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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER FIVE Emergency Training and Exercises Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER FIVE Emergency Training and Exercises Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER FIVE Emergency Training and Exercises Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER FIVE Emergency Training and Exercises Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER FIVE Emergency Training and Exercises Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER FIVE Emergency Training and Exercises Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER FIVE Emergency Training and Exercises Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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Suggested Citation:"CHAPTER FIVE Emergency Training and Exercises Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

59 CHAPTER FIVE EMERGENCY TRAINING AND EXERCISES TOOLKIT STRUCTURE OF THE TOOLKIT The toolkit is in Excel spreadsheet format and is organized into the following sheets: • START HERE—the orientation sheet for the 44-12 toolkit. • Acronyms, Delivery Methods, and Key Courses and Catalogs—three lists for quick reference. • Guide Docs—a list of guidance documents. • Source Orgs—a list of organizations that are a source of training and exercises related to emergency opera- tions and hazards awareness. • Source-specific sheets—17 sheets for individual source organizations that offer numerous training and exercise materials. START HERE This sheet welcomes users and orients them to the 44-12 toolkit. It outlines the overall structure of the toolkit, pro- viding hyperlinks to navigate quickly to other sheets. Three “Important Notes for Users” inform them about 1. The currency of information in the toolkit, 2. The necessity of user discretion in selecting and employing training resources, and 3. The importance of using the most up-to-date course catalogs and course information. This sheet also provides search tips for two potential situations: 1. How to search if a hyperlink is a dead link. 2. How to search over the entire toolkit. Quick Reference Sheets Acronyms The Acronyms sheet is an index of all acronyms used in this report and in the toolkit itself. Several acronyms that appear The purpose of the Emergency Training and Exercises Tool- kit is to provide managers of state DOT and PW field per- sonnel and in-house and external trainers with a wide range of all-hazards emergency training sources that encompass a variety of delivery methods. Practically all the resources in this toolkit are interactive to varying extents. The chapter begins by describing the structure of the toolkit. It then presents several key courses and course catalogs that emerged in the literature review and through interviews as important basic elements in the training and exercise programs of case example participants. Guidance documents were also identified through the literature review, survey responses, and communications with panel members and case example participants. The diversity of organizations (public, academic, and private) that provide training and exercise materials neces- sitates further discussion. The synthesis authors designate these organizations as source organizations, and the sheets of the toolkit that list courses and resources belonging to a specific organization are called source-specific sheets. The sheets follow a format that is specified in this chapter. The chapter also describes how to search for keywords over the entire toolkit and how to deal with toolkit hyperlinks that are no longer accessible. Such hyperlinks (“dead links”) are inevitable as time passes and the websites of source organi- zations change. Disclaimer on the currency of information in this toolkit. Any information on courses, catalogs, training resources, guidance documents, and organizations is subject to change. Prices of courses can change. Training resources, such as videos, can be modified or withdrawn. Guidance documents can be replaced or superseded. Organizations can become defunct as a result of a lack of funding. Therefore, the toolkit user is urged to follow up on any information either online or by phone, with qualified colleagues, or with representatives of the organizations to which the information pertains. Disclaimer on user discretion in employing training resources. Exact roles and responsibilities of state DOTs and PW agencies vary greatly among jurisdictions. Toolkit users must determine whether a specific course, video, module, or other training resource is appropriate for their agency’s M&O field personnel in their particular jurisdictions.

60 in the toolkit are not used extensively in this report, thus necessitating the Acronyms sheet for quick reference. Delivery Methods The Delivery Methods sheet enumerates and defines all the delivery methods cited in the toolkit. Most of the definitions can be found in chapter 3 and the glossary of this synthesis. Key Courses and Catalogs The Key Courses and Catalogs sheet lists important courses and course catalogs related to emergency operations and hazards awareness. Courses and catalogs were chosen for inclusion in the toolkit based on the literature review, sug- gestions from members of the synthesis panel, and commu- nications with case example participants. More information is available later in this chapter, in the Key Courses and Catalogs section. Guidance Documents The Guide Docs sheet lists several guidance documents identified by state DOTs and PW agencies that participated in the case examples and the survey. The survey responses and the case example participants helped augment the initial list of documents resulting from a literature search. The following information is available for each document on the Guide Docs sheet: • Publishing organization • Title and reference • Description (1–2 paragraphs) • How to obtain/access content. Source Organizations The Source Orgs sheet lists the organizations that have been identified as sources of training and exercise materi- als related to emergency operations and hazards awareness. This report and the toolkit designate these organizations as source organizations. For each source organization, the Source Orgs sheet pro- vides the following information: • General description—a description of the organization. • Accessing training content—a discussion on how to access the organization’s training and exercise resources, such as course catalogs, training material catalogs, exercise pages, and other training and exer- cise tools. • Clickable links—hyperlinks to access the organiza- tion’s main website and the resources presented in the Accessing Training Content column. The source organizations are grouped into nine categories: 1. Federal (FEMA) 2. Federal (other DHS) 3. Federal (U.S.DOT) 4. Federal (other federal) 5. State 6. Local 7. University/college 8. Associations and coalitions 9. Private firm. Source-Specific Sheets Some of the source organizations identified in this synthesis had enough courses, videos, just-in-time training modules, and other training and exercise resources to fill an entire sheet in the toolkit. Thus, the toolkit includes 17 source- specific sheets. Each of these sheets lists a source organiza- tion’s training and exercise resources, using the following information fields: • Name/title of the course, video, module, or other train- ing/exercise resource • Delivery method—method by which training is deliv- ered, such as instructor-led course, online course, video, and so on • Topics covered (keywords) • Description and objectives • Time required to use the resource (e.g., to complete a course or watch a video) • Source organization(s) that produced the resource • Cost per participant (Note: This cost does not include the staff time required to use the resource; e.g., to take the class or watch the video) • Target audience • Miscellaneous notes • Information on accessing content, descriptions, or syl- labi related to this resource. The toolkit includes the following delivery methods: • Field crew meeting • Just-in-time training • Computer-based training without live instructors (e.g., self-study online courses) • Video, either online or via physical media (e.g., DVD, VHS, or CD)

61 • Train-the-trainer • Planned events, incidents, and exercises • Computer-assisted simulation • Classroom training and instructor-led courses • Online training with live instructors. (For more detailed information on these methods, see Chapter 3 of this synthesis.) KEY COURSES AND CATALOGS Key Courses During interviews with representatives of the state DOTs and local PW agencies that participated as case examples, the following courses emerged as common elements in many of their training programs: • IS-15.b: Special Events Contingency Planning for Public Safety Agencies • IS-100: Introduction to the Incident Command System • IS-200: ICS for Single Resources and Initial Action Incidents • ICS-300: Intermediate ICS for Expanding Incidents • ICS-400: Advanced ICS • IS-552: The Public Works Role in Emergency Management • IS-554: Emergency Planning for Public Works • IS-556: Damage Assessment for Public Works • IS-558: Public Works and Disaster Recovery • IS-559: Local Damage Assessment • IS-632: Introduction to Debris Operations • IS-700: Introduction to the National Incident Management System • IS-701.a: NIMS Multiagency Coordination System (MACS) • IS-703.a: NIMS Resource Management • IS-706: NIMS Intrastate Mutual Aid—An Introduction • IS-800: Introduction to the National Response Framework • SHRP 2 National Traffic Incident Management Responder Training. The Key Courses and Catalogs sheet of the toolkit has the following information on these courses: • Source organization(s) • Name/title • Description and objectives • How to obtain/access content • Topics covered (keywords) • Delivery method • Length • Cost per participant • Target audience • Notes. Descriptions of and access to the majority of these key courses can be found in the NIMS Training Program (FEMA 2011), the course catalog of the FEMA Independent Study Program, and the course catalog of the Emergency Manage- ment Institute. Although these key courses are well established, they are all subject to being modified or even discontinued. In addi- tion, a course provider might change the web page at which it currently hosts a key course, so the hyperlink provided in the toolkit would become outdated. In this case, users can take advantage of the other information provided about the course (e.g., the title or phrases from the description or objectives) to find the course’s current location online. Users might find that the course has been discontinued, modified, or superseded by another course or training resource. Key Course Catalogs Survey responses and communications with the case exam- ple participants suggest that state DOTs and local PW agen- cies could meet the majority of their emergency training and exercise needs through courses in the following catalogs. • FEMA Independent Study Program Course List/ Catalog: Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), “Independent Study (IS) Course List,” U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C., n.d. [Online]. Available: http://training.fema.gov/IS/ crslist.aspx. • FEMA Emergency Management Institute Course Catalog: Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), EMI Training Catalog: Train, Exercise, Educate, Emergency Management Institute, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C., updated annually [Online]. Available: http://training. fema.gov/EMICourses/EMICatalog.asp. • National Highway Institute (NHI) Course Catalog: National Highway Institute (NHI), “National Highway Institute: Search for Courses,” Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., n.d. [Online]. Available: http:// www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/training/course_search.aspx. Two catalogs are available from the FEMA National Training and Education Division (NTED): the National Training and Education Division Course Catalog and the State/Federal Sponsored Catalog. Both catalogs are avail- able at https://www.firstrespondertraining.gov/content. do?page=training. The former contains courses developed and delivered by NTED’s training partners at no cost to the state or local jurisdiction, while the latter contains courses developed by various states and delivered with support from Homeland Security Grant Program funds. (FEMA, National Training and Education Division Course Catalog, National Preparedness Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland

62 Security, Washington, D.C., updated monthly; FEMA, State/Federal Sponsored Course Catalog, National Training and Education Division, National Preparedness Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C., updated monthly.) For each of the key course catalogs, the toolkit provides the following information: • Publishing organization • Title and reference • Description (1–2 paragraphs) • How to obtain/access content. Using the Most Up-to-Date Version of a Course Catalog Users who are interested in any of the courses listed in the toolkit are advised to find the most recent version of the course provider’s catalog, because all the key catalogs are updated continuously on at least an annual basis. These updates occur as courses are modified or discontinued, and as new courses are approved. To help users find updated cat- alogs, this chapter and the toolkit provide the full reference for key catalogs cited. ACCESSING THE GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS The guidance documents in the toolkit consist primarily of those identified by state DOTs and PW agencies that par- ticipated in the case examples and the survey, augmented by a literature search. Synthesis panel members suggested several additional guidance documents. Accessing Guidance Documents On the Guide Docs sheet, the documents are arranged in ascending alphabetical order by publishing organization and then by title and reference. The publishing organizations represented on the Guide Docs sheet include: • Federal Emergency Management Agency • Federal Highway Administration • Occupational Safety and Health Administration • Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration • Mineta Transportation Institute at San Jose State University • Transportation Research Board • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services • U.S. Department of Homeland Security • U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Excel’s Find function (Ctrl+F) can be used to search for keywords on the Guide Docs sheet. Many keywords are embedded in the one- to two-paragraph description of each guidance document. Dealing with Dead Links to Guidance Documents Each guidance document is accessible through a hyperlink in the field “How to obtain/access content.” However, as time progresses after the publication of the toolkit, a docu- ment might be discontinued, withdrawn, or modified by the publishing organization, or superseded by a newer docu- ment. Even if the publishing organization has maintained the document, the host website or page might be discontin- ued, modified, or moved; the result is a dead link. In such cases, users can use reference information about the guid- ance document in a search engine to determine whether it still exists or has been discontinued or modified. The title and publishing organization or phrases from the description can be useful keywords for the search engine. CATEGORIES OF SOURCE ORGANIZATIONS While the majority of the entities whose training and exer- cise materials are included in the toolkit are from the fed- eral government, the toolkit also includes public, academic, and even a few private sector entities. This synthesis collec- tively designates these entities as source organizations and locates all information on them on the Source Orgs sheet. After describing the categories, the synthesis authors pres- ent the layout of the sheet to facilitate access to the training and exercise materials of a source organization of interest. Finally, the authors list the criteria for a source organization to warrant its own sheet in the toolkit. Descriptions of the Categories Order of Categories and Organizations in Each Category The Source Orgs sheet does not list categories alphabetically. It begins with four categories of federal sources: FEMA, DHS, U.S.DOT, and sources from other parts of the federal government. The order then roughly flows from state and local government sources, to academic ones, to nonprofits, and finally to private firms. Within each category, the organizations are not necessar- ily listed alphabetically. In several categories, the ordering is roughly based on the literature review, survey respondents, panel members, and case examples. Generally, organiza- tions that were mentioned in both the survey results and case example interviews are placed closer to the top of the list in each category. Organizations that were mentioned in one or the other, and those that were identified only through the literature review, are generally placed lower down in the list. Federal (FEMA) The sources in this category belong to FEMA itself or to a constituent division or agency within FEMA. These sources

63 were initially taken from survey responses, panel members, and the literature review. The investigation made clear that the Independent Study Program and the NIMS and ICS training programs are important elements in the training programs of several case example participants. Thus, those sources are first in this category. • FEMA Independent Study (IS) Program • FEMA NIMS Training Program • FEMA ICS Training Program and Resource Center • FEMA National Response Framework (NRF) Resources • FEMA Emergency Management Institute (EMI) • FEMA National Training and Education Division (FEMA NTED) • FEMA National Fire Academy. Federal (Other DHS) The sources in this category belong to the Department of Home- land Security itself or to a constituent division or agency within DHS, or they are organizations that are closely associated with DHS. None of the sources in this category belong to FEMA. • DHS Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) • DHS Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS) • National Domestic Preparedness Consortium (NDPC) • Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) • Rural Domestic Preparedness Consortium (RDPC) • First Observer™ (https://www.tsa.gov/firstobserver). These sources were initially taken from survey responses, panel members, and the literature review. HSEEP)is at the top of the list because of its primary role in establish- ing the doctrines to be followed in emergency training and exercises. The HSEEP and LLIS resources belong directly to DHS. NDPC and RDPC are training partners of FEMA NTED while the CDP is a member of the NDPC. Federal (U.S.DOT) The sources in this category belong either directly to the U.S. Department of Transportation or to a division or agency within U.S.DOT. These sources were initially taken from survey responses, panel members, and the literature review. They were placed in the current order when the investiga- tion made clear that the FHWA National Highway Institute and the SHRP 2 National Traffic Incident Management Responder Training are important elements in the training programs of several case example participants. • FHWA National Highway Institute (NHI) • SHRP 2 National Traffic Incident Management Responder Training • U.S.DOT Research and Innovative Technology Administration Transportation Safety Institute • FTA Transit Safety and Oversight, through the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Federal (Other Federal) The sources in this category belong to other parts of the fed- eral government outside of DHS and U.S.DOT; specifically, the U.S. Department of Justice and the U.S. Department of Energy. These sources were taken from survey responses, panel members, and the literature review. • Counter Terrorism Operations Support Program at the Nevada National Security Site • IncidentCommander.net (Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice) • Nationwide Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative. State The source organizations in this category primarily belong to specific states. Several of them were identified in the survey responses, and the list was augmented by an online investigation of the DOTs and EMAs of the states that par- ticipated in the case examples. This investigation retrieved several training and exercise resources that the case exam- ple participants identified as useful for their particular state DOT. The state organizations are listed in alphabetical order by the name of the state, but the category begins with two national sources for which the states are the intended audiences. The first national source is FEMA’s online directory of State Offices and Agencies of Emer- gency Management, with useful phone numbers and web addresses; the second is the Emergency Management Assistance Compact website. The toolkit includes both of these sources. • State Offices and Agencies of Emergency Management • EMACWeb.org • Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) • Arizona Division of Emergency Management • California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) • California Specialized Training Institute • Connecticut Interlocal Risk Management Agency/ Connecticut Conference of Municipalities (CIRMA/ CCM) • Iowa Department of Transportation • Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management Department • Minnesota Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management • Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) • Missouri State Emergency Management Agency • Ohio Emergency Management Agency • Pennsylvania State Fire Academy

64 • Rhode Island Department of Transportation • Rhode Island Emergency Management Agency • Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT) • Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) • Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) • Texas Division of Emergency Management • Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) • Vermont Division of Emergency Management and Homeland Security • Vermont State Police Academy • Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) • Washington Military Department Emergency Management Division. Local Two of the source organizations in this category are national programs intended for local audiences: Com- munity Emergency Response Teams and the Local/Tribal Technical Assistance Program. The other two sources on this list refer to the two local PW agencies that are case example participants. • Community Emergency Response Teams • Local/Tribal Technical Assistance programs • Keene, New Hampshire • Plant City, Florida. University/College The source organizations in this category are associated with universities or colleges. They were identified by survey responses, panel members, and case example participants. Many of the organizations are members of the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium. The list is alphabet- ized by the name of the university rather than by the name of the source organization. • National Center for Biomedical Research and Training at Louisiana State University Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center at New Mexico Tech • Public Works Academy, offered by the Pinellas Technical Education Centers • Center for Transportation Safety, Security and Risk at Rutgers University • National Transit Institute (NTI) at Rutgers University • Mineta Transportation Institute (MTI) at San Jose State University • Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) at Texas A&M University • National Disaster Preparedness Training Center at the University of Hawaii University of Rhode Island Transportation Center and the Rhode Island Technology Transfer Center • University of South Florida OSHA Training Institute. Associations and Coalitions The source organizations in this category include trade asso- ciations and regional coalitions identified by the synthesis panel and the literature review, and augmented by the survey responses and the case study examples. The list is alphabet- ized by the name of the association or coalition. • All-Hazards Incident Management Teams Association • American Public Works Association (APWA) • American Road and Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA) • American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA) • Emergency Responder Safety Institute (ERSI) • I-95 Corridor Coalition • International Municipal Signal Association (IMSA) • Massachusetts Arborists Association • National Association of County Engineers • National Traffic Incident Management Coalition and the TIM Network • Transportation Curriculum Coordination Council (TCCC), American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) • Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Association of American Railroads. Private Firm The sources in this category belong to private firms and were identified during the literature review. There are two private firms in the toolkit. • Disaster Resistant Communities Group LLC • Emergency Film Group. Accessing Source Organization Materials For each organization, the Source Orgs sheet provides a general description, a description of some of the organization’s train- ing and exercise resources (in the column Accessing Training Content), and clickable links to those resources. There are two ways to browse through the toolkit for source organizations: • By category: Click on any one of the nine hyperlinks at the top of the Source Orgs sheet for quick navigation to the source organizations in a specific category. These nine categories are always visible at the top of the sheet. • Using the Find function in Windows: Press Ctrl+F to open the Find function and search for a source organi- zation by typing a keyword. Dealing with Dead Links to Source Organization Websites and Training/Exercise Resources The hyperlinks in the Clickable Links field are intended to provide quick access to a source organization’s training

65 and exercise content, such as hyperlinks to course catalogs, product catalogs, exercise pages, and other tools. However, over time a source organization might discontinue, with- draw, or modify the web address of its main website or of the pages that contain its training and exercise resources. Even if the organization has maintained the website or web page, the corresponding hyperlink in the toolkit might no longer work. The result is a dead link. If a hyperlink on the Source Orgs sheet has become a dead link, users may need to search online to determine whether the site or page still exists or has been discontinued or modified. To do so, follow this procedure: 1. Take note of the information provided in the toolkit about the desired website or page. This includes: b. Name of the organization c. Key phrases from the general description d. The reference to the website or page under Clickable Links. For example, Link 1 in the FEMA Independent Study Program provides the following reference: FEMA, “Independent Study (IS) Course List” [Online]. Available: http:// training.fema.gov/IS/crslist.aspx. 2. Open the search engine of your choice (such as Google or Yahoo) in a browser. 3. Use information from Step 1 as keywords to search for the desired website or page. Criteria for Creating a Source-Specific Sheet Some of the source organizations in the toolkit have corre- sponding source-specific sheets. This is particularly the case for organizations that have large catalogs of training and exercise materials, such as the FEMA Independent Study Program and the FEMA National Training and Education Division. The toolkit does not have a source-specific sheet for every single source organization, for several reasons: • Some source-specific sheets may contain materi- als from more than one source organization if these sources are closely related (e.g., FEMA Independent Study and the Emergency Management Institute). • Some sources do not have source-specific sheets because their training and exercise materials can be derived from another source included in this toolkit. • Several source organizations recommend or directly use training and exercise materials created by other organiza- tions identified in this toolkit. For example, several state DOTs and EMAs train their staffs on courses from the FEMA Emergency Management Institute course cata- log, so these state DOTs and EMAs might include the EMI courses in their own catalogs. This toolkit does not include duplicates if the courses are already represented in the source-specific sheet of another organization. To the greatest extent possible, the toolkit attempts to list only those materials that are unique to a specific source. USING THE SOURCE-SPECIFIC SHEETS The toolkit provides the following features in order to navi- gate within a source-specific sheet and between the sheet and its corresponding source organization: • From source organization to source-specific sheet: If the toolkit has a source-specific sheet corresponding to a source organization, a hyperlink to the source- specific sheet will appear under the clickable links of that source organization. • Within a source-specific sheet: The following infor- mation is available for each training/exercise resource (e.g., course, video) on a source-specific sheet: – Name/title – Topics covered (keywords) – Description and objectives – Length – Source organization(s) – Delivery method – Cost per participant – Target audience – Notes – Accessing content, descriptions, or syllabi. • From source-specific sheet to source organization: Each source-specific sheet has a hyperlink that leads back to the source organization’s entry on the Source Orgs sheet. This hyperlink is usually placed in the Name/Title cell of the source-specific sheet, in Row 1, Column A. Criteria for Including a Course, Video, or Other Resource on a Source-Specific Sheet The general criteria for including a source organization’s course, video, or other training/exercise resource on its source-specific sheet are as follows: • Public works/M&O field audience: Is the training/exer- cise resource (e.g., course, video, just-in-time training module) applicable to PWs in general and, ideally, to M&O field personnel and their supervisors in particular? • Emergency operations and hazards awareness: Does the material support the conduct of emergency opera- tions or raise the level of hazard awareness in the PW/M&O field audience? Some materials have been included under a broad applica- tion of these criteria, especially the one that says the resource’s intended audience must be M&O and field supervisors. For example, several courses list disciplines (e.g., emergency medical services, police, fire, PWs) rather than occupational

66 or functional categories (e.g., bridge inspectors, medical technicians, transit safety managers, field supervisors). Thus, the toolkit includes courses that identify “public works” as a target audience. With this ambiguity in mind, toolkit users who work for PW agencies should follow up and determine whether such courses, videos, modules, and other training/ exercise resources are ultimately appropriate for their own field personnel. Similarly, in addition to exercises, some exer- cise-related courses are included, in order to facilitate the actual conduct of exercises. Often the primary audience for these courses is emergency management rather than public works, although PW is often included as a target audience. Dealing with Dead Links in the Source-Specific Sheets A cautionary note is appropriate regarding all source-spe- cific sheets in the toolkit. Any course, video, or other train- ing or exercise resource included on a source-specific sheet can be discontinued, withdrawn, or modified by the source organization. Even if the source organization has maintained the desired training/exercise resource, the toolkit’s hyper- link for that resource might no longer work. If a hyperlink on the specific-source sheet has become a dead link, users may need to search online to determine whether the site or page still exists or has been discontinued or modified. To do so, follow this procedure: 1. Take note of the information provided in the toolkit about the desired course, module, or other training/ exercise resource. This includes: a. Name/title b. Source organization c. Key phrases from the description and objectives. 2. Open the search engine of your choice (such as Google or Yahoo) in a browser. 3. Use information from Step 1 as keywords to search for the desired website or page. SEARCHING EFFECTIVELY WITHIN THE TOOLKIT Dealing with Dead Links in the Toolkit As time goes on, hyperlinks to the guidance documents, the source organizations, and these organizations’ training and exercise resources may become inaccessible because the original document or resource has been discontinued, modified, or moved to another location online. If users encounter dead links in guidance documents, source organizations, or source-specific sheets, they may need to search online to determine whether the document or resource still exists at another location online or has been discontinued or modified. The following information from the toolkit could be use- ful as keywords in a search engine: • Name/title (of a course, video, module, or training/ exercise resource) • Name of source organization • Name of publishing organization of a guidance document • Title and reference for a guidance document • Phrases from the description of a guidance document • Phrases from the general description of a source organization • Phrases from the description or objectives of a train- ing/exercise resource • The reference to the website or page under Clickable Links. This list is not exhaustive, and such a search—particu- larly for an old document or resource—may require some patience and creativity in keyword selection. Searching Within the Entire Toolkit The Find function (Ctrl+F in Windows systems) can per- form quick searches over the entire toolkit: 1. Hold Ctrl+F to open Excel’s Find function. 2. Select Workbook from the drop-down menu for the Within: setting. This will search for keywords over the entire toolkit rather than restricting the search to the current sheet. 3. Type the desired keywords into the Find What: field. 4. Press Find All. 5. Click on individual search results to navigate to the corresponding sheet and cell. Figure 12 shows the location of the Within: setting in the Find and Replace dialog box for Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and 2010. The appearance of the dialog box and the location of the setting may differ in different operating systems (e.g., Apple). FIGURE 12 Find and Replace dialog box in Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and 2010. The “Within:” setting (dotted box) must be set to “Workbook” to search over the entire Toolkit.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 468: Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel identifies interactive emergency training tools and sources that may be applied by maintenance and operations field personnel of state departments of transportation and public works agencies. The report also identifies potential obstacles to their implementation and develops a toolkit of relevant training and exercise information.

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