National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Volume Reduction of Highway Runoff in Urban Areas: Final Report and NCHRP Report 802 Appendices C through F. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22169.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Volume Reduction of Highway Runoff in Urban Areas: Final Report and NCHRP Report 802 Appendices C through F. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22169.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Volume Reduction of Highway Runoff in Urban Areas: Final Report and NCHRP Report 802 Appendices C through F. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22169.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Volume Reduction of Highway Runoff in Urban Areas: Final Report and NCHRP Report 802 Appendices C through F. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22169.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, and was conducted in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FRA, FTA, Transit Development Corporation, or AOC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................... 1 1. BACKGROUND .......................................................................................................... 3 References for More Information ............................................................................................................. 4 2. RESEARCH APPROACH ........................................................................................... 5 Task 1: Characterize the Urban Highway Environment Relative to Runoff Volume Reduction ................................................................................................................................ 5 Subtask 1.1: Summarize the Regulatory Context .................................................................................... 6 Subtask 1.2: Characterize Urban Highway Project Attributes, Physical Setting, and Key Constraints ... 6 Subtask 1.3: Identify Key Factors and Opportunities in Design and Application of Stormwater Volume Reduction ................................................................................................................................................. 7 References to Final Work Products ......................................................................................................... 8 Task 2: Develop Potential Volume Reduction Approaches ................................................. 8 Subtask 2.1: Literature Review and Data Compilation ............................................................................ 8 Subtask 2.2: Develop a Preliminary Menu of Volume Reduction Approaches and Evaluation Methods9 References to Final Work Products ......................................................................................................... 9 Task 3: Evaluate Volume Reduction Approaches ................................................................ 9 Subtask 3.1: Develop Evaluation and Selection Criteria; Develop Selection and Feasibility Matrices ... 9 Subtask 3.2: Summarize Feasibility-related Research Gaps and Identify Focused Analysis Topics .. 11 Subtask 3.3: Develop Selection and Feasibility Matrices ...................................................................... 11 Subtask 3.4: Develop Performance Evaluation Tool ............................................................................ 11 References to Final Work Products ....................................................................................................... 11 Task 4: Conduct Focused Technical Analyses................................................................... 11 Subtask 4.1: Infiltration Testing and Factors of Safety in Support of the Selection and Design of Volume Reduction Approaches ............................................................................................................. 12 Subtask 4.2: Potential Impacts of Highway Stormwater Infiltration on Water Balance and Groundwater Quality in Roadway Environments ......................................................................................................... 12 Subtask 4.3: Geotechnical Considerations in the Incorporation of Stormwater Infiltration Features in Urban Highway Design .......................................................................................................................... 12 Subtask 4.4: Review of Applicability of Permeable Pavement in Urban Highway Environments ......... 12 References to Final Work Products ....................................................................................................... 13 Task 5: Develop Guidance for Implementing Volume Reduction Approaches ................ 13 Subtask 5.1: Compile Guidance and Develop Step-by-Step Approach and Recommended Use ........ 13 Subtask 5.2: Introduce Watershed Scale Approaches .......................................................................... 13 Subtask 5.3: Develop Approaches for Enhancing Feasibility of Volume Reduction Approaches ......... 13 Subtask 5.4: “Test Drive” the Guidance and Volume Performance Tool .............................................. 14 References to Final Work Products ....................................................................................................... 16

3. FINDINGS AND APPLICATIONS ............................................................................. 19 Summary of Findings ............................................................................................................................. 19 Intended Applications ............................................................................................................................. 25 4. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTED RESEARCH ................................................... 27 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................... 27 Suggested Research ............................................................................................................................. 27 ANNEX A: VOLUME PERFORMANCE TOOL—TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION ... A-I APPENDICES C through F, NCHRP Report 802: Volume Reduction of Highway Runoff in Urban Areas: Guidance Manual ................................................ B-i Appendix C: Infiltration Testing and Factors of Safety in Support of the Selection and Design of Volume Reduction Approaches (White Paper #1) ................................................................................. C-i Appendix D: Potential Impacts of Highway Stormwater Infiltration of Water Balance and Groundwater Quality in Roadway Environments (White Paper #2)....................................................... D-i Appendix E: Geotechincal Considerations in the Incorporation of Stormwater Infiltration Features in Urban Highway Design (White Paper #3) .............................................................................................. E-i Appendix F: Review of Applicability of Pereable Pavement in Urban Highway Environments (White Paper #4) .................................................................................................................................... F-i ii

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web Only Document 209: Volume Reduction of Highway Runoff in Urban Areas: Final Report and NCHRP Report 802 Appendices C through F summarizes the research and resulting guidance developed for NCHRP Report 802: Volume Reduction of Highway Runoff in Urban Areas: Guidance Manual. The document includes a literature review, synthesis, and a focused new analysis used to develop the guidance manual.

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