National Academies Press: OpenBook

Overview of Airport Fueling Operations (2015)

Chapter: Glossary and Fuel System Terminology

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Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Glossary and Fuel System Terminology ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Overview of Airport Fueling Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22141.
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Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Glossary and Fuel System Terminology ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Overview of Airport Fueling Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22141.
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Page 62
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Glossary and Fuel System Terminology ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Overview of Airport Fueling Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22141.
×
Page 63
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Glossary and Fuel System Terminology ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Overview of Airport Fueling Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22141.
×
Page 64

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61 GLOSSARY AND FUEL SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY The following descriptions are provided for several common terms and components associated with or used in an airport fueling system. 14 CFR Part 139—The federal regulation that requires certain airports serving air carrier aircraft to obtain an airport operating certificate and comply with certain standards, in particular the inspection of fueling facilities. Aeronautical service provider—A company engaged in any activity that involves, makes possible, or is required for the operation of aircraft or that contributes to or is required for the safety of such operations. Air elimination/air block valves—A device that allows for control of fuel gas in a vent line to eliminate the buildup of air. Anti-syphon valve—A device that prevents fuel in a pipe from discharging in the event of a leak downstream. Automatic leak detection system—Monitoring system to detect leakage in tanks and piping. Automatic shutoff nozzle—A fuel nozzle device designed to shut off the fuel dispensing process when activated. Avgas—Gasoline used for reciprocating piston engines. Barrels of fuel—The common description of fuel quantity at a refinery. One barrel equates to approx- imately 42 gallons of jet fuel when distillated. Bleed valves—Valves designed to check for leakage when plug valves are closed or allow for siphoning of fuel. Block valve—See double block valve and gate valve. Bonding—The creation of an electrical path between two components to establish a neutral electrical potential, such as between a refueler truck and an aircraft. Bottom filling (Bottomwing)—The introduction of fuel into a tank receptacle through pressure fueling from the bottom of the tank that minimizes vapor generation. Cathodic protection—Various means used to prevent corrosion in metal tanks, pipes, and equipment. Check valves—Used to allow fuel to flow in one direction only or to maintain fuel in a line, such as fuel prime for a pump. Clay treater filter—Filter that removes surfactants, color, and additives in fuels. Clock gauge—A mechanical device that provides a visual indication of the amount of fuel in a tank. Coalescer filter—Filter that removes ultra-fine solids and enhances the separation of water from jet fuel by attracting minute water molecules and consolidating them for removal. Control valves—Mechanism to maintain fuel pressure and provide emergency shutoff. Dead man’s switch—See enabling switch.

62 Double block valve—A single valve with two seating surfaces installed in a pipe that, in the closed position, provides a seal against pressure from both ends of the valve with a means of venting/ bleeding the cavity between the seating surfaces. Double-walled—A tank construction method that allows for containing fuel in the event of a leak. A tank within a tank having interstitial space. Duckbill nozzle (flared or J-spout)—A jet fuel nozzle designed to prevent misfueling. Earthing—See grounding. Emergency vent—A red vent that allows for full venting of a tank in the event of fire or blockage (NFPA 30). Enabling switch—A device that requires a fuel operator to activate it to allow for fueling operation to continue. If the device is released, fueling stops. FBO—Fixed-base operator. A commercial business granted the right by an airport owner to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance, and flight instruction. Filler neck spill containment—A receptacle or catchment area designed to retain fuel spillage. Filter housings—Container used to hold various filter cartridges. Filter separators—A device to repel water and collect contaminants. Flame arrestor—A device that dissipates the heat of ignited fuel and prevents a flame front from extending further into a pipe. Flared nozzle (duckbill or J-spout)—A jet fuel nozzle designed to prevent misfueling. Floating suctions—Systems used in fuel tanks to draw fuel from a predetermined point below the surface of the fuel. Flow indicators—Devices that provide an indication of flow through a fuel system. Flow meter—Device for measuring the fuel flow rate in mass or volume. FSII—Fuel system icing inhibitor: a jet fuel additive that helps prevent freezing of water molecules in the fuel. Fuel farm—A consolidated location for bulk fuel storage and equipment, on or off an airport. Fueling agent—A person or company that sells fuel products on the airport. Fusible link valves (tank/loading hose)—An emergency device that is sensitive to heat and shuts off fuel in the event of a fire or excess heat. Gate valves and ball check valves—Valves that turn on, shut off, or direct the flow of fuel through the system. Such valves are used to block a line for maintenance. Gauge or level indicator—A mechanical, electronic, or electromechanical device that provides an indication of the amount of fuel in a tank. Grounding (earthing)—The creation of a neutral electrical path between a vehicle, equipment, or component and the earth, such as an aircraft to ground or a refueler truck to ground.

63 Interlock valve or switch—A device used to shut off fuel or prevent an operation when activated. Primarily used in conjunction with fuel nozzles or fuel truck pumps and brakes. Interstitial space—The space in a double-walled tank between the holding tank and the containment tank and used for testing and monitoring of leakage. Isolation valve—Device designed to isolate a fuel product, hold the fuel, or control flow of fuel. J-spout nozzle (duckbill or flared)—A jet fuel nozzle designed to prevent misfueling. Jet fuel—Fuel designed to burn in aviation turbine engines. Merchant refinery—An oil refiner who procures crude, processes it, and sells refined products to marketers while continuing to process oil for a fee. Micronic filters—Devices used to remove small particle contamination. Mogas—Automotive gasoline that can be used in aviation reciprocating piston engines. Monitor filter and system—A filtering system that absorbs water, removes solids, and shuts down the system if a slug of water is encountered. Off-specification fuel (off-spec)—Fuel that does not meet relevant quality specifications set forth in standards or agreements. Oil refinery—An industrial plant that refines crude oil into petroleum products, such as diesel, gaso- line, and heating oils. Oil/water separators—Filter system designed to separate water from fuel. Overfill alarm—A device intended to provide a visual, audible, or other indication of a tank overfill situation. Used in conjunction with a mechanical and automatic overfill shutoff device. Overfill shutoff—Mechanical or automatic devices designed to shut off a fuel system pump upon reaching a preset fuel tank point. Over-wing fueling (splash fueling)—Term used to describe the fueling of an aircraft or tank through an open hose or pipe above the tank. Parallel pumps—Installation of pumps to sequentially maintain pressure and increase flow of fuel through a hydrant or piping system. Rack system—A truck loading/unloading platform. Rogue spout nozzle—A straight round jet fuel nozzle. SASO—Specialized Aviation Service Operations: operators on airports who provide a single service or perform services that are less than that provided by a full-service FBO. Secondary containment—A device that will hold or contain a fuel spill. Self-fueling—The fueling or servicing of an aircraft by the owner of the aircraft with his or her own employees and using his or her own equipment. Separator filter—Filter media designed to provide high efficiency water repellency and separation. Settling time—The amount of time necessary for sediment and moisture to settle to the bottom of a fuel.

64 Single-point fueling—A feature on an aircraft that allows for the filling of all fuel tanks from one central fueling point and hose. Splash filling—The introduction of fuel into a receptacle by means of a gravity feed that results in a splash effect and increased potential for vapor generation. Sumping—Term used to describe the process of collecting fuel from the low point of a pipe, vessel, or fuel pit. Sump saver—A small settling tank or container that allows for the settling of sumped fuel samples and allows for the reintroduction of fuel into the system, rather than becoming waste. Sump separators—Filter system designed to draw fuel from the bottom of a tank. Surge suppressors—A diaphragm or bladder valve and tank designed to reduce shock and oscillating pressures in a pipeline when a fuel flow valve is opened or closed. Tank vent—A safety device that allows for vapors to escape. It extends at least 12 feet above ground for a UST. Can be open vent or pressure type to reduce vapor loss. Thermal expansion relief and bleed valves—A device that allows for the heat expansion of a fuel product in a pipe and vents back to the tank. Top loading—The loading of fuel into a tanker truck or tank using a stand pipe or hose that delivers the fuel to the bottom of the tank to prevent splash and vapor buildup. Totalizers—Mechanical, electronic, or electromechanical device used to calculate the amount of fuel in a system. Transfer valves—Mechanisms for allowing fuel to flow from one tank to another. Water scavenging hand pumps—A mechanical pump used to sump or draw fuel from the bottom of a tank. Water slug valve—A device that senses the rapid buildup of water in the system and shuts down fuel flow until water is drained.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 63: Overview of Airport Fueling Operations explores airport fueling system operations at all sizes of airports. The report describes fueling standards and regulations, common operations and components, and serves as a reference for a number of fueling processes and procedures. On-airport fueling systems and components are the main focus of the report.

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