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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration SubScriber categorieS Aviation â¢ Operations and Traffic Management A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 63 Overview of Airport Fueling System Operations A Synthesis of Airport Practice conSultant Stephen M. Quilty SMQ Airport Services Lutz, Florida
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transportation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter national commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation sys- tem connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common oper- ating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Program. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subj ect areas, including design, construction, maintenance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administra- tion. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can coop- eratively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry orga- nizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of air- port professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited period- ically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. ACRP SYNTHESIS 63 Project A11-03, Topic S10-13 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-27193-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2015933595 Â© 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Per- mission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in the document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledg- ment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Trans- portation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the National Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the ACRP) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufac- turersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
TOPIC PANEL S10-13 DAVID A. BYERS, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL DENIS FONG, ASIGÂ® | Aircraft Service International Group, Los Angeles, CA SHAUN GERMOLUS, Range Regional Airport, Hibbing, MN MIKE MOORE, Botany Bay Company, Ltd., Denver, CO TOM PAINTER, Bismarck Airport Fire Department, Bismarck, ND ANTONIO VILLAVERDE, ASIGÂ® | Aircraft Service International Group, Los Angeles, CA TIMOTHY C. WENTRCEK, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX MARC TONNACLIFF, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer JOSEPH J. BROWN-SNELL, Program Associate EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 CHAIR JULIE KENFIELD, Jacobsen/Daniels Associates, Garden Ridge, TX MEMBERS JOSHUA ABRAMSON, Easterwood Airport, College Station, TX DEBORAH ALE FLINT, Port of Oakland, Oakland, CA DEBBIE K. ALKE, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, MT DAVID N. EDWARDS, JR., Greenville-Spartanburg Airport Commission, Greer, SC LINDA HOWARD, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, Texas ARLYN PURCELL, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY CHRISTOPHER A. WILLENBORG, Massachusetts Department of Transportation, East Boston, MA FAA LIAISON PAUL DEVOTI AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION JOHN L. COLLINS AIRPORTS CONSULTANTS COUNCIL MATHEW J. GRIFFIN AIRPORTS COUNCIL INTERNATIONALâNORTH AMERICA LIYING GU TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER Cover figure: Credit: (upper left) S. Quilty, SMQ Airport Services; (upper right) A. Villaverde, ASIG- LAXF; (second row) S. Quilty, SMQ Airport Services. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was executed by cooperating organizations FAA and the National Academy of Sciences, acting through TRB, and was con- ducted through ACRP, which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Appreciation is expressed to Kathleen OâLenic for her research and editing assistance, and to the ACRP panel members for their guidance and assistance.
FOREWORD Airport operators are responsible for the good working conditions of all airport facilities. In many cases, staff knows little about the complexity of the aircraft fueling infrastructure and processes because they may be managed by others. Aviation fuel is flammable, jet fuel is a combustible liquid, and avgas is a volatile flammable liquid. Safeguarding the entire fuel system from contaminants, flash point sparking, and leaks is important, and built-in safety features such as fuel level and leak monitoring systems, automatic fire suppression systems, and vehicle collision protections are typical features included as integral parts of the airport fueling system. In many aspects of fueling, the airport operator is identified as the primary responsible party. Airports receive and distribute fuel by various means. Many large airports are served by one or more dedicated pipelines, have underground hydrant fueling systems, and are a part of fuel con- sortiums with professional managers and trained staff operating their systems. Smaller airports may have less complex systems, but are still responsible. Because aircraft fueling infrastructure is necessary for airport operations and requires specialized storage, handling, and dispensing, it is useful to airport operators to have a single document that describes common operations and serves as a reference for many fueling issues and practices. Information used in this study was acquired primarily through the literature search and verified through select interviews with airport and fueling personnel. Stephen M. Quilty, SMQ Airport Services, Lutz, Florida, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, âSynthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, docu- mented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE By Gail R. Staba Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board
CONTENTS xi ACRONYMS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Objectives, 3 Background, 3 Fuel Delivery Processes, 4 Equipment and Facilities, 4 Operational Considerations, 6 Types of Fuel, 6 Literature Review, 6 Commercial versus Self-fueling, 8 Funding of Fuel Infrastructure, 9 Data Collection, 9 Report Organization, 9 11 CHAPTER TWO REGULATORY AND ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 14 CFR Part 139 Airport Certification, 11 49 CFR Part 1542 Airport Security, 12 Environmental Regulations, 12 13 CHAPTER THREE ORGANIZATIONAL ROLES Management of Facilities and Equipment, 13 Airport Management, 13 Fixed-Base Operator Management, 13 Airline or Investment Organization Management, 14 Fuel Consortium Management, 14 Corporate Aviation Management, 15 Individual, Flying Club, Flight School Management, 15 Department of Defense Management, 15 Relationship of Parties, 15 Parties Involved in Fuel Handling, 16 Fuel Ordering, 17 Fuel Auditing, 17 18 CHAPTER FOUR DELIVERY AND DISTRIBUTION PROCESSES Transport, 18 Dedicated Fuel Transport, 19 Fuel Facility Design, 20 Fuel Piping, 21 Fire Suppression, 21 Electrostatic Protection, 21 Fitness Testing and Fitness for Service, 22 Security, 23
Storage Tanks, 23 Settling Tank, 23 Aboveground and Underground Tanks, 23 Determining Fuel Tank Levels, 24 Fuel Dispensing Methods, 25 Hydrant Fuel System, 25 Spill Protection, 29 Truck Refueler Delivery System, 29 Stationary Fuel Dispensing System, 29 Other Fuel System Components, 30 Fuel Hoses and Nozzles, 30 Fuel Filtering, 34 Other Design Components, 35 36 CHAPTER FIVE RESOURCES AND TRAINING TOOLS Organizations, 36 American Petroleum Institute, 36 Energy Institute, 36 Joint Inspection Group, 37 Petroleum Equipment Institute, 37 International Civil Aviation Organization, 37 ASTM, 37 Coordinating Research Council, 37 SAE, 38 International Business Aviation Council, 38 Standards and Resources, 38 Training, 38 Job Description, 39 40 CHAPTER SIX FUELING SAFETY PRACTICES Fuel Characteristics, 40 Basic Properties of Aviation Fuels and Gasolines, 40 Clear and Bright, 40 Fire Safety Issues, 42 Health Safety Issues, 43 Human Factor Issues, 44 Accident Information, 46 Failure Modes, 47 Safety Management System and Hazard Identification, 48 Inspection, 49 Record Keeping, 51 52 CHAPTER SEVEN SPECIAL ISSUES Risk Management, 52 Fuel Consortium Risk, 52 Fuel Storage Risk and Liability, 52 Environmental Risk, 53 Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion Risk, 53 Infrastructure Risk, 53 Insurance, 54 Alternative Fuels, 54 Case Examples, 55 Example: Fuel Island Installation, 55 Example: Tank Farm Approval Process, 57 Example: Fixed-base Operator Inspection, 57
59 CHAPTER EIGHT CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH 61 GLOSSARY AND FUEL SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY 65 REFERENCES 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 APPENDIX A LIST OF REGULATIONS, ORGANIZATIONAL STANDARDS, RECOMMENDED PRACTICES, AND GUIDANCE MATERIAL 82 APPENDIX B REGULATIONS GOVERNING FUELING OPERATIONS AT CERTIFICATED PART 139 AIRPORTS 83 APPENDIX C MOBILE FUELER PRELIMINARY HAZARD LIST 85 APPENDIX D MOBILE FUELER OPERATING AND SUPPORT HAZARD ANALYSIS 87 APPENDIX E MOBILE FUELER FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS 89 APPENDIX F FUEL HYDRANT SYSTEM FAULT TREE ANALYSIS 90 APPENDIX G FUEL TANK TRUCK FAULT TREE ANALYSIS 91 APPENDIX H FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE FAULT TREE ANALYSIS 92 APPENDIX I FUEL SYSTEM SAFETY FAILURE FAULT TREE ANALYSIS 93 APPENDIX J FAA ADVISORY CIRCULAR FUELING INSPECTION PROCEDURES 95 APPENDIX K FAA FLIGHT STANDARDS FUELING INSPECTION PROCEDURES 96 APPENDIX L SAMPLE FILTRATION TEST RECORD FORM 97 APPENDIX M SAMPLE FILTER VESSEL RECORD FORM 98 APPENDIX N SAMPLE PRODUCT RECEIPT RECORD FORM 99 APPENDIX O SAMPLE REFUELER DAILY INSPECTION FORM 100 APPENDIX P SAMPLE FIXED EQUIPMENT FUEL STORAGE DAILY INSPECTION FORM
101 APPENDIX Q SAMPLE REFUELER VEHICLE INSPECTION FORM 103 APPENDIX R SAMPLE FUEL STORAGE DAILY INSPECTION FORM 105 APPENDIX S SAMPLE PRODUCT RECEIPT RECORD EXPLANATION OF TERMS FORM Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.
AC Advisory Circular AIP Airport Improvement Program AST Aboveground storage tanks ATA Air Transport Association CFR Code of Federal Regulations CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act EI Energy Institute FEMA Federal Emergency Management Administration FBO Fixed-base operator FFS Fitness for service FSF Flight Safety Foundation FSII Fuel system icing inhibitor GA General aviation gpm Gallons per minute IATA International Air Transport Association ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization JIG Joint Inspection Group MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet NATA National Air Transportation Association NFPA National Fire Protection Association OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration psi Pounds per square inch SARA Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act SASO Specialized Aviation Service Operations SMS Safety Management System SPCC Spill prevention, control, and countermeasure SRA Safety risk assessment STI Steel Tank Institute UST Underground storage tanks UVCE Unconfined vapor cloud explosion ACRONYMS