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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP REPORT 788 Guide for Effective Tribal Crash Reporting David A. Noyce Zhixia Li University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI Kevin Chesnik chesnik transportation GroUp Madison, WI Alyssa Macy indiGeniUs coMMUnications Portland, OR Xiao Qin soUth dakota state University Brookings, SD Subscriber Categories Highways â¢ Administration and Management â¢ Safety and Human Factors TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Boardâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 788 Project 17-49 ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 978-0-309-30807-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2014951030 Â© 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research project reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 17-49 by the Traffic Opera- tions and Safety (TOPS) Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in association with Chesnik Transportation Group, Indigenius Communications, South Dakota State University, and College of Menominee Nation. The University of Wisconsin-Madison served as the contractor. Dr. David A. Noyce, P.E., Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Wis- consin-Madison, was the project director and principal investigator. The other authors of this report are Dr. Zhixia Li, Assistant Researcher at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kevin Chesnik, P.E. at Chesnik Transportation Group; Alyssa Macy at Indigenius Communications; and Dr. Xiao Qin, P.E., Associate Professor of Civil Engineering at the South Dakota State University. Brian Kowalkowski, Dean of Continuing Education at the College of Menominee worked in conjunc- tion with the other team members in developing the data collection tool and conducting data collection. Dr. Jeremy R. Chapman, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and Dr. Ghazan Khan, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering at California State University, Sacramento, both contributed to the data collection and literature review during the initial project phases. Graduate and undergraduate students John Ash, Whitney Schroeder, Lang Yu, and Timothy Klockziem of the Uni- versity of Wisconsin-Madison were involved in the data collection and analysis phases. The research team wishes to thank all participants in this study. Their contribution was critical for the development of the guidebook. The research team gives special thanks to all tribes and state agencies that actively participated in the data collection process by providing their responses. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 788 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher J. Hedges, Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Sheila A. Moore, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 17-49 PANEL Field of TrafficâArea of Safety Charles C. Fielder, California DOT, Eureka, CA (Chair) Linda L. Aitken, Minnesota DOT, Walker, MN Jason L. Harris, Gilbert, AZ David L. Huft, South Dakota DOT, Pierre, SD Ronald David Lipps, Frederick, MD Giovanni C. Migliaccio, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Lowell M. Porter, Pierce County (WA), Tacoma, WA Robert âBobâ Rasmussen, Virginia DOT, Richmond, VA Dennis Trusty, Northern Plains Tribal Technical Assistance Program, Bismarck, ND Chimai Nguyen Ngo, FHWA Liaison Edward H. Hall, III, Bureau of Indian Affairs Liaison Gwen Salt, National Congress of American Indians Liaison Bernardo Kleiner, TRB Liaison Martine A. Micozzi, TRB Liaison
This guidebook presents guidance for state agencies and tribal leaders in effective crash reporting. The guidebook is developed based on best practices, success stories, lessons learned, published literature, and data from tribes and states that were involved in the data collection and analysis phase of this project. This guidebook will provide valuable knowl- edge to both tribal law enforcement and state transportation agencies to better understand the extent and causes of crashes on tribal lands in order to develop more effective safety programs and countermeasures. Safety is a major concern for roadway practitioners across the United States. In many states, the Native American population is disproportionately represented in fatalities and crash statistics. Native Americansâ risk of motor-vehicle related death is about 4 times that of the general population. The risk is even higher for the population between 4 and 44 years old. Improved crash reporting by tribal law enforcement agencies would enable tribes to apply more successfully for state and federal funds for safety improvements. Some of the causes behind the underreporting include tribal law enforcement capacity (e.g., staffing shortages and turnover, and lack of equipment, software, and training), lack of standardization in crash reporting forms and protocols, and issues of relations between the state and tribes. Improv- ing crash reporting systems requires a relationship with the state agencies built on trust and effective collaboration. Without accurate reporting of all crashes on tribal lands, it is difficult or impossible to fully understand the nature of the problem and develop appropriate countermeasures. These may include effective transportation safety planning and programs aimed at DUI prevention, pedestrian safety, roadway safety improvements, seat belt usage, child restraints, etc. Under NCHRP 17-49, a research team led by University of Wisconsin-Madison conducted a critical review of the root causes of the issues and deficiencies related to tribal crash report- ing systems and programs as well as best practice and success stories. In addition, this review identified those methods which have been successful in any aspect, i.e., beyond crash data, and illustrated how these successes can be utilized in the area of tribal crash reporting. The research team also did a nationwide query-based data collection, which gathered first-hand data from tribes and state agencies along with their success stories and lessons learned in practicing tribal crash reporting. The research led to the development of a guidebook with three main components. Part 1 provides self-assessment tools for state agencies and tribes. The self-assessment tools are designed to provide a quick assessment of the effectiveness of existing crash data collection and management, and the current level of communication and collaboration between tribes and state agencies. Part 2 of the guidebook provides information to both states and tribes to help identify solutions to issues associated with (1) establishing F O R E W O R D By Christopher J. Hedges Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
and maintaining communication and relationship between tribes and states; (2) building tribal crash data collection system; (3) implementing state-tribal crash data sharing; and (4) improving tribal traffic safety with crash data. Part 3 contains reference and source materials. The guide is accompanied by a CD containing a supplemental report documenting the research approach and findings, as well as color PDF copies of case study flyers meant to be used as handouts and reference material at meeting, conferences, and events. The CD also contains a double-sided three-fold flyer designed to promote the use of this guidebook via graphical presentation of function and summary of the guide.
1 Summary P A R T 1 Overview and Self-Assessment 7 Chapter 1 Self-Assessment for State Agencies 7 Self-Assessment for Effective Communications with Tribes 8 Self-Assessment for State-Tribal Crash Data Sharing 9 Self-Assessment for Assistance in Tribal Traffic Safety Improvement 10 Chapter 2 Self-Assessment for Tribes 10 Self-Assessment for Implementing Tribal Crash Data Collection System 11 Self-Assessment for State-Tribal Crash Data Sharing 13 Self-Assessment for Tribal Traffic Safety Improvement P A R T 2 Guide for Effective Tribal Crash Reporting 17 Chapter 1 Establishing and Maintaining Communication and Relationship Between Tribes and States 17 Topic 1.1: Creating Tribal Liaisons 20 Topic 1.2: Develop and Maintain a Tribal Contact Database 21 Topic 1.3: Standard Procedures for Communications and Meetings 23 Topic 1.4: Communicating Interests and Concerns 24 Topic 1.5: Employing the Transportation Agency/Tribe Collaboration Guidebook 25 Case Study: Tribal Liaison 27 Case Study: Maintaining State-Tribal Partnerships 29 Chapter 2 Tribal Crash Data Collection System 29 Topic 2.1: Benefits of a Crash Data Collection System 31 Topic 2.2: Tribal Concerns with Collecting Crash Data 31 Topic 2.3: Law Enforcement Assistance Agreements on Tribal Roads 32 Topic 2.4: Funding for Implementing the Crash Data Collection System 33 Topic 2.5: Implementing the Tribal Crash Data Collection System 35 Topic 2.6: Creating a Tribal Crash Database 36 Case Study: Tribal Crash Report Form Completion 38 Chapter 3 State-Tribal Crash Data Sharing 38 Topic 3.1: Concerns and Benefits of Sharing Crash Data 40 Topic 3.2: Crash Data Sharing Agreement 41 Topic 3.3: Establishing the State-Tribal Crash Data Sharing System 44 Topic 3.4: Providing Access to the State Crash Database 45 Case Study: Tribal Crash Data Processing and Sharing with the State Agency C O N T E N T S
47 Chapter 4 Improving Tribal Traffic Safety Using Crash Data 47 Topic 4.1: Engineering Studies to Identify and Address Tribal Traffic Safety Issues 51 Topic 4.2: Grants (funding) for Tribal Roadway Safety Improvements 54 Case Study: A Cooperative Rural Road Safety Program for Tribal Roads 55 Case Study: Development of a Statewide Tribal Transportation Safety Initiative P A R T 3 Reference and Source Materials 59 References 61 Abbreviations, Acronyms, Initialisms, and Symbols 63 Appendix A Memorandum of Understanding Example 66 Appendix B Case Study Flyers 67 Appendix C Promotional Flyer 68 Appendix D Useful References Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.