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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22261.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22261.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22261.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22261.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22261.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22261.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22261.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22261.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

The Second S T R A T E G I C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org REPORT S2-S04A-RW-1 Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database Omar Smadi, Neal HawkiNS, ZacHary HaNS, BaSak aldemir BektaS, Skylar kNickerBOcker, iNya NleNaNya, regiNald SOuleyrette, aNd SHauNa Hallmark Center for Transportation Research and Education Institute for Transportation Iowa State University Ames, Iowa

Subject Areas Data and Information Technology Highways Operations and Traffic Management Safety and Human Factors

SHRP 2 Reports Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: www.mytrb.org/store Contact the TRB Business Office: 202-334-3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2 SHRP 2 Report S2-S04A-RW-1 ISBN: 978-0-309-27458-6 © 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copyright Information Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copy- right to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to repro- duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular prod- uct, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educational and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from SHRP 2. Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, and publication format. Report numbers ending in “w” are published as web documents only. Notice The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical committee and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. The Second Strategic Highway Research Program America’s highway system is critical to meeting the mobility and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the nation. Developments in research and technology—such as advanced materials, communications technology, new data collection tech- nologies, and human factors science—offer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this important national resource. Breakthrough resolution of significant transportation problems, however, requires concentrated resources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has an intense, large-scale focus, integrates multiple fields of research and technology, and is fundamentally different from the broad, mission-oriented, discipline-based research programs that have been the mainstay of the highway research industry for half a century. The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life, published in 2001 and based on a study sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the first Strategic Highway Research Program, is a focused, time- constrained, management-driven program designed to com- plement existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on applied research in four areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce the severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behavior; Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid design and construction methods that cause minimal disruptions and produce lasting facilities; Reliability, to reduce congestion through incident reduction, management, response, and mitigation; and Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, environmental, and community needs in the planning and designing of new trans- portation capacity. SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The program is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the National Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memo- randum of understanding among the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Academy of Sciences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of research contractors; independent research project oversight; and dissemination of research results.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. C. D. (Dan) Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. (Dan) Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration in cooperation with the American Asso- ciation of State Highway and Transportation Officials. It was conducted in the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. The project was managed by Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer for SHRP 2 Safety. The research reported on herein was performed by the Center for Transportation Research and Education (CTRE) at Iowa State University, supported by Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Omar Smadi was the principal investigator. The other authors of this report are Neal Hawkins, Zach Hans, Basak Aldemir Bektas, Skylar Knickerbocker, Inya Nlenanya, Reg Souleyrette, and Shauna Hallmark of CTRE. The authors acknowledge Bruce Spear and Kevin Howard of Cambridge Systematics, Inc., for their contributions to the database design, and Val Noronha of Digital Geographic Research Corporation for his contribution to the database long-term management. The authors also acknowledge the contributions of the members of the SHRP 2 Expert Task Group on Acquisition of Roadway Information for their feedback and comments throughout the project. SHRP 2 STAFF Ann M. Brach, Director Stephen J. Andrle, Deputy Director Cynthia Allen, Editor Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety Jared Cazel, Editorial Assistant JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity and Reliability Eduardo Cusicanqui, Financial Officer Richard Deering, Special Consultant, Safety Data Phase 1 Planning Shantia Douglas, Senior Financial Assistant Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal and Safety James Hedlund, Special Consultant, Safety Coordination Alyssa Hernandez, Reports Coordinator Ralph Hessian, Special Consultant, Capacity and Reliability Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity and Reliability Rachel Taylor, Senior Editorial Assistant Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator

F O R EWO R D Kenneth L. Campbell, SHRP 2 Chief Program Officer, Safety This report describes the development of the Roadway Information Database (RID), which was carried out by Iowa State University’s Center for Transportation Research and Education (CTRE). The objective of the RID is to provide high-quality roadway data that are linkable to the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) database in order to incorporate roadway characteristics into the analysis of the NDS data. The RID includes data from the SHRP 2 mobile data collection project (Safety Project S04B), other existing roadway data, and supple- mental traffic operations data. Potential database users were identified to determine data and usability requirements, and roadway data elements were identified and prioritized. A mobile data collection vendor was selected using the 2008 SHRP 2 Safety Project S03 rodeo results and additional evaluation. A quality assurance plan defined data accuracy requirements and tolerances and outlined the handling of nonconforming data. Mobile data collection covered about 12,500 centerline miles in the six NDS sites, or approximately 25,000 miles in both travel directions. The final RID design is a simplified version of the revised UNETRANS network data model. Data are referenced to a national base map for a consistent centerline across the NDS sites, and users can employ dynamic segmentation to produce road segments with any variable of interest. The objective of the SHRP 2 NDS is to reduce traffic injuries and fatalities by preventing collisions or reducing the severity of them. The SHRP 2 NDS is the first large-scale study focused on collision prevention (as opposed to injury prevention once a collision occurs) since the Indiana Tri-Level Study (Tri-Level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents: Final Report, Report DOT HS-805 085, U.S. Department of Transportation, May 1979). Vehicle use was recorded continuously during the SHRP 2 NDS. Information on vehicle travel, or exposure, can be extracted at the same level of detail as for safety-related events, such as crashes and near crashes. Hence, the SHRP 2 NDS is the first large-scale study to support detailed estimates of collision risk. Moreover, crashes are a leading cause of nonrecurring congestion, so collision prevention has added benefits in terms of reduced delay, fuel con- sumption, and emissions. The NDS provides objective information on the role of driver behavior and performance in traffic collisions and on the interrelationship of the driver with vehicle, roadway, and environmental factors. The SHRP 2 Safety research program was carried out under the guidance of the Safety Tech- nical Coordinating Committee (TCC), which was composed of volunteer experts. The Safety TCC developed and approved all project descriptions and budgets and met semiannually to review progress and approve any program modifications. The Oversight Committee approved all budget allocations and contract awards. Assistance was provided by expert task groups, which developed requests for proposals, evaluated proposals and recommended contractors, and provided guidance on many issues, such as data access policies and procedures. The deci- sions and recommendations of the governing committees were implemented by SHRP 2 staff as they carried out day-to-day management of the research projects.

C O N T E N T S 1 Executive Summary 1 Objective 1 User and Data Needs 2 Collection and Quality Assurance of Data 3 Other Data Sources 3 Database Design 4 Conclusion 5 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 7 CHAPTER 2 Identification of Data Requirements, Resources, and Data Collection Capabilities 7 2.1 Identifying Data Users’ Characteristics 7 2.2 Identification of User Groups 8 2.3 Identifying Data Needs 8 2.4 Identification of Data Resources 8 2.5 Determining Capabilities of Mobile Data Collection Vendors 10 CHAPTER 3 Data Collection Plan for the Mobile Data Collection Project 10 3.1 Introduction 10 3.2 Allocation Guidance: Between NDS Sites (How Many Miles?) 11 3.3 Allocation Guidance: Within Sites (Which Roads?) 13 3.4 Data Collection 18 3.5 Data Collection Requirements 19 3.6 Project Management Plan 21 CHAPTER 4 Database Design and Development 21 4.1 Database Design 22 4.2 RID Data Model Examples 23 4.3 Ongoing/Long-Term RID Management 23 4.4 RID Operation Procedures 28 CHAPTER 5 Existing Data Acquisition 28 5.1 Existing Data 31 5.2 Supplemental Data 36 CHAPTER 6 Mobile Data Quality Assurance 36 6.1 Quality Assurance Process 36 6.2 Quality Assurance Field Data Collection 39 6.3 Linking Field Data to Mobile Data 40 6.4 Accuracy Analysis 42 6.5 Curve Quality Assurance

44 CHAPTER 7 Conclusions 45 References 46 Appendix A. User Needs Assessment 54 Appendix B. Technology Evaluation 59 Appendix C. Database Design Specifications 74 Appendix D. Supplemental Data 93 Appendix E. Quality Assurance Process 101 Appendix F. Roadway Information Database Operating Procedures

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TRB’s second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Report S2-S04A-RW-1: Naturalistic Driving Study: Development of the Roadway Information Database documents efforts to design, build, and populate a Roadway Information Database (RID) encompassing data from the SHRP 2 mobile data collection project (S04B), other existing roadway data, and supplemental traffic operations data. The RID was designed to provide data that are linkable to the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) database and accessible using GIS tools.

This project also produced an informational website about the Roadway Information Database.

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