in the clear to the Internet, blocking outside traffic that claims to be from within the organization, and not passing any web requests to the Internet that are not from the internal web proxy. Information flow control policies and enforcement mechanisms are commonly employed by organizations to control the flow of information between designated sources and destinations (e.g., networks, individuals, devices) within information systems and between interconnected systems. Flow control is based on the characteristics of the information (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance and/or the information path. Specific examples of flow control enforcement can be found in boundary protection devices (e.g., proxies, gateways, guards, encrypted tunnels, firewalls, and routers) that employ rule sets or establish configuration settings that restrict information system services, provide a packet-filtering capability based on header information, or message-filtering capability based on content (e.g., using key word searches or document characteristics). Mechanisms implemented by AC-4 are configured to enforce authorizations determined by other security controls. Related controls: AC-17, AC-19, AC-21, CM-7, SA-8, SC-2, SC-5, SC-7, SC-18. AC-5 Technical Access Control Separation of Duties P1 The organization: a. Separates duties of individuals as necessary, to prevent malevolent activity without collusion; b. Documents separation of duties; and c. Implements separation of duties through assigned information system access authorizations. Examples of separation of duties include: (i) mission functions and distinct information system support functions are divided among different individuals/roles; (ii) different individuals perform information system support functions (e.g., system management, systems programming, configuration management, quality assurance and testing, network security); (iii) security personnel who administer access control functions do not administer audit functions; and (iv) different administrator accounts for different roles. Access authorizations defined in this control are implemented by control AC-3. Related control: AC-3. AC-6 Technical Access Control Least Privilege P1 The organization employs the concept of least privilege, allowing only authorized accesses for users (and processes acting on behalf of users) which are necessary to accomplish assigned tasks in accordance with organizational missions and business functions. The access authorizations defined in this control are largely implemented by control AC-3. The organization employs the concept of least privilege for specific duties and information systems (including specific ports, protocols, and services) in accordance with risk assessments as necessary to adequately mitigate risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation. Related controls: AC-2, AC-3, CM-7. AC-7 Technical Access Control Unsuccessful Login Attempts P2 The information system: a. Enforces a limit of [Assignment: organization-defined number] consecutive invalid login attempts by a user during a [Assignment: organization-defined time period]; and b. Automatically [Selection: locks the account/node for an [Assignment: organization-defined time period]; locks the account/node until released by an administrator; delays next login prompt according to [Assignment: organization-defined delay algorithm]] when the maximum number of unsuccessful attempts is exceeded. The control applies regardless of whether the login occurs via a local or network connection. Due to the potential for denial of service, automatic lockouts initiated by the information system are usually temporary and automatically release after a predetermined time period established by the organization. If a delay algorithm is selected, the organization may choose to employ different algorithms for different information system components based on the capabilities of those components. Response to unsuccessful login attempts may be implemented at both the operating system and the application levels. This control applies to all accesses other than those accesses explicitly identified and documented by the organization in AC-14. AC-8 Technical Access Control System Use Notification P1 The information system: a. Displays an approved system use notification message or banner before granting access to the system that provides privacy, LEGAL and security notices consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance and states that: (i) users are accessing a U.S. Government System use notification messages can be implemented in the form of warning banners displayed when individuals log in to the information system. System use notification is intended only for information system access that includes an interactive login interface with a human user and is not intended to require notification when an interactive interface does not exist. information system; (ii) system usage may be monitored, recorded, and subject to audit; (iii) unauthorized use of

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance the system is prohibited and subject to criminal and civil penalties; and (iv) use of the system indicates consent to monitoring and recording; b. Retains the notification message or banner on the screen until users take explicit actions to log on to or further access the information system; and c. For publicly accessible systems: (i) displays the system use information when appropriate, before granting further access; (ii) displays references, if any, to monitoring, recording, or auditing that are consistent with privacy accommodations for such systems that generally prohibit those activities; and (iii) includes in the notice given to public users of the information system, a description of the authorized uses of the system. AC-9 Technical Access Control Previous Logon (Access) Notification P0 The information system notifies the user, upon successful logon (access), of the date and time of the last logon (access). This control is intended to cover both traditional logons to information systems and general accesses to information systems that occur in other types of architectural configurations (e.g., service oriented architectures). AC-10 Technical Access Control Concurrent Session Control P2 The information system limits the number of concurrent sessions for each system account to [Assignment: organization-defined number]. The organization may define the maximum number of concurrent sessions for an information system account globally, by account type, by account, or a combination. This control addresses concurrent sessions for a given information system account and does not address concurrent sessions by a single user via multiple system accounts. AC-11 Technical Access Control Session Lock P3 The information system: a. Prevents further access to the system by initiating a session lock after [Assignment: organization-defined time period] of inactivity or upon receiving a request from a user; and b. Retains the session lock until the user reestablishes access using established identification and authentication procedures. A session lock is a temporary action taken when a user stops work and moves away from the immediate physical vicinity of the information system but does not want to log out because of the temporary nature of the absence. The session lock is implemented at the point where session activity can be determined. This is typically at the operating system-level, but may be at the application- level. A session lock is not a substitute for logging out of the information system, for example, if the organization requires users to log out at the end of the workday. AC-14 Technical Access Control Permitted Actions Without Identification Or Authentication P1 The organization: a. Identifies specific user actions that can be performed on the information system without identification or authentication; and b. Documents and provides supporting rationale in the security plan for the information system, user actions not requiring identification and authentication. This control is intended for those specific instances where an organization determines that no identification and authentication is required; it is not, however, mandating that such instances exist in given information system. The organization may allow a limited number of user actions without identification and authentication (e.g., when individuals access public websites or other publicly accessible federal information systems such as http://www.usa.gov). Organizations also identify any actions that normally require identification or authentication but may under certain circumstances (e.g., emergencies), allow identification or authentication mechanisms to be bypassed. Such bypass may be, for example, via a software-readable physical switch that commands bypass of the login functionality and is protected from accidental or unmonitored use. This control does not apply to situations where identification and authentication have already occurred and are not being repeated, but rather to situations where identification and/or authentication have not yet occurred. Related controls: CP-2, IA-2. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance AC-16 Technical Access Control Security Attributes P0 The information system supports and maintains the binding of [Assignment: organization-defined security attributes] to information in storage, in process, and in transmission. Security attributes are abstractions representing the basic properties or characteristics of an entity (e.g., subjects and objects) with respect to safeguarding information. These attributes are typically associated with internal data structures (e.g., records, buffers, files) within the information system and are used to enable the implementation of access control and flow control policies, reflect special dissemination, handling or distribution instructions, or support other aspects of the information security policy. The term security label is often used to associate a set of security attributes with a specific information object as part of the data structure for that object (e.g., user access privileges, nationality, affiliation as contractor). Related controls: AC-3, AC-4, SC-16, MP-3. AC-17 Technical Access Control Remote Access P1 The organization: a. Documents allowed methods of remote access to the information system; b. Establishes usage restrictions and implementation guidance for each allowed remote access method; c. Monitors for unauthorized remote access to the information system; d. Authorizes remote access to the information system prior to connection; and e. Enforces requirements for remote connections to the information system. This control requires explicit authorization prior to allowing remote access to an information system without specifying a specific format for that authorization. For example, while the organization may deem it appropriate to use a system interconnection agreement to authorize a given remote access, such agreements are not required by this control. Remote access is any access to an organizational information system by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) communicating through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Examples of remote access methods include dial-up, broadband, and wireless (see AC-18 for wireless access). A virtual private network when adequately provisioned with appropriate security controls, is considered an internal network (i.e., the organization establishes a network connection between organization-controlled endpoints in a manner that does not require the organization to depend on external networks to protect the confidentiality or integrity of information transmitted across the network). Remote access controls are applicable to information systems other than public web servers or systems specifically designed for public access. Enforcing access restrictions associated with remote connections is accomplished by control AC-3. Related controls: AC-3, AC-18, AC-20, IA-2, IA-3, IA-8, MA-4. AC-18 Technical Access Control Wireless Access P1 The organization: a. Establishes usage restrictions and implementation guidance for wireless access; b. Monitors for unauthorized wireless access to the information system; c. Authorizes wireless access to the information system prior to connection; and d. Enforces requirements for wireless connections to the information system. Wireless technologies include, but are not limited to, microwave, satellite, packet radio (UHF/VHF), 802.11x, and Bluetooth. Wireless networks use authentication protocols (e.g., EAP/TLS, PEAP), which provide credential protection and mutual authentication. In certain situations, wireless signals may radiate beyond the confines and control of organization-controlled facilities. Related controls: AC-3, IA-2, IA-3, IA-8.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance AC-19 Technical Access Control Access Control for Mobile Devices P1 The organization: a. Establishes usage restrictions and implementation guidance for organization-controlled mobile devices; b. Authorizes connection of mobile devices meeting organizational usage restrictions and implementation guidance to organizational information systems; c. Monitors for unauthorized connections of mobile devices to organizational information systems; d. Enforces requirements for the connection of mobile devices to organizational information systems; e. Disables information system functionality that provides the capability for automatic execution of code on mobile devices without user direction; f. Issues specially configured mobile devices to individuals traveling to locations that the organization deems to be of significant risk in accordance with organizational policies and procedures; and g. Applies [Assignment: organization-defined inspection and preventative measures] to mobile devices returning from locations that the organization deems to be of significant risk in accordance with organizational policies and procedures. Mobile devices include portable storage media (e.g., USB memory sticks, external hard disk drives) and portable computing and communications devices with information storage capability (e.g., notebook/laptop computers, personal digital assistants, cellular telephones, digital cameras, and audio recording devices). Organization-controlled mobile devices include those devices for which the organization has the authority to specify and the ability to enforce specific security requirements. Usage restrictions and implementation guidance related to mobile devices include, for example, configuration management, device identification and authentication, implementation of mandatory protective software (e.g., malicious code detection, firewall), scanning devices for malicious code, updating virus protection software, scanning for critical software updates and patches, conducting primary operating system (and possibly other resident software) integrity checks, and disabling unnecessary hardware (e.g., wireless, infrared). Examples of information system functionality that provide the capability for automatic execution of code are AutoRun and AutoPlay. Organizational policies and procedures for mobile devices used by individuals departing on and returning from travel include, for example, determining which locations are of concern, defining required configurations for the devices, ensuring that the devices are configured as intended before travel is initiated, and applying specific measures to the device after travel is completed. Specially configured mobile devices include, for example, computers with sanitized hard drives, limited applications, and additional hardening (e.g., more stringent configuration settings). Specified measures applied to mobile devices upon return from travel include, for example, examining the device for signs of physical tampering and purging/reimaging the hard disk drive. Protecting information residing on mobile devices is covered in the media protection family. Related controls: MP-4, MP-5. AC-20 Technical Access Control Use of External Information Systems P1 The organization establishes terms and conditions, consistent with any trust relationships established with other organizations owning, operating, and/or maintaining external information systems, allowing authorized individuals to: a. Access the information system from the external information systems; and b. Process, store, and/or transmit organization-controlled information using the external information systems. External information systems are information systems or components of information systems that are outside of the authorization boundary established by the organization and for which the organization typically has no direct supervision and authority over the application of required security controls or the assessment of security control effectiveness. External information systems include, but are not limited to: (i) personally owned information systems (e.g., computers, cellular telephones, or personal digital assistants); (ii) privately owned computing and communications devices resident in commercial or public facilities (e.g., hotels, convention centers, or airports); (iii) information systems owned or controlled by nonfederal governmental organizations; and (iv) federal information systems that (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance are not owned by, operated by, or under the direct supervision and authority of the organization. For some external systems, in particular those systems operated by other federal agencies, including organizations subordinate to those agencies, the trust relationships that have been established between those organizations and the originating organization may be such, that no explicit terms and conditions are required. In effect, the information systems of these organizations would not be considered external. These situations typically occur when, for example, there is some pre-existing sharing or trust agreement (either implicit or explicit) established between federal agencies and/or organizations subordinate to those agencies, or such trust agreements are specified by applicable laws, Executive Orders, directives, or policies. Authorized individuals include organizational personnel, contractors, or any other individuals with authorized access to the organizational information system and over which the organization has the authority to impose rules of behavior with regard to system access. The restrictions that an organization imposes on authorized individuals need not be uniform, as those restrictions are likely to vary depending upon the trust relationships between organizations. Thus, an organization might impose more stringent security restrictions on a contractor than on a state, local, or tribal government. This control does not apply to the use of external information systems to access public interfaces to organizational information systems and information (e.g., individuals accessing federal information through www.usa.gov). The organization establishes terms and conditions for the use of external information systems in accordance with organizational security policies and procedures. The terms and conditions address as a minimum; (i) the types of applications that can be accessed on the organizational information system from the external information system; and (ii) the maximum security categorization of information that can be processed, stored, and transmitted on the external information system. This control defines access authorizations enforced by AC-3, rules of behavior requirements enforced by PL-4, and session establishment rules enforced by AC-17. Related controls: AC-3, AC-17, PL-4. AC-21 Technical Access Control User-Based Collaboration and Information Sharing P0 The organization: a. Facilitates information sharing by enabling authorized users to determine whether access authorizations assigned to the sharing partner match the access restrictions on the information for [Assignment: organization-defined information sharing circumstances where user discretion is required]; and b. Employs [Assignment: list of organization-defined information sharing circumstances and automated mechanisms or manual processes required] to assist users in making information sharing/collaboration decisions. The control applies to information that may be restricted in some manner (e.g., privileged medical, contract-sensitive, proprietary, PII, special access programs/compartments) based on some formal or administrative determination. Depending on the information-sharing circumstance, the sharing partner may be defined at the individual, group, or organization level and information may be defined by specific content, type, or security categorization. Related control: AC-3.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance AC-22 Technical Access Control Publicly Accessible Content P2 The organization: a. Designates individuals authorized to post information onto an organizational information system that is publicly accessible; b. Trains authorized individuals to ensure that publicly accessible information does not contain nonpublic information; c. Reviews the proposed content of publicly accessible information for nonpublic information prior to posting onto the organizational information system; d. Reviews the content on the publicly accessible organizational information system for nonpublic information [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]; and e. Removes nonpublic information from the publicly accessible organizational information system, if discovered. Nonpublic information is any information for which the general public is not authorized access in accordance with federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, or guidance. Information protected under the Privacy Act and vendor proprietary information are examples of nonpublic information. This control addresses posting information on an organizational information system that is accessible to the general public, typically without identification or authentication. The posting of information on non- organization information systems is covered by appropriate organizational policy. Related controls: AC-3, AU-13. AU-1 Technical Audit & Accountability Audit and Accountability Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented audit and accountability policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the audit and accountability policy and associated audit and accountability controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the audit and accountability family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The audit and accountability policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Audit and accountability procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the audit and accountability policy. Related control: PM-9. AU-2 Technical Audit & Accountability Auditable Events P1 The organization: a. Determines, based on a risk assessment and mission/business needs, that the information system must be capable of auditing the following events: [Assignment: organization-defined list of auditable events]; b. Coordinates the security audit function with other organizational entities requiring audit-related information to enhance mutual support and to help guide the selection of auditable events; c. Provides a rationale for why the list of auditable events are deemed to be adequate to support after-the-fact investigations of security incidents; and d. Determines, based on current threat information and ongoing assessment of risk, that the following events are to be audited within the information system: [Assignment: organization-defined subset of the auditable events defined in AU-2 a. to be audited along with the frequency of (or situation requiring) auditing for each identified event]. The purpose of this control is for the organization to identify events which need to be auditable as significant and relevant to the security of the information system; giving an overall system requirement in order to meet ongoing and specific audit needs. To balance auditing requirements with other information system needs, this control also requires identifying that subset of auditable events that are to be audited at a given point in time. For example, the organization may determine that the information system must have the capability to log every file access both successful and unsuccessful, but not activate that capability except for specific circumstances due to the extreme burden on system performance. In addition, audit records can be generated at various levels of abstraction, including at the packet level as information traverses the network. Selecting the right level of abstraction for audit record generation is a critical aspect of an audit capability and can facilitate the identification of root causes to problems. Related control: AU-3. AU-3 Technical Audit & Accountability Content of Audit Records P1 The information system produces audit records that contain sufficient information to, at a minimum, establish what type of event occurred, when (date and time) the event occurred, where the event occurred, the source of the event, the outcome (success or failure) of the event, and the identity of any user/subject associated with the event. Audit record content that may be necessary to satisfy the requirement of this control, includes, for example, time stamps, source and destination addresses, user/process identifiers, event descriptions, success/fail indications, filenames involved, and access control or flow control rules invoked. Related controls: AU-2, AU-8. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance AU-4 Technical Audit & Accountability Audit Storage Capacity P1 The organization allocates audit record storage capacity and configures auditing IN CONSULTATION WITH LEGAL TEAMS to reduce the likelihood of such capacity being exceeded. The organization considers the types of auditing to be performed and the audit processing requirements when allocating audit storage capacity. Related controls: AU-2, AU-5, AU-6, AU-7, SI-4. AU-5 Technical Audit & Accountability Response To Audit Processing Failures P1 The information system: a. Alerts designated organizational officials in the event of an audit processing failure; and b. Takes the following additional actions: [Assignment: organization-defined actions to be taken (e.g., shut down information system, overwrite oldest audit records, stop generating audit records)]. Audit processing failures include, for example, software/hardware errors, failures in the audit capturing mechanisms, and audit storage capacity being reached or exceeded. Related control: AU-4. AU-6 Technical Audit & Accountability Audit Review, Analysis, and Reporting P1 The organization: a. Reviews and analyzes information system audit records [Assignment: organization-defined frequency] for indications of inappropriate or unusual activity, and reports findings to designated organizational officials; and b. Adjusts the level of audit review, analysis, and reporting within the information system when there is a change in risk to organizational operations, organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, or the Nation based on law enforcement information, intelligence information, or other credible sources of information. Related control: AU-7. AU-7 Technical Audit & Accountability Audit Reduction and Report Generation P2 The information system provides an audit reduction and report generation capability. An audit reduction and report generation capability provides support for near real-time audit review, analysis, and reporting requirements described in AU-6 and after-the-fact investigations of security incidents. Audit reduction and reporting tools do not alter original audit records. Related control: AU-6. AU-8 Technical Audit & Accountability Time Stamps P1 The information system uses internal system clocks to generate time stamps for audit records. Time stamps generated by the information system include both date and time. The time may be expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), a modern continuation of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), or local time with an offset from UTC. Related control: AU-3. AU-9 Technical Audit & Accountability Protection of Audit Information P1 The information system protects audit information and audit tools from unauthorized access, modification, and deletion. Audit information includes all information (e.g., audit records, audit settings, and audit reports) needed to successfully audit information system activity. Related controls: AC-3, AC-6. AU-10 Technical Audit & Accountability Non-Repudiation P1 The information system protects against an individual falsely denying having performed a particular action. Examples of particular actions taken by individuals include creating information, sending a message, approving information (e.g., indicating concurrence or signing a contract), and receiving a message. Non- repudiation protects individuals against later claims by an author of not having authored a particular document, a sender of not having transmitted a message, a receiver of not having received a message, or a signatory of not having signed a document. Non-repudiation services can be used to determine if information originated from an individual, or if an individual took specific actions (e.g., sending an email, signing a contract, approving a procurement request) or received specific information. Non-repudiation services are obtained by employing various techniques or mechanisms (e.g., digital signatures, digital message receipts).

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance AU-11 Technical Audit & Accountability Audit Record Retention P3 The organization retains audit records for [Assignment: organization-defined time period consistent with records retention policy] to provide support for after-the-fact investigations of security incidents and to meet regulatory and organizational information retention requirements. The organization retains audit records until it is determined that they are no longer needed for administrative, legal, audit, or other operational purposes. This includes, for example, retention and availability of audit records relative to Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests, subpoena, and law enforcement actions. Standard categorizations of audit records relative to such types of actions and standard response processes for each type of action are developed and disseminated. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) General Records Schedules (GRS) provide federal policy on record retention. AU-12 Technical Audit & Accountability Audit Generation P1 The information system: a. Provides audit record generation capability for the list of auditable events defined in AU-2 at [Assignment: organization-defined information system components]; b. Allows designated organizational personnel to select which auditable events are to be audited by specific components of the system; and c. Generates audit records for the list of audited events defined in AU-2 with the content as defined in AU-3. Audits records can be generated from various components within the information system. The list of audited events is the set of events for which audits are to be generated. This set of events is typically a subset of the list of all events for which the system is capable of generating audit records (i.e., auditable events). Related controls: AU-2, AU-3. AU-13 Technical Audit & Accountability Monitoring for Information Disclosure P0 The organization monitors open source information for evidence of unauthorized exfiltration or disclosure of organizational information [Assignment: organization- defined frequency]. None. AU-14 Technical Audit & Accountability Session Audit P0 The information system provides the capability to: a. Capture/record and log all content related to a user session; and b. Remotely view/hear all content related to an established user session in real time. Session auditing activities are developed, integrated, and used in consultation with legal counsel in accordance with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, or regulations. IA-1 Technical Identification & Authentication Identification and Authentication Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented identification and authentication policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the identification and authentication policy and associated identification and authentication controls. c. POLICY HAS TO BE SIGNED BY THE INFORMATION SECURITY OFFICER AND SIGNED BY ALL EMPLOYEES. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the identification and authentication family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The identification and authentication policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. Identification and authentication procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the identification and authentication policy. Related control: PM-9. IA-2 Technical Identification & Authentication Identification and Authentication (Organizational Users) P1 The information system uniquely identifies and authenticates organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of organizational users). Organizational users include organizational employees or individuals the organization deems to have equivalent status of employees (e.g., contractors, guest researchers, individuals from allied nations). Users are uniquely identified and authenticated for all accesses other than those accesses explicitly identified and documented by the organization in AC-14. Unique identification of individuals in group accounts (e.g., shared privilege accounts) may need to be considered for detailed (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance accountability of activity. Authentication of user identities is accomplished through the use of passwords, tokens, biometrics, or in the case of multifactor authentication, some combination thereof. Access to organizational information systems is defined as either local or network. Local access is any access to an organizational information system by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) where such access is obtained by direct connection without the use of a network. Network access is any access to an organizational information system by a user (or process acting on behalf of a user) where such access is obtained through a network connection. Remote access is a type of network access which involves communication through an external network (e.g., the Internet). Internal networks include local area networks, wide area networks, and virtual private networks that are under the control of the organization. For a virtual private network (VPN), the VPN is considered an internal network if the organization establishes the VPN connection between organization-controlled endpoints in a manner that does not require the organization to depend on any external networks across which the VPN transits to protect the confidentiality and integrity of information transmitted. Identification and authentication requirements for information system access by other than organizational users are described in IA-8. The identification and authentication requirements in this control are satisfied by complying with Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12 consistent with organization-specific implementation plans provided to OMB. In addition to identifying and authenticating users at the information-system level (i.e., at logon), identification and authentication mechanisms are employed at the application level, when necessary, to provide increased information security for the organization. Related controls: AC-14, AC-17, AC-18, IA-4, IA-5. IA-3 Technical Identification & Authentication Device Identification and Authentication P1 The information system uniquely identifies and authenticates [Assignment: organization-defined list of specific and/or types of devices] before establishing a connection. The devices requiring unique identification and authentication may be defined by type, by specific device, or by a combination of type and device as deemed appropriate by the organization. The information system typically uses either shared known information (e.g., Media Access Control [MAC] or Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol [TCP/IP] addresses) for identification or an organizational authentication solution (e.g., IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol [EAP], Radius server with EAP- Transport Layer Security [TLS] authentication, Kerberos) to identify and authenticate devices on local and/or wide area networks. The required strength of the device authentication mechanism is determined by the security categorization of the information system.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance IA-4 Technical Identification & Authentication Identifier Management P1 The organization manages information system identifiers for users and devices by: a. Receiving authorization from a designated organizational official to assign a user or device identifier; b. Selecting an identifier that uniquely identifies an individual or device; c. Assigning the user identifier to the intended party or the device identifier to the intended device; d. Preventing reuse of user or device identifiers for [Assignment: organization-defined time period]; and e. Disabling the user identifier after [Assignment: organization-defined time period of inactivity]. Common device identifiers include media access control (MAC) or Internet protocol (IP) addresses, or device-unique token identifiers. Management of user identifiers is not applicable to shared information system accounts (e.g., guest and anonymous accounts). It is commonly the case that a user identifier is the name of an information system account associated with an individual. In such instances, identifier management is largely addressed by the account management activities of AC-2. IA-4 also covers user identifiers not necessarily associated with an information system account (e.g., the identifier used in a physical security control database accessed by a badge reader system for access to the information system). Related controls: AC-2, IA-2. IA-5 Technical Identification & Authentication Authenticator Management P1 The organization manages information system authenticators for users and devices by: a. Verifying, as part of the initial authenticator distribution, the identity of the individual and/or device receiving the authenticator; b. Establishing initial authenticator content for authenticators defined by the organization; c. Ensuring that authenticators have sufficient strength of mechanism for their intended use; d. Establishing and implementing administrative procedures for initial authenticator distribution, for lost/compromised or damaged authenticators, and for revoking authenticators; e. Changing default content of authenticators upon information system installation; f. Establishing minimum and maximum lifetime restrictions and reuse conditions for authenticators (if appropriate); g. Changing/refreshing authenticators [Assignment: organization-defined time period by authenticator type]; h. Protecting authenticator content from unauthorized disclosure and modification; and i. Requiring users to take, and having devices implement, specific measures to safeguard authenticators. User authenticators include, for example, passwords, tokens, biometrics, PKI certificates, and key cards. Initial authenticator content is the actual content (e.g., the initial password) as opposed to requirements about authenticator content (e.g., minimum password length). Many information system components are shipped with factory default authentication credentials to allow for initial installation and configuration. Default authentication credentials are often well known, easily discoverable, present a significant security risk, and therefore, are changed upon installation. The requirement to protect user authenticators may be implemented via control PL-4 or PS-6 for authenticators in the possession of users and by controls AC-3, AC-6, and SC-28 for authenticators stored within the information system (e.g., passwords stored in a hashed or encrypted format, files containing encrypted or hashed passwords accessible only with super user privileges). The information system supports user authenticator management by organization- defined settings and restrictions for various authenticator characteristics including, for example, minimum password length, password composition, validation time window for time synchronous one time tokens, and number of allowed rejections during verification stage of biometric authentication. Measures to safeguard user authenticators include, for example, maintaining possession of individual authenticators, not loaning or sharing authenticators with others, and reporting lost or compromised authenticators immediately. Authenticator management includes issuing and revoking, when no longer needed, authenticators for temporary access such as that required for remote maintenance. Device authenticators include, for example, certificates and passwords. Related controls: AC-2, IA-2, PL-4, PS-6. IA-6 Technical Identification & Authentication Authenticator Feedback P1 The information system obscures feedback of authentication information during the authentication process to protect the information from possible exploitation/use by unauthorized individuals. The feedback from the information system does not provide information that would allow an unauthorized user to compromise the authentication mechanism. Displaying asterisks when a user types in a password, is an example of obscuring feedback of authentication information. IA-7 Technical Identification & Authentication Cryptographic Module Authentication P1 The information system uses mechanisms for authentication to a cryptographic module that meet the requirements of applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance for such authentication. None. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance IA-8 Technical Identification & Authentication Identification and Authentication (Non- Organizational Users) P1 The information system uniquely identifies and authenticates non-organizational users (or processes acting on behalf of non-organizational users). Non-organizational users include all information system users other than organizational users explicitly covered by IA-2. Users are uniquely identified and authenticated for all accesses other than those accesses explicitly identified and documented by the organization in accordance with AC-14. In accordance with the E- Authentication E-Government initiative, authentication of non-organizational users accessing federal information systems may be required to protect federal, proprietary, or privacy-related information (with exceptions noted for national security systems). Accordingly, a risk assessment is used in determining the authentication needs of the organization. Scalability, practicality, and security are simultaneously considered in balancing the need to ensure ease of use for access to federal information and information systems with the need to protect and adequately mitigate risk to organizational operations, organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation. Identification and authentication requirements for information system access by organizational users are described in IA-2. Related controls: AC-14, AC-17, AC-18, MA-4. SC-1 Technical System & Communications Protection System and Communications Protection Policy and Procedures P1 The organization develops, disseminates, and reviews/updates [Assignment: organization-defined frequency]: a. A formal, documented system and communications protection policy that addresses purpose, scope, roles, responsibilities, management commitment, coordination among organizational entities, and compliance; and b. Formal, documented procedures to facilitate the implementation of the system and communications protection policy and associated system and communications protection controls. This control is intended to produce the policy and procedures that are required for the effective implementation of selected security controls and control enhancements in the system and communications protection family. The policy and procedures are consistent with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. Existing organizational policies and procedures may make the need for additional specific policies and procedures unnecessary. The system and communications protection policy can be included as part of the general information security policy for the organization. System and communications protection procedures can be developed for the security program in general and for a particular information system, when required. The organizational risk management strategy is a key factor in the development of the system and communications protection policy. Related control: PM-9. SC-2 Technical System & Communications Protection Application Partitioning P1 The information system separates user functionality (including user interface services) from information system management functionality. Information system management functionality includes, for example, functions necessary to administer databases, network components, workstations, or servers, and typically requires privileged user access. The separation of user functionality from information system management functionality is either physical or logical and is accomplished by using different computers, different central processing units, different instances of the operating system, different network addresses, combinations of these methods, or other methods as appropriate. An example of this type of separation is observed in web administrative interfaces that use separate authentication methods for users of any other information system resources. This may include isolating the administrative interface on a different domain and with additional access controls.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SC-3 Technical System & Communications Protection Security Function Isolation P1 The information system isolates security functions from non-security functions. The information system isolates security functions from nonsecurity functions by means of an isolation boundary (implemented via partitions and domains) that controls access to and protects the integrity of, the hardware, software, and firmware that perform those security functions. The information system maintains a separate execution domain (e.g., address space) for each executing process. Related control: SA-13. SC-4 Technical System & Communications Protection Information In Shared Resources P1 The information system prevents unauthorized and unintended information transfer via shared system resources. The purpose of this control is to prevent information, including encrypted representations of information, produced by the actions of a prior user/role (or the actions of a process acting on behalf of a prior user/role) from being available to any current user/role (or current process) that obtains access to a shared system resource (e.g., registers, main memory, secondary storage) after that resource has been released back to the information system. Control of information in shared resources is also referred to as object reuse. This control does not address: (i) information remanence which refers to residual representation of data that has been in some way nominally erased or removed; (ii) covert channels where shared resources are manipulated to achieve a violation of information flow restrictions; or (iii) components in the information system for which there is only a single user/role. SC-5 Technical System & Communications Protection Denial of Service Protection P1 The information system protects against or limits the effects of the following types of denial of service attacks: [Assignment: organization-defined list of types of denial of service attacks or reference to source for current list]. A variety of technologies exist to limit, or in some cases, eliminate the effects of denial of service attacks. For example, boundary protection devices can filter certain types of packets to protect devices on an organization’s internal network from being directly affected by denial of service attacks. Employing increased capacity and bandwidth combined with service redundancy may reduce the susceptibility to some denial of service attacks. Related control: SC-7. SC-6 Technical System & Communications Protection Resource Priority P0 The information system limits the use of resources by priority. Priority protection helps prevent a lower-priority process from delaying or interfering with the information system servicing any higher-priority process. This control does not apply to components in the information system for which there is only a single user/role. SC-7 Technical System & Communications Protection Boundary Protection P1 The information system: a. Monitors and controls communications at the external boundary of the system and at key internal boundaries within the system; and b. Connects to external networks or information systems only through managed interfaces consisting of boundary protection devices arranged in accordance with an organizational security architecture. Restricting external web traffic only to organizational web servers within managed interfaces and prohibiting external traffic that appears to be spoofing an internal address as the source are examples of restricting and prohibiting communications. Managed interfaces employing boundary protection devices include, for example, proxies, gateways, routers, firewalls, guards, or encrypted tunnels arranged in an effective security architecture (e.g., routers protecting firewalls and application gateways residing on a protected subnetwork commonly referred to as a demilitarized zone or DMZ). The organization considers the intrinsically shared nature of commercial telecommunications services in the implementation of security controls associated with the use of such services. Commercial telecommunications services are commonly based on network components and consolidated management systems shared by all (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance attached commercial customers, and may include third- party provided access lines and other service elements. Consequently, such interconnecting transmission services may represent sources of increased risk despite contract security provisions. Therefore, when this situation occurs, the organization either implements appropriate compensating security controls or explicitly accepts the additional risk. Related controls: AC-4, IR-4, SC-5. SC-8 Technical System & Communications Protection Transmission Integrity P1 The information system protects the integrity of transmitted information. This control applies to communications across internal and external networks. If the organization is relying on a commercial service provider for transmission services as a commodity item rather than a fully dedicated service, it may be more difficult to obtain the necessary assurances regarding the implementation of needed security controls for transmission integrity. When it is infeasible or impractical to obtain the necessary security controls and assurances of control effectiveness through appropriate contracting vehicles, the organization either implements appropriate compensating security controls or explicitly accepts the additional risk. Related controls: AC-17, PE-4. SC-9 Technical System & Communications Protection Transmission Confidentiality P1 The information system protects the confidentiality of transmitted information. This control applies to communications across internal and external networks. If the organization is relying on a commercial service provider for transmission services as a commodity item rather than a fully dedicated service, it may be more difficult to obtain the necessary assurances regarding the implementation of needed security controls for transmission confidentiality. When it is infeasible or impractical to obtain the necessary security controls and assurances of control effectiveness through appropriate contracting vehicles, the organization either implements appropriate compensating security controls or explicitly accepts the additional risk. Related controls: AC-17, PE-4. SC-10 Technical System & Communications Protection Network Disconnect P2 The information system terminates the network connection associated with a communications session at the end of the session or after [Assignment: organization- defined time period] of inactivity. This control applies to both internal and external networks. Terminating network connections associated with communications sessions include, for example, de- allocating associated TCP/IP address/port pairs at the operating-system level, or de-allocating networking assignments at the application level if multiple application sessions are using a single, operating system- level network connection. The time period of inactivity may, as the organization deems necessary, be a set of time periods by type of network access or for specific accesses. SC-11 Technical System & Communications Protection Trusted Path P0 The information system establishes a trusted communications path between the user and the following security functions of the system: [Assignment: organization-defined security functions to include at a minimum, information system authentication and reauthentication]. A trusted path is employed for high-confidence connections between the security functions of the information system and the user (e.g., for login). SC-12 Technical System & Communications Protection Cryptographic Key Establishment and Management P1 The organization establishes and manages cryptographic keys for required cryptography employed within the information system. Cryptographic key management and establishment can be performed using manual procedures or automated mechanisms with supporting manual procedures. In addition to being required for the effective operation of a cryptographic mechanism, effective cryptographic key management provides protections to maintain the availability of the information in the event of the loss of cryptographic keys by users.

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SC-13 Technical System & Communications Protection Use of Cryptography P1 The information system implements required cryptographic protections using cryptographic modules that comply with applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, standards, and guidance. None. SC-14 Technical System & Communications Protection Public Access Protections P1 The information system protects the integrity and availability of publicly available information and applications. The purpose of this control is to ensure that organizations explicitly address the protection needs for public information and applications with such protection likely being implemented as part of other security controls. SC-15 Technical System & Communications Protection Collaborative Computing Devices P1 The information system: a. Prohibits remote activation of collaborative computing devices with the following exceptions: [Assignment: organization-defined exceptions where remote activation is to be allowed]; and b. Provides an explicit indication of use to users physically present at the devices. Collaborative computing devices include, for example, networked white boards, cameras, and microphones. Explicit indication of use includes, for example, signals to users when collaborative computing devices are activated. SC-16 Technical System & Communications Protection Transmission of Security Attributes P0 The information system associates security attributes with information exchanged between information systems. Security attributes may be explicitly or implicitly associated with the information contained within the information system. Related control: AC-16. SC-17 Technical System & Communications Protection Public Key Infrastructure Certificates P1 The organization issues public key certificates under an [Assignment: organization-defined certificate policy] or obtains public key certificates under an appropriate certificate policy from an approved service provider. For user certificates, each organization attains certificates from an approved, shared service provider, as required by OMB policy. For federal agencies operating a legacy public key infrastructure cross-certified with the Federal Bridge Certification Authority at medium assurance or higher, this Certification Authority will suffice. This control focuses on certificates with a visibility external to the information system and does not include certificates related to internal system operations, for example, application-specific time services. SC-18 Technical System & Communications Protection Mobile Code P1 The organization: a. Defines acceptable and unacceptable mobile code and mobile code technologies; b. Establishes usage restrictions and implementation guidance for acceptable mobile code and mobile code technologies; and c. Authorizes, monitors, and controls the use of mobile code within the information system. Decisions regarding the employment of mobile code within organizational information systems are based on the potential for the code to cause damage to the system if used maliciously. Mobile code technologies include, for example, Java, JavaScript, ActiveX, PDF, Postscript, Shockwave movies, Flash animations, and VBScript. Usage restrictions and implementation guidance apply to both the selection and use of mobile code installed on organizational servers and mobile code downloaded and executed on individual workstations. Policy and procedures related to mobile code, address preventing the development, acquisition, or introduction of unacceptable mobile code within the information system. SC-19 Technical System & Communications Protection Voice Over Internet Protocol P1 The organization: a. Establishes usage restrictions and implementation guidance for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technologies based on the potential to cause damage to the information system if used maliciously; and b. Authorizes, monitors, and controls the use of VoIP within the information system. None. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SC-20 Technical System & Communications Protection Secure Name / Address Resolution Service (Authoritative Source) P1 The information system provides additional data origin and integrity artifacts along with the authoritative data the system returns in response to name/address resolution queries. This control enables remote clients to obtain origin authentication and integrity verification assurances for the host/service name to network address resolution information obtained through the service. A domain name system (DNS) server is an example of an information system that provides name/address resolution service. Digital signatures and cryptographic keys are examples of additional artifacts. DNS resource records are examples of authoritative data. Information systems that use technologies other than the DNS to map between host/service names and network addresses provide other means to assure the authenticity and integrity of response data. The DNS security controls are consistent with, and referenced from Memorandum 08-23. , OMB SC-21 Technical System & Communications Protection Secure Name / Address Resolution Service (Recursive Or Caching Resolver) P1 The information system performs data origin authentication and data integrity verification on the name/address resolution responses the system receives from authoritative sources when requested by client systems. A recursive resolving or caching domain name system (DNS) server is an example of an information system that provides name/address resolution service for local clients. Authoritative DNS servers are examples of authoritative sources. Information systems that use technologies other than the DNS to map between host/service names and network addresses provide other means to enable clients to verify the authenticity and integrity of response data. SC-22 Technical System & Communications Protection Architecture and Provisioning for Name / Address Resolution Service P1 The information systems that collectively provide name/address resolution service for an organization are fault-tolerant and implement internal/external role separation. A domain name system (DNS) server is an example of an information system that provides name/address resolution service. To eliminate single points of failure and to enhance redundancy, there are typically at least two authoritative domain name system (DNS) servers, one configured as primary and the other as secondary. Additionally, the two servers are commonly located in two different network subnets and geographically separated (i.e., not located in the same physical facility). With regard to role separation, DNS servers with an internal role, only process name/address resolution requests from within the organization (i.e., internal clients). DNS servers with an external role only process name/address resolution information requests from clients external to the organization (i.e., on the external networks including the Internet). The set of clients that can access an authoritative DNS server in a particular role is specified by the organization (e.g., by address ranges, explicit lists). SC-23 Technical System & Communications Protection Session Authenticity P1 The information system provides mechanisms to protect the authenticity of communications sessions. This control focuses on communications protection at the session, versus packet, level. The intent of this control is to establish grounds for confidence at each end of a communications session in the ongoing identity of the other party and in the validity of the information being transmitted. For example, this control addresses man-in-the-middle attacks including session hijacking or insertion of false information into a session. This control is only implemented where deemed necessary by the organization (e.g., sessions in service-oriented architectures providing web-based services).

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SC-24 Technical System & Communications Protection Fail In Known State P1 The information system fails to a [Assignment: organization-defined known-state] for [Assignment: organization-defined types of failures] preserving [Assignment: organization-defined system state information] in failure. Failure in a known state can address safety or security in accordance with the mission/business needs of the organization. Failure in a known secure state helps prevent a loss of confidentiality, integrity, or availability in the event of a failure of the information system or a component of the system. Failure in a known safe state helps prevent systems from failing to a state that may cause injury to individuals or destruction to property. Preserving information system state information facilitates system restart and return to the operational mode of the organization with less disruption of mission/business processes. SC-25 Technical System & Communications Protection Thin Nodes P0 The information system employs processing components that have minimal functionality and information storage. The deployment of information system components with minimal functionality (e.g., diskless nodes and thin client technologies) reduces the need to secure every user endpoint, and may reduce the exposure of information, information systems, and services to a successful attack. Related control: SC-30. SC-26 Technical System & Communications Protection Honeypots P0 The information system includes components specifically designed to be the target of malicious attacks for the purpose of detecting, deflecting, and analyzing such attacks. None. SC-27 Technical System & Communications Protection Operating System- Independent Applications P0 The information system includes: [Assignment: organization-defined operating system-independent applications]. Operating system-independent applications are applications that can run on multiple operating systems. Such applications promote portability and reconstitution on different platform architectures, increasing the availability for critical functionality within an organization while information systems with a given operating system are under attack. SC-28 Technical System & Communications Protection Protection of Information At Rest P1 The information system protects the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest. This control is intended to address the confidentiality and integrity of information at rest in nonmobile devices and covers user information and system information. Information at rest refers to the state of information when it is located on a secondary storage device (e.g., disk drive, tape drive) within an organizational information system. Configurations and/or rule sets for firewalls, gateways, intrusion detection/prevention systems, and filtering routers and authenticator content are examples of system information likely requiring protection. Organizations may choose to employ different mechanisms to achieve confidentiality and integrity protections, as appropriate. SC-29 Technical System & Communications Protection Heterogeneity P0 The organization employs diverse information technologies in the implementation of the information system. Increasing the diversity of information technologies within the information system reduces the impact of the exploitation of a specific technology. Organizations that select this control should consider that an increase in diversity may add complexity and management overhead, both of which have the potential to lead to mistakes and misconfigurations which could increase overall risk. SC-30 Technical System & Communications Protection Virtualization Techniques P0 The organization employs virtualization techniques to present information system components as other types of components, or components with differing configurations. Virtualization techniques provide organizations with the ability to disguise information systems, potentially reducing the likelihood of successful attacks without the cost of having multiple platforms. (continued on next page)

Ref Class Type Name Priority Description Guidance SC-31 Technical System & Communications Protection Covert Channel Analysis P0 The organization requires that information system developers/integrators perform a covert channel analysis to identify those aspects of system communication that are potential avenues for covert storage and timing channels. Information system developers/integrators are in the best position to identify potential avenues within the system that might lead to covert channels. Covert channel analysis is a meaningful activity when there is the potential for unauthorized information flows across security domains, for example, in the case of information systems containing export-controlled information and having connections to external networks (i.e., networks not controlled by the organization). Covert channel analysis is also meaningful in the case of multilevel secure (MLS) systems, multiple security level (MSL) systems, and cross domain systems. SC-32 Technical System & Communications Protection Information System Partitioning P1 The organization partitions the information system into components residing in separate physical domains (or environments) as deemed necessary. Information system partitioning is a part of a defense- in-depth protection strategy. An organizational assessment of risk guides the partitioning of information system components into separate physical domains (or environments). The security categorization also guides the selection of appropriate candidates for domain partitioning. Managed interfaces restrict or prohibit network access and information flow among partitioned information system components. Related controls: AC-4, SC-7. SC-33 Technical System & Communications Protection Transmission Preparation Integrity P0 The information system protects the integrity of information during the processes of data aggregation, packaging, and transformation in preparation for transmission. Information can be subjected to unauthorized changes (e.g., malicious and/or unintentional modification) at information aggregation or protocol transformation points. SC-34 Technical System & Communications Protection Non-Modifiable Executable Programs P0 The information system at [Assignment: organization- defined information system components]: a. Loads and executes the operating environment from hardware-enforced, read-only media; and b. Loads and executes [Assignment: organization-defined applications] from hardware-enforced, read-only media. In this control, the term operating environment is defined as the code upon which applications are hosted, for example, a monitor, executive, operating system, or application running directly on the hardware platform. Hardware-enforced, read-only media include, for example, CD-R/DVD-R disk drives. Use of non- modifiable storage ensures the integrity of the software program from the point of creation of the read-only image. Source: NIST Special Publication 800-53, Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations.

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Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity Get This Book
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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 140: Guidebook on Best Practices for Airport Cybersecurity provides information designed to help reduce or mitigate inherent risks of cyberattacks on technology-based systems.

Traditional IT infrastructure such as servers, desktops, and network devices are covered along with increasingly sophisticated and interconnected industrial control systems, such as baggage handling, temperature control, and airfield lighting systems.

The guidebook also includes a CD-ROM of multimedia material that may be used to educate all staff at airports about the need, and how, to be diligent against cybersecurity threats.

The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided below.

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CD-ROM Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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