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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E F R E I G H T R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCFRP REPORT 32 Subscriber Categories Marine Transportation â¢ Freight Transportation â¢ Maintenance and Preservation Integrating MTS Commerce Data with Multimodal Freight Transportation Performance Measures to Support MTS Maintenance Investment Decision Making C. James Kruse Center for Ports and WaterWays texas a&M transPortation institute Houston, TX Annie Protopapas David Bierling Leslie E. Olson MultiModal freight transPortation PrograMs texas a&M transPortation institute College Station, TX Bruce Wang Mohammadadel Khodakarami dePartMent of Civil engineering texas a&M university College Station, TX TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM Americaâs freight transportation system makes critical contributions to the nationâs economy, security, and quality of life. The freight transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all modes of transportationâtrucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical guidance based on research. The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is a cooperative research program sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology under Grant No. DTOS59- 06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to begin work was executed between the Research and Innovative Technology Admin- istration, which is now the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, and The National Academies. The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing research programs. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCFRP REPORT 32 Project NCFRP-42 ISSN 1947-5659 ISBN 978-0-309-30815-1 Library of Congress Control Number 20144953577 Â© 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCFRP Project 42 by the Center for Ports and Waterways at the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI). Mr. C. James Kruse, Director of the Center for Ports and Waterways, was the Project Director and Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Dr. Bruce Wang, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University; Dr. Annie Protopapas, Associate Research Engineer at TTI; Dr. David Bierling, Associate Research Scientist at TTI; Mr. Leslie E. Olson, Associate Research Scientist at TTI; and Mohammadadel Khodakarami, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University. The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Tim Lomax, Senior Research Engineer at TTI, and Dr. David L. Schrank, Research Scientist at TTI. These gentlemen are principal authors of the Urban Mobility Report, published annually by TTI. The authors also wish to acknowledge the assistance provided by Dr. Kenneth Ned Mitchell, Research Civil Engineer at U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Dr. Mitchell provided much of the data that made this study possible. CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 32 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Editor NCFRP PROJECT 42 PANEL Freight Research Projects Scott R. Drumm, Port of Portland, Portland, OR (Chair) Mark J. Carr, Channel Design Group, Edwardsville, IL Arlene L. Dietz, Rice Farms LLC, Eugene, OR Daniel Hebert, Transportation Development Centre, Ottawa, ON H. Thomas Kornegay, Houston, TX Thomas H. Wakeman, III, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ George C. Xu, Zhi Xu Consulting, Olympia, WA Jeff Lillycrop, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Liaison K. Ned Mitchell, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Liaison Scott Babcock, TRB Liaison W. Scott Brotemarkle, TRB Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison
F O R E W O R D NCFRP Report 32: Integrating MTS Commerce Data with Multimodal Freight Transporta- tion Performance Measures to Support MTS Maintenance Investment Decision Making inves- tigates the feasibility of evaluating potential navigation operation and maintenance projects on the Marine Transportation System (MTS) not only as they relate to waterborne com- merce, but also in light of the landside freight connections as well. A network optimization model is described that maximizes the multimodal system capacity by choosing the naviga- tion maintenance projects that will either fully accommodate expected demand or provide the greatest potential throughput within overall budget constraints, taking into account the origins and destinations of the commodities that move through a regional multimodal net- work. Five ports are selected for analysis: Duluth, MN; Hampton Roads, VA; Huntington, WV; Plaquemines, LA; and Portland, OR. The Marine Transportation System (MTS) consists of the nationâs waterways and the connecting multimodal distribution system. The shippers who use the MTS want the sys- tem to be fast, reliable, and cost-effective. Given the vast quantities of bulk and container- ized goods using the MTS, and the projected upward trend, it is vital that public agencies responsible for the separate elements of the nationâs freight transportation system align their investment and maintenance activities to ensure the necessary capacity exists to effi- ciently move cargo through waterways, ports, and their connecting road and rail corridors. The annual maintenance dredging of the MTS is critical to the reliability of the national multimodal freight system. Rational, objective, multimodal performance indicators could help allocate limited resources across the portfolio of navigation and surface transportation projects. Such performance indicators would assist in effectively gauging which portions of the MTS are most important from a multimodal freight system perspective. Under NCFRP Project 42, the Texas A&M Transportation Institute was asked to (1) iden- tify, quantify, and describe the high-volume freight MTS corridors (including Great Lakes, coastal, and inland waterways) in the United States; (2) identify, quantify, and describe the intermodal connections for each of the high-volume freight corridors identified in (1); (3) develop proposed metrics and operations research methodologies for making MTS maintenance decisions that take into account the overall impact on the freight transporta- tion system; (4) apply the operations research methodologies for making MTS maintenance investment decisions in five case studies; and (5) prepare a final report that documents the research effort, lessons learned, and suggested future research options. By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 6 Section 1 Background 6 Marine Transportation/Surface Transportation Interface 6 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Performance-Based Investment 7 Multimodal Freight Data and Performance Measurement 7 Literature Review 8 Modal Freight Data Repositories and Data Alignment Method 9 U.S. DOT National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory Program 10 Other Reports/Data Sources 11 Section 2 Selection and Characterization of High-Volume Freight MTS Corridors in the United States 11 Selection of Port Areas for Analysis 14 Multimodal Connections for the Selected High-Volume Freight MTS Corridors 15 Method of Analysis 17 Utilization Metrics/Indicators 20 Section 3 Proposed Metrics and Operations Research Methods 20 Overview 20 Definition of Terminologies 20 Data Needs 21 Underlying Assumptions 21 Inputs to the Model 30 Model Specifications 32 Scenarios Evaluated by the Model 34 Section 4 Findings from the Case Studies 34 Generalized Findings 34 What the Data Show Without the Model 35 What the Model Shows 37 Section 5 Potential Future Research 38 Appendix A Commodity Codes 39 Appendix B FAF3 Regions 43 Appendix C Origin-Destination Corridors and Modal Assignment at Selected Ports 65 Appendix D Lock Capacity Calculation
68 Appendix E Analysis of Constraints 71 Appendix F Model Results 74 References 75 List of Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Initialisms Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.