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Suggested Citation:"GLOSSARY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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Page 72
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Suggested Citation:"GLOSSARY." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22197.
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70 GLOSSARY This glossary is based on Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises (2006) and on the HSEEP (2013) Volume I Glossary, unless otherwise noted. Asynchronous learning. Often called “self-directed” train- ing, asynchronous learning does not include real-time instructor guidance. The learner follows and interacts with computer-based content that was designed and developed before the learning experience (“eLearning Glossary,” n.d.). Drill. A coordinated, supervised activity usually used to test a single, specific operation or function in a single agency. Drills are commonly used to provide training with new equipment, to develop new policies or procedures, to practice and maintain current skills, and to test skills that constitute one or more components of a plan. Emergency. An incident that threatens human life, health, property, or the environment if not immediately con- trolled, contained, or eliminated. The threat of the condi- tion, incident, or event requires immediate response actions to save lives; prevent injuries; protect property, public health, the environment, and public safety; or lessen or avert the threat of a disaster. Emergency response provider. “Federal, State, and local governmental and nongovernmental emergency public safety, fire, law enforcement, emergency response, emer- gency medical (including hospital emergency facilities) and related personnel, agencies, and authorities” (Home- land Security Act of 2002, United States Code, Title 6, Section 101, Paragraph 6). Emergency training. Instruction on hazards awareness and emergency operations that is meant to impart foun- dational knowledge in both procedures and concepts to field maintenance and operations personnel so that they can (1) perform their assigned duties during response and recovery phases, and (2) exercise their roles during the preparedness phase. Note that exercises are a form of training. Evaluation. The process used to measure the demonstrated ability to accomplish specific objectives within a discrete exercise. Exercise evaluation refers to the act of review- ing or observing and recording exercise activity or con- duct; comparing the behavior or activity with exercise objectives; and noting strengths, weaknesses, deficien- cies, and other observations. Event. A planned, nonemergency activity. ICS can be used as the management system for a wide range of events; for example, parades, concerts, or sporting events (ICS Resource Center Glossary). Exercise. An activity requiring the performance, integration, and coordination of response activities by several individ- uals and teams. Exercises (except for tabletop exercises) normally involve mobilization of personnel and resources. As noted in HSEEP Volume I, an exercise is carried out to train for, assess, practice, and improve performance. It can also be used to testing and validate policies, plans, proce- dures, training, equipment, and interagency agreements; clarify and train personnel in roles and responsibilities; improve interagency coordination and communications; identify gaps in resources; improve individual perfor- mance; and identify opportunities for improvement. Field crew meetings. Field crew meetings such as tailgate, hip pocket, and toolbox talks can be good opportunities for personnel training. Full-scale exercise (FSE). An exercise that enables the vali- dation of major aspects of plans, policies, procedures, systems, and resources, and that involves all levels of par- ticipating organizations. FSEs greatly expand the scope and visibility of the exercise program. They include the mobilization of personnel and resources and the actual movement of crisis and consequence management work- ers, equipment, and resources required to demonstrate coordination and response capability. Large FSEs actively involve agencies and participants. Functional exercise (FE). An exercise designed to test and evaluate individual capabilities, multiple functions, or activities within a function or interdependent groups of functions. A functional exercise can take place in an operating center, in the field, or a combination of the two. This format is applicable where the activity can be effec- tively evaluated in isolation from other activities. In con- trast to the full-scale exercise, the objective of the functional exercise is to demonstrate the execution of specific plans and procedures and the direct application of established policy, plans, and procedures under emer- gency conditions within or by a particular function team. The functional exercise simulates the reality of opera- tions in a functional area to the maximum degree possi- ble by presenting complex and realistic problems requiring rapid and effective responses by trained per- sonnel in a highly stressful environment. Through docu- mented evaluation and subsequent corrective action, the capabilities of the functional area are improved and weaknesses are reduced or eliminated. Functional exer- cises are sometimes called command post exercises. Hazard. An actual or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death of personnel; damage to or loss of equipment or property and the environment; or degrada- tion to an organizational capability.

71 Incident. An occurrence or event, natural or human-caused, that requires an emergency response to protect life or prop- erty. Incidents can, for example, include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tor- nadoes, tropical storms, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and other occurrences requiring an emergency response (ICS Resource Center Glossary). Just-in-time training (JITT). Just-in-time training refers to training that is provided as the need arises. Scenario. A sequential account of a hypothetical situation or chain of events that depicts an incident, emergency, or crisis and all the associated consequences used to frame and guide simulation during an exercise. Seminar. An informal discussion in a group setting, in which a seminar leader facilitates the group’s focus on a specific topic or issue. Seminars occur in a low-stress environment. As noted in HSEEP Volume I Glossary, it is a type of discussion-based exercise that orients partici- pants to authorities, strategies, plans, policies, proce- dures, protocols, resources, concepts, or ideas. Simulation. An artificially produced condition that repli- cates a real-life situation. In the broad sense, exercises and games are simulations. The terms computer-assisted simulation and computer simulation refer to a method of conducting exercises in a virtual environment. Synchronous methods. Training delivery methods that require a live instructor and take place at a fixed time. Tabletop exercise (TTX). An exercise that simulates an emergency in an informal, stress-free, conference-room- type environment. As noted in HSEEP Volume I Glos- sary, it is a type of discussion-based exercise that can be used to facilitate understanding of concepts, identify strengths and shortfalls, or achieve a change in attitude. Terrorism. The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in further- ance of political or social objectives. Terrorism can be domestic or international. Threat. The known or suspected presence of an actor with the ability, will, and motive to inflict harm. Train-the-trainer (TTT). Train-the-trainer courses and tools focus on training for instructors of training courses. Video teleconferencing (VTC). Video teleconferencing is a communication technology that permits users at two or more different locations to interact by creating a face-to- face meeting environment. VTC systems transmit bidi- rectional audio, video, and data streams during the session (“Video Teleconferencing,” National Security Agency, n.d.). Whole community. The phrase whole community appears in many FEMA preparedness materials, as it is a guiding principles. It means two things: 1. Involving people in the development of the national preparedness documents. 2. Ensuring that their roles and responsibilities are reflected in the content of the materials. Thus, the whole community includes • Individuals and families, including those with access and functional needs • Businesses • Faith-based and community organizations • Nonprofit groups • Schools and academia • Media outlets • All levels of government, including state, local, tribal, territorial, and federal partners. Recognizing that preparedness is a shared responsibil- ity, the whole community concept calls for the involvement of everyone—not just the government—in preparedness efforts. By working together, everyone can keep the nation safe from harm and resilient when struck by hazards, such as natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and pandemics (“Whole Community,” FEMA 2014). Workshop. A meeting that generally involves briefings and the use of facilitated breakout sessions at which prees- tablished topics and issues are discussed and the results of these sessions are reported in a plenum. As noted in HSEEP Volume I glossary, it is a type of discussion-based exercise that provides participant interaction with a focus on achiev- ing or building a product. Workshops are typically used to train groups in coordinated activities; obtain consensus; or test new ideas, processes, or procedures.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 468: Interactive Training for All-Hazards Emergency Planning, Preparation, and Response for Maintenance and Operations Field Personnel identifies interactive emergency training tools and sources that may be applied by maintenance and operations field personnel of state departments of transportation and public works agencies. The report also identifies potential obstacles to their implementation and develops a toolkit of relevant training and exercise information.

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