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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22146.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22146.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22146.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22146.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22146.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22146.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22146.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 132 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Economics The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy Economic Development Research Group, Inc. Boston, MA David Gillen University of British ColUmBia Vancouver, BC ICF SH&E Cambridge, MA Kramer aerotek, Inc. Boulder, CO Mead & Hunt Lansing, MI

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans­ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter­ national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon­ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera­ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near­term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon­ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera­ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro­ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte­ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera­ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100­Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International­North America (ACI­NA), the American Associa­ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga­ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon­ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden­ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro­ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre­ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper­ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end­users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work­ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport­industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 132 Project 03­28 ISSN 1935­9802 ISBN 978­0­309­30861­8 Library of Congress Control Number 2015937770 © 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not­for­profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not­for­profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national­academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 132 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-28 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Christopher A. Poinsatte, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX (Chair) William Randell Forister, Allegheney County Airport Authority, Pittsburgh, PA John W. Fuller, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA Jennifer Gentry, MITRE Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD), El Dorado Hills, CA Michael A. Klein, Arizona DOT, Phoenix, AZ Therese Norcross, Missoula County Airport Authority, Missoula, MT Sharon Glasgow, FAA Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council International—North America Liaison

F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 132: The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy quantifies the economic role of U.S. public use airports and the national airport system (“airports”) to the national economy in order to communicate the national aggregate value of airports to communities and to aviation stakeholders. The research includes total direct, national economic impacts of U.S. airports and multiplier effects, and national average on-airport economic impact by different types of airports [primary (large, medium, small, and non-hub); non-primary and reliever; and general aviation]. The report also examines how changes in airport connectivity between regions could be beneficial to the U.S. economy and the national economic effects of changes in airfares. There is also a discussion of the available evidence showing the impor- tance of airports in supporting domestic and international commerce, economic growth and tourism, and the extent to which airports enhance urban agglomeration economies. The economic impact of airports is typically assessed at a local or regional level to educate communities about how their airport(s) contribute to the area’s economy and to support airport infrastructure investments and ongoing expenditures to policy makers. Various enti- ties have published reports quantifying the impact of the civil aviation industry, but not the specific economic impact of airports to the national economy. A need exists at the national level to educate policy makers and the public about the economic impact and the importance of airports and the airport system to the United States. Under ACRP Project 03-28, research was conducted by Economic Development Research Group, Inc., in association with Dr. David Gillen, ICF SH&E, Kramer aerotek, Inc., and Mead & Hunt, Inc. to develop this report. The economic analysis included documentation of the existing contributions of 3,300 airports in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) with an impact of changes in airport connectivity, air cargo, and airfares. In addition to this report, there is a PowerPoint presentation and brochure that describes the key features of this report as well as the technical appendices that provide all the under- lying data associated with this research effort available on the TRB website at www.TRB. org/main/blurbs/172111.aspx.

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. C o n t e n t s 1 Summary 12 Chapter 1 Introduction 12 1.1 Purpose 14 Chapter 2 Overview of Analytical Approaches 14 2.1 Contributions of Airports to the U.S. Economy 17 Chapter 3 Core Research 17 3.1 National Studies and Regression Analyses 19 3.2 Airport Database 22 Chapter 4 National Economic Impact of Airports in the NPIAS 22 4.1 Role in the National Economy 24 4.2 Regression Analysis 28 Chapter 5 Findings: MFP 28 5.1 Estimating Regional MFP Values 32 5.2 Model Results 39 5.3 MFP Air Cargo 40 Chapter 6 Findings: Consumer Surplus 44 Chapter 7 Qualitative Research 44 7.1 Non­Quantifiable Impacts 44 7.2 Business Interviews 46 7.3 Interviews with Airport Managers and Staff of Aviation Organizations 47 Chapter 8 National Implications 50 Chapter 9 Future Research 50 9.1 Economic Contributions of U.S. Airports to the National Economy 51 9.2 Multifactor Productivity 51 9.3 Consumer Surplus 52 9.4 Modeling

53 Chapter 10 Conclusions 53 10.1 Static Economic Impact Analysis 53 10.2 Catalytic Role of Airports 55 End Notes 57 Glossary 60 Appendices

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 132: The Role of U.S. Airports in the National Economy examines the economic role of U.S. airports and the national airport system to help communicate the national aggregate value of airports to communities and aviation stakeholders.

A PowerPoint presentation and brochure supplement the report. Appendices 1 through 5 of the contractor’s final report are available online and provide the related data associated with this research effort:

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