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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 130 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Terminals and Facilities Guidebook for Airport Terminal Restroom Planning and Design Jens Rothausen-Vange Sharry Cooper Shane Wirth AlliiAnce Minneapolis, MN Kerry Bruggemann Ken Kindvall MichAud cooley erickson Minneapolis, MN Rose Agnew AviAtion innovAtion, llc St. Paul, MN Ian de Keyzer David Ambrose connico inc. Mount Juliet, TN Christi Duffy FAith Group, llc St. Louis, MO
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transÂ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interÂ national commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responÂ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport CooperaÂ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative nearÂterm solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponÂ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National CooperaÂ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research ProÂ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainÂ tenance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100ÂCentury of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council InternationalÂNorth America (ACIÂNA), the American AssociaÂ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orgaÂ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responÂ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by idenÂ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport proÂ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels preÂ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperÂ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended endÂusers of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interÂ ested parties, and industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airportÂindustry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 130 Project 07Â12 ISSN 1935Â9802 ISBN 978Â0Â309Â30858Â8 Library of Congress Control Number 2015936317 Â© 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and notÂforÂprofit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and notÂforÂprofit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.nationalÂacademies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 130 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 07-12 PANEL Field of Design Alan Howell, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN (Chair) Brian Esworthy, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority; Washington Dulles International Airport, Dulles, VA Michael G. Hoffman, Bradley Corporation, Shaker Heights, OH Casey Martin, Jacobs, Washington, DC (formerly) Barbie Peek, Huntsville International Airport, Huntsville, AL Lisa Stanton, Sacramento County Airport System, Sacramento, CA Mark Sedarous, FAA Liaison Matt Cornelius, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Melissa Sabatine, American Association of Airport Executives Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 07Â12 by Alliiance (formerly Architectural Alliance International) as the prime contractor with subcontractors Michaud Cooley Erickson; Aviation InnovaÂ tion, LLC; Faith Group, LLC; and Connico Inc. Jens H. RothausenÂVange, AIA, LEED AP, CDT of Alliiance, was principal investigator. Other authors of this report were Sharry Cooper, CID, IIDA, LEED AP, NEWH, and Shane Wirth, LEED AP BD+C, of Alliiance; Kerry Cooley Bruggemann, PE, LEED AP, and Ken Kindvall of Michaud Cooley Erickson; Rose Agnew of Aviation Innovation, LLC; Ian de Keyzer, FRICS, and David Ambrose of Connico Inc.; and Christi Duffy of Faith Group, LLC. The authors would like to thank the project panel for their continuous support and engagement. A special thank you goes to Joel Hirsh of Hirsh Associates for providing valuable insight for the planning calculations rationale. The authors would like to thank the following participants for their contribution to the research: Case Studies Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (ATL) Kofi Smith â Executive Director â AATC Rod Ozust â Deputy Executive Director â AATC Stephen Morris â Assistant Director â Central Passenger Terminal Complex â HJDP Brian Kingston â Senior Vice President â AirServ Corporation Todd Butler â Vice President â CPS Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) Bob Blankenship â Assistant Vice President, Planning Darren Deffner â Senior Project Manager, ADE â Architecture Tommy Huddleston â Assistant Vice President, Energy, Transportation, and Asset Management Mark Holt â ISM/ETAM Al Gonzalez â Analyst, Marketing Services Mark Moreno â Manager, Infrastructure Plan/ETAM Reeshema Brashear â Facility Services Coordinator Duluth International Airport (DLH) Blaine Peterson, Director of Operations
Jackson Hole Airport (JAC) Ron Campbell, Project Manager, Operations Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) Ellen Wright â Director, Airport Terminal Planning Mike Doucette â Chief of Airport Planning Manuel Cheng â Assistant Director, Maintenance/ FMG Victor Rocha â Superintendent, Maintenance/FMG Blue Grass Airport (LEX) Mark Day â Director, Engineering and Maintenance Amy Caudill â Director of Marketing Anthony J. Harris â Building Maintenance Supervisor Leslie Sandusky â Maintenance Manager David Burdette â Tech Maintenance Supervisor Long Beach Airport (LGB) Jeffrey Sedlak, PE, Senior Civil Engineer Fred PeÃ±a, Facilities Management Officer Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport (MSP) Phil Burke â Operations Alan Howell â Senior Airport Architect Tim Fox â Plumbing Steve Gentry â Customer Experience and Operations Analyst Shannon Gale â Assistant Manager, Facilities Denise Faulke â Account Manager, ABM Sacramento International Airport (SMF) Carl Mosher â Deputy Director, Facilities and Infrastructure Lisa Stanton â Airport Chief Operating Officer Chris Martin â Airport Manager, Facilities Greg Nowakowski â Airport District Manager, DGS Brian McKenzie â Trades Coordinator, DGS John Wayne Airport (SNA) Gary Blankenship â Airport Architect Ambi Thurai â Manager, Airport Engineering Rick Cathey â Senior Project Manager Mariella Lewis â Regional Airport Manager, Custodial Aleida Ponu â Customer Service Manager, Custodial Operations Managers Focus Group General Mitchell International Airport (MKE) Barry Bateman â Administration Pat Rowe â Marketing and Public Relations Terry Blue â Operations and Maintenance John Kennedy â Facilities Jim Zseke â Engineering Robert Radzinski â Maintenance Andy McDonald â Plumber James Glyzewski â Plumber Product Development Focus Group Bradley Corporation Jason Renner â Senior Product Manager Mark Meyer â Product Engineer Jon Villwock â Product Manager Jeff Rudy â Product Manager Forms + Surfaces John Wafford â Regional Sales Manager for Central US Mike Konieczny â Minnesota and Dakotas Territory Manager Electric Mirror Mike Montgomery â Chief Operating Officer Patrick Erickson â Lead Designer Day Cleaners Focus Group ABM Denise Faulke â Account Manager, Airport Tom Hunter â Operations Manager Samson Getachein â FirstÂShift Manager Soledad Santiago â SecondÂShift Manager Roy Walden â FirstÂShift Assistant Manager Joe Gutierrez â Supervisor ThirdÂShift Cleaners Focus Group ABM Sharon McClellan â Manager LaMar Tate â Assistant Manager Lucio Flores â Supervisor Typical Travelers Focus Group Heidi Perman Diane Cushman John Sailors Leigh Frost Jean Bey Lucy Carlson Amanda Bandur Emily Ramsey Paul Sichko Yvonne Haas Eric Bruggemann June Bower Earl Bower Sara Phillips Barbara Bly Jeff Anderson Ariel Dahl Thomas Nelson Kathryn Nelson Travelers with Disabilities Focus Group Roberta Juarez Samantha Mascari Jeff Bangsberg Anita Boucher Adrienne Mason Adele Evidon Jerrie Suddberth Andrew Palmberg Carrie Wilbert Quincy Faber Nick Wilke Pat Salmi Kelsey Neumann Jessica Monfeldt Stephanie Cunningham Lolly Lijewski Joan Willshire Margot Imdieke Cross Stuart Cross Betsy Mahowald
ACRP Report 130: Guidebook for Airport Terminal Restroom Planning and Design provides a thoughtful, stepÂbyÂstep process to help airport practitioners plan, design, and implement terminal restroom projects. The guidebook will be of interest to anyone whose goal is to meet customer expectations for airport restroom facilities. The guidebook effectively uses graphics, icons, and callÂouts to help readers quickly find the guidance they need to develop airport restroom facilities that balance cost, aesthetics, space limitations, and dayÂtoÂday maintenance requirements. Some of the most common issues for which airports receive customer comments relate to the convenience, location, design, and cleanliness of terminal restrooms. The unique considerations of airport terminal restrooms include continuous availability and operaÂ tion, changing passenger demographics, evolving customer expectations, and greater space requirements to accommodate luggage and operational/maintenance needs. Although airÂ ports are paying greater attention to restroom facilities, there is a lack of airportÂspecific guidance for their planning and design. Research was therefore needed to develop guidÂ ance for planning and designing airport terminal restroom facilities that can be tailored to accommodate various activity levels and customer profiles. The research, led by Alliiance, began with a review of current restroom planning and design resources. This was followed by gathering extensive input from key stakeholder groups, including travelers (with specific outreach to those with disabilities), airport staff (including operations managers and restroom cleaners), and product developers. Detailed case studies were conducted at ten airports of different sizes and activity levels to review recent layouts and designs. The research team then used their findings and expertise to develop this guidebook. This guidebookâs recommendations are presented in three sections: planning, design, and implementation. One innovative and broadÂranging recommendation in the planning secÂ tion (Chapter 2) is for airports to form a ârestroom teamâ consisting of representatives from key stakeholder groups. This team would not only lead restroom projects but also serve as a forum for addressing the occasional stakeholder conflicts that can arise. The design section (Chapter 3) features steps for evaluating options based on considerations for initial cost, life cycle cost, warranty, maintenance, and sustainability. In the implementation section (Chapter 4), the guidebook gives practitioners suggestions for project phasing, delivery methods, and maintaining standards for various products (e.g., fixtures and finishes). The guidebookâs appendixes, contained on the accompanying CDÂROM (except for AppenÂ dixes I and J), include the case studies, focus group summaries, helpful templates and forms, a discussion of the restroom of the future as well as a bibliography and glossary. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 1.1 How to Use This Guidebook 4 1.2 Research Approach 5 1.3 State of the Industry 5 1.4 Attributes of Successful Airport Restrooms 7 Chapter 2 Planning 7 2.1 Drivers and Goals 8 2.2 The Restroom Team 9 2.3 Existing Restroom Evaluation 10 2.4 Restroom Fixtures Needed 16 2.5 Prototypes 25 2.6 Master Planning 33 2.7 Renovation Versus New 34 Chapter 3 Design 34 3.1 Considerations 37 3.2 Standardization 37 3.3 Components 59 3.4 Cost Analysis 64 Chapter 4 Implementation 64 4.1 Construction 65 4.2 PostÂoccupancy Evaluation 67 Appendixes AâH (on accompanying CD-ROM) 68 Appendix I Airport Restroom of the Future 74 Appendix J Glossary C O N T E N T S