Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
64 APPENDIX A List of Airport Emergency Post-Event Recovery Practices The airports in this study reported the practices and policies in this list as being effective or desirable, or both, during recovery after an emergency or disaster. Not all of the practices and policies will apply at every airport, but every airport can profitably consider them to determine what it needs in its recovery plan, for preparedness, and for enhanced resiliency. The list organizes the practices into eight categories (Figure A1). One of the further research needs identified by this study is the development of a template for recovery plans for airports of all types of sizes. Pending development of such a template, the items in sections I through VIII of the following list can be used as a table of contents for a comprehensive airport recovery plan. Not every item will apply at an airport, so the lists are best viewed as a series of delete options. FIGURE A1 Categories of effective practices.
65 Part I. ADVANCE PLANNING AND PREPARATION Effective Practice Does It Apply? Done Relationships built among airport departments and with mutual aid partners and other stakeholders in advance, and built to make recovery more effective Focus placed on the fundamental skills, principles, procedures, and organization for emergency management A recovery plan, which can be in AEP, in COB, in CBP, in COOP, as a stand-alone document, or a combination of these A recovery plan always paired with each response plan Measures taken to ensure that everyone understands the meaning of terms used in plans Planning Section head and back-up trained in and given tools for recovery planning Recovery planning initiated during response phase Planning Section planning for future recovery steps throughout recovery All-hazards (aircraft accidents, natural disasters, system failures, criminal acts) approach used for recovery planning Recovery plans based on realistic risk and hazard analyses Provisions included in recovery plans so that members of ICS structure, including IC or UC members, can reach their designated work space (i.e., mitigation of delays in establishing on-scene command post) Ensuring that airport employees, key airline employees, key tenants, and mutual aid partners have NIMS and ICS training, including periodic refresher training Factoring the effects of off-airport systems failures in recovery plans Including training for rare occurrences Holding annual briefings on recovery plans and procedures for airport employees, airlines, tenants, concessionaires, and mutual aid partners Involving all stakeholders in development and review of recovery plan Making sure local recovery plans of airlines, tenants, and concessionaires are compatible with the airportâs plan Establishing alternative measures for getting employees to work (planning for gridlock, fuel shortages, mass transit disruptions, routes, vehicles, staging plan). Including back-up plans for all critical systems, procedures, equipment, and personnel Pre-arranging access to spare parts, NAVAIDS, and consumable resources Pre-arranging contracts for specialized services (e.g., debris removal and disposal, airfield lighting electricians, electrical inspectors)
66 Pre-arranging contracts for outside consultants (e.g., aviation law, PR, media relations) Providing initial and recurring training on web-based coordination systems used for emergencies and in EOCs, and including mutual aid partners in training Testing all systems that are critical for recovery (e.g., communications, alternative communications, notification, web-based coordination systems) Establishing a relationship with one of the airport-to-airport mutual aid programs (SEADOG and WESTDOG) Censuring that cost and expense record-keeping systems are adequate to support eventual reimbursement or insurance claims, ideally integrated into web-based coordination system Integrating a system for tracking personnel and equipment for possible reimbursement or insurance claims Ensuring that recovery fully complementary with separate BCP or COB plan when plans are separate Keeping sufficient cash on hand to run airport for 4-6 days (when a forecast allows) in case banks and ATMs are unavailable during response and recovery Pre-authorizing overtime funding for recovery activities Pre-authorizing purchasing and procurement of supplies and services likely to be needed for recovery (e.g., modular buildings) Including plans for controlling access to airport during recovery Including plans for dealing with citizens (non-passengers, non-employees at airport) who come to airport for shelter and aid during recovery Using NTSB-provided training courses Maintaining a list of sources of specialized equipment and services (e.g., aircraft wreckage recovery cranes) Source: Smith, Kenville, and Sawyer data.
67 Part II. COMMAND AND CONTROL Effective Practice Does It Apply? Done Using NIMS and ICS to guide recovery at least until the activities become simpler and longer-term so that EOC and UC or IC is no longer needed Pre-determining the location for an airport EOC Providing back-up EOC capability (back-up on-site, back-up off-site, use of partnerâs EOC off-site, mobile EOC, mobile command post) Understanding by everyone of the Unified Command concept and how the UC evolves as recovery evolves Including all pertinent airport departments and partners in airport EOC (a âhybridâ EOC as described in Case Example 2 in chapter two) Including utility company representative(s) in the airport EOC and when appropriate, the UC Maintain message discipline (âSpeak with one voice.â) Conducting command and control exercises jointly with partners Cross-trained personnel for roles in UC, EOC, and ICS structure Source: Smith, Kenville, and Sawyer data.
68 Part III. MUTUAL AID Effective Practice Does It Apply? Done Establishing and sustaining relationships with mutual aid partners, including federal, state and local agencies Establishing mutual aid agreements with local partners, preferably in the form of written agreements Writting mutual aid roles and responsibilities into recovery plan, either directly or by reference to AEP or mutual aid agreements Practicing with airport-to-airport mutual aid programs (SEADOG and WESTDOG) Leveraging capabilities and resources of a multi-airport system (if any) (e.g., PANY&NJ, LAWA, Houston Airport System, Metropolitan Airports Commission (Minneapolis/St. Paul et al.), Metropolitan Washington (D.C.) Airports Authority Including recovery roles and responsibilities in contracts and leases with tenants and concessionaires Planning for volunteer assistance during recovery operations, and specifying positions and tasks that volunteers can fulfill Providing orientation and training for volunteers Considering an Airport Community Response Team (A-CERT) and implementing one if desired Identifying and involving stakeholders (e.g., airlines, tenants, concessionaires, FAA, TSA, utility companies) Holding a stakeholder meeting at least annually to review recovery plans, roles, and responsibilities Source: Smith, Kenville, and Sawyer data.
69 Part IV. COMPREHENSIVE CRISIS COMMUNICATIONS Effective Practice Does It Apply? Done Having a comprehensive crisis communications plan in place to guide internal and external communications (content, procedures, and systems), including social media Identifying, procuring, testing, and exercising alternative communications systems to use when primary systems fail Cross-referencing comprehensive crisis communications plan placed in AEP or as standalone plan in AEP and BCP/COB plan Have a trained PIO on the airport staff or have access to a trained PIO whom the airport has taught about the special features of airports Strongly emphasizing the role of the PIO and its critical importance under NIMS and ICS as well as in message discipline Building realistic communications tests and failures into drills and exercises Included the PIO in all training, drills, and exercises for emergency response and recovery, including EOC training Establishing rules for the control and use of PA system during recovery Establishing testing procedures and intervals for PA and other notification systems Ensuring the ability to take control of flight information display systems and baggage handling systems Procuring movable visual warning or crowd management devices (e.g., digital signs) with guidance for their use Procuring internal communications systems that will work if phones, cell phones, internet, and electricity fail Using notification systems Use of the WEA (Wireless Emergency Alert) System Maintaining contact lists with procedures for timely and accurate updates Establishing a mobile phone application for the airport that includes information on emergency response and recovery status Procuring a Common Operating Picture (COP) capability, along with procedures for its use and dissemination Specifiying and documenting relationships and contact points with telecommunications and utility companies for communications and repairs Involving airlines, tenants, and concessionaires in development of a comprehensive crisis communications plan and training them on its application and use Ensuring that local communications plans of airlines, tenants, and concessionaires are compatible with the airportâs plan Establishing goals, policies, and procedures for the use of social media during recovery to disseminate and gather information Source: Smith, Kenville, and Sawyer data.
70 Part V. OPERATIONS AND LOGISTICS Effective Practice Does It Apply? Done Always considering the concept of phased recovery Begin a warm start preparations for recovery during response phase Providing clear information and warnings when the airport is closed (for non-towered airports: UNICOM message and temporary Xs on runways) Including damage assessments, guided by detailed plans and priorities, in recovery plans Using maintenance and engineering staff (or consultants) for inspections Using building inspection and code enforcement (BICE) teams for inspections Providing airport-oriented training for inspectors from mutual aid partners Paying attention to environmental concerns to avoid safety issues, environmental contamination, and delays in recovery from belated requests for clean-up or remediation Ensuring that sufficient fuel supplies are on hand for the duration of recovery Fueling and servicing all vehicles in anticipation of emergencies whenever possible Pre-arranging for FBO assistance with fuel Preparing a storage plan for vehicles and equipment to minimize risk of damage Ensuring that emergency generator power is adequate for airfield lighting and avionics Developing a Memorandum of Understanding/Memorandum of Agreement with FAA to have emergency power back-up, or a cost reimbursement provision for the airport to procure, maintain and store the generator when not in use Ensuring adequate emergency generator power for ATC tower Ensuring adequate emergency generator power for communications systems including alternatives and back-up systems Ensuring adequate emergency generator power for terminals at least sufficient to sustain evacuation or sheltering-in-place Providing and annually testing start-up methods for systems that have computer or electronic controls Measuring and testing capabilities of common use systems and their capabilities in workarounds if there is a partial system failure (e.g., baggage handling, security screening) Understanding procedures and capabilities of FAA inspectors as related to recovery, inspections, and reopening the airport Developing a format for information about status of recovery that matches needs of FAA inspectors
71 Preserving site and evidence for NTSB, FBI, or other investigators Documenting site of accident or damage to assist work of NTSB or other investigators (e.g., photographs, videos, site maps) Providing reminders to investigators (and in case of an aircraft accident, the airlines) to help them understand the urgency for reopening the airport Providing special credentialing for essential ICS personnel to enter controlled areas to perform their duties for IC or UC Establishing a credentialing policy and process for persons needing temporary access to assist with recovery Establishing and following pre-authorization insurance and claims procedures Pre-authorizing personnel to approve overtime and emergency purchases and limits Performing effective hotwash Performing effective after-action review Source: Smith, Kenville, and Sawyer data. Part VI. EMPLOYEE CARE Effective Practice Does It Apply? Done Considering needs of employees who may have personal losses or emotional/psychological problems related to the event Cross-training for multiple roles and flexibility during recovery Including rotation and rest plan in recovery plan Creating internal employee assistance teams in advance and using them Arranging housing and messing for essential employees during recovery at hotel at airport or nearby Providing Critical Incident Stress Debriefings (CISD) and counseling Considering provision of on-site mental health assistance for employees Making options available for follow-up care for employees Source: Smith, Kenville, and Sawyer data.
72 Part VII. CUSTOMER CARE Effective Practice Does It Apply? Done Having a Terminal Incident Response Plan in place to guide evacuation, sheltering-in- place, and repopulation, and having it continue through both response and recovery phases Establishing a Family Assistance Plan that continues through recovery Including a continuing recovery phase in Survivor Support Plan (e.g., housing) Having a transportation plan for passengers while the airport is closed Cooperating with hotels to create and implement a housing plan for passengers while the airport is closed Incorporating passenger and survivor communications in the comprehensive crisis communications plan Source: Smith, Kenville, and Sawyer data. Part VIII. EVALUATION, REVISION, AND VALIDATION Effective Practice Does It Apply? Done Storing common operating picture (COP) images and data for after-action review Practicing continuous improvement Extending drills and exercises to include aspects of recovery wherever possible and appropriate Performing aggressive and honest hotwashes after recovery phases and after training, drills, and exercises that address recovery Not considering the incident closed until hotwash has been completed Compiling a single after-action review (AAR), especially if multiple agencies are involved in the recovery Performing aggressive and honest AAR after recovery and after training, drills, and exercises that address recovery Including mutual aid partners, airlines, tenants, concessionaires & other key stakeholders in AAR Considering use of an outside consultant to facilitate or conduct AAR, if appropriate Inviting peer airports to participate in AAR Using metrics to evaluate effectiveness of specific recovery techniques Basing new training, drills, and exercises on past incidents at the airport or at other airports Sharing lessons learned with other airports Source: Smith, Kenville, and Sawyer data.