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62 Glossary of Technical Terms Note: Terms shown in boldface and italics are defined in this glossary. Key Transportation Concepts Access: The opportunity to reach a given destination within a certain timeframe or without significant physical, social, or economic barriers. Accessibility: The extent to which facilities, including tran- sit vehicles, are barrier-free and can be used by all persons, including persons with disabilities and wheelchair users. ADA: See Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 in the âFederal Legislation and Programsâ section of this Glossary. American Public Transportation Association (APTA): American Public Transportation Association and its mem- bers and staff work to ensure that public transportation is available and accessible for all Americans in communities across the country. APTA: See American Public Transportation Association. ATI: See Association of Travel Instruction. Association of Travel Instruction: An organization commit- ted to the development of competent travel skills for people with disabilities and seniors so they can establish the inde- pendence to freely elect to use all modes of public transporta- tion anywhere in the world. Complementary Paratransit Service: Demand-responsive service that is operated in addition to fixed route service to accommodate persons who cannot ride the fixed route ser- vice because their disability prevents it. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), public entities that operate fixed route service (excluding commuter service) are required to provide complementary paratransit with service character- istics equivalent to the fixed route service. The ADA is very specific in what constitutes equivalent service and what kinds of persons must be provided with this service. A plan describ- ing the service and documenting the planning process must be submitted to the Federal Transit Administration regional office and updated annually. Coordination: Coordination means pooling the transporta- tion resources and activities of several agencies. The owners of transportation assets talk to each other to find ways to mutually benefit their agencies and their customers. Coordi- nation models can range in scope from sharing information, to sharing equipment and facilities, to integrated scheduling and dispatching of services, to the provision of services by only one transportation provider (with other former pro- viders now purchasing services). Coordination may involve human services agencies working with each other or with mass transit operations. CTAA: Community Transportation Association of America. Demand-Responsive Service: Service to individuals that is activated based on passenger requests. Usually passengers call the scheduler or dispatcher and request rides for particular dates and times. A trip is scheduled for that passenger, which may be canceled by the passenger. Usually involves curb-to- curb or door-to-door service. Trips may be scheduled on an advanced reservation basis or in âreal-time.â Usually smaller vehicles are used to provide demand-responsive service. This type of service usually provides the highest level of service to the passenger but is the most expensive for the transit system to operate in terms of cost per trip. Destination: A place at which a passenger ultimately dis- embarks from a vehicle; the point at which a trip terminates. Dial-A-Ride Service: A name that is commonly used for demand-responsive service. It is helpful in marketing the ser- vice to the community, as the meaning of âdial-a-rideâ may be more self-evident than demand-responsive to someone unfamiliar with transportation terms.
63 Door-to-Door Service: A service that picks up passengers at the door of their place of origin and delivers them to the door of their destination. The driver pulls the vehicle off the road if possible and may escort or physically assist the passenger if needed. Door-to-door service provides a higher level of assistance than curb-to-curb service and is typically used for passengers with severe physical disabilities. Elderly and Handicapped (E&H): Anachronistic terminology for special transportation planning and services for persons with special needs; current Federal Transit Administration (FTA) terminology is persons with disabilities. Environmental Analysis: The study of the environmental conditions along a path of travel that is done prior to initiat- ing the teaching of any route to a person with a disability or a senior citizen. Considered in the environmental analysis are the essential features and conditions along the path of travel (e.g., presence/absence of curb ramps; timing of any pedestrian control signals and vehicular traffic signals; salient landmarks; availability and location of shelter and safe havens; types of intersections and traffic flow patterns for street crossing) that may hinder or facilitate a personâs ability to travel. Using the results of this study of the environment, the travel training instructor/travel trainer can design an instructional plan and route that considers the individualâs needs, the environmen- tal conditions, and safety. Fixed Route: Transportation service on a prescribed path or route that does not vary. The schedule may be fixed or flexible (such as jitney or shuttle service). Passengers may be required to wait at designated stops, or flag stops may be permitted. Usually, larger vehicles are used to provide fixed route service. Fixed Schedule: Predetermined times at which a vehicle is to arrive at a certain location. The actual bus route may be fixed or flexible. A flexible route combines fixed schedule stops with demand-responsive stops (see checkpoint, point deviation, and route deviation). Independent travel: Competent and self-reliant movement through the environment safely and efficiently. Individuals with Disabilities: Any person who by reason of illness, injury, age, congenital malfunction, or other perma- nent or temporary incapacity or disability is unable, without special facilities, to use local transit facilities and services as effectively as persons who are not so affected. This definition is part of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Local Bus Service: Local bus service is a term used to describe a route along which many stops are made, allowing flexibility in where passengers may board and depart. It is typically used in contrast to express bus, a bus that makes a limited number of stops and is targeted more at long distance riders. Local bus service is important in rural areas unless feeder or connector service is available to bring people to the station. Mobility: The ability to move or to be moved from place to place. Mode: The means used to accomplish a trip, such as walking, traveling by automobile, traveling by bus, or traveling by train. One-Way Trip: A one-way journey or movement of a person or vehicle between a specific origin and a specific destination. Origin: A place at which a passenger boards a vehicle; the point at which a trip begins. Often this term is used to refer to a passengerâs home, even though the home actually becomes the destination of a return trip. Paratransit Service: Paratransit is a broad term that may be used to describe any means of shared ride transportation other than fixed route mass transit services. The term paratransit usually indicates that smaller vehicles (less than 25 passengers) are being used. These services usually serve the needs of per- sons that standard mass transit services would serve with dif- ficulty. A paratransit service is typically advanced reservation, demand-responsive service provided curb-to-curb or door-to- door. Route deviation and point deviation are also considered paratransit. Paratransit is often more appropriate than fixed route services in rural areas and in areas with large populations of elderly or persons with disabilities. Paratransit services that are provided to accommodate passengers with disabilities who are unable to use fixed route service and who meet specific service equivalency tests are called ADA complementary para- transit services. Person-Trip. A trip made by one person from one origin to one destination. Round Trip: A trip from an origin to a destination and then back to the original origin. A trip from a personâs home to his/her place of work and then back to his/her home is con- sidered one round trip (and also is considered to be two one- way trips). Service Route: Service routes are transit routes that are tai- lored to meet the needs of a specific market segment (such as elderly or persons with disabilities) in a community. Service routes often evolve out of a pattern of demand-responsive travel within a community. Characteristics of a service route include stops at high-density residential complexes or group homes, shopping areas, medical facilities, and destinations specific to the target population such as senior centers or shel- tered work sites. Stops are usually positioned near an acces- sible entrance of a building instead of on the street, and the ride times are typically longer than on a âconventionalâ fixed route covering the same general area. Service routes may be operated instead of, or in conjunction with, a âconventionalâ
64 route in the same area. Vehicles tend to be smaller and acces- sible to persons with disabilities, and drivers usually offer a relatively high level of personal assistance. Service routes are used widely in Europe and are gaining greater popularity in the United States since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Transit: Generally refers to passenger service provided to the general public along established routes, with fixed or vari- able schedules, at published fares. Related terms include pub- lic transit, mass transit, public transportation, urban transit, and paratransit. Transit Dependent: Persons who must rely on public tran- sit or paratransit services for most of their transportation. Typically refers to individuals without access to personal vehicles. Transportation Disadvantaged: A term used to describe those persons who have little or no access to meaningful jobs, services, and recreation because a transportation system does not meet their needs. Often refers to those individuals who cannot drive a private automobile because of age, disability, or lack of resources. Travel Environment: Essential features and conditions along the path of travel (e.g., presence/absence of curb ramps; tim- ing of any pedestrian control signals and vehicular traffic signals; salient landmarks; availability and location of shel- ter and safe havens; types of intersections and traffic flow patterns for street crossing) that may hinder or facilitate a personâs ability to travel. Travel Time: Customarily calculated as the time it takes to travel from âdoor-to-door.â Used in transportation plan- ning. In forecasting the demand for transit service, mea- sures of travel time include time spent accessing, waiting, and transferring between vehicles, as well as that time spent on board. Travel Instruction: The Association of Travel Instruction (ATI) considers travel instruction to be the professional activity of teaching individuals with disabilities and seniors how to access their environment and community and use public transportation independently. The practice of travel instruction as provided by a professional travel trainer requires knowledge of human development and behavior, travel- related concepts and skills, public transportation services, the natural and built environment, paths of travel, and the interaction of these dynamics. The Competencies for the Practice of Travel Instruction and Travel Training (Easter Seals Project ACTION) provides guidance to the competen- cies that are essential for the practitioner. Travel instruction practice as characterized by ATI includes the professional application of a code of ethics, guiding principles, methods, strategies, and emerging best practices. Travel instruction is the array, continuum, or family of services offered to individuals with disabilities, seniors, and others who need assistance to increase their mobil- ity and travel on public transportation independently. It includes a variety of plans, methods, and strategies used by professional travel trainers to increase the independent travel skills of the people they serve. It is understood that individuals may require different travel instruction services during their lifetime as their needs change. Specific services included in the ATI definition of travel instruction are the following: â¢ Transit Orientation: Group or individual activity con- ducted for the purpose of explaining the transportation systems; options and services available to address indi- vidual transportation needs; use of maps and schedules as resources for trip planning; fare system; use of mobility devices while boarding, riding, and exiting; vehicular fea- tures; and benefits available. â¢ Familiarization: Individual or small group trip activity to facilitate use of transportation systems with a travel trainer accompanying experienced traveler(s) on a new mode of transportation or route to point out/explain features of access and usability. â¢ Travel Training: One-to-one short-term instruction pro- vided to an individual who has previously traveled inde- pendently and needs additional training or support to use a different mode of travel, a different route, mode of tran- sit, or travel to a new destination; or One-to-one comprehensive, specially designed instruc- tion in the skills and behaviors necessary for independent travel on public transportation provided to an individual who does not have independent travel concepts or skills to go from point of origin of trip to destination and back. Trip: A one-way journey or movement of a person or vehi- cle between a specific origin and a specific destination. For purposes of recording transportation services, trips are con- sidered to be one-way trips unless otherwise specified. Trips may require using one or more travel modes, including walk- ing and travel using different kinds of vehicles. Volunteers: Volunteers are persons who offer services to others but do not accept monetary or material compensa- tion for the services that they provide. In some volunteer pro- grams, the volunteers are reimbursed for their out-of-pocket expenses; for example, volunteers who drive their own cars may receive reimbursement based on miles driven for the expenses that they are assumed to have incurred, such as gasoline, repair, and insurance expenses.
65 Federal Legislation and Programs ADA: See Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. ADA Complementary Paratransit Service: Demand- responsive service that is operated in addition to fixed route service to accommodate persons who cannot ride the fixed route service because their disability prevents it. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), public entities that operate fixed route service (excluding commuter service) are required to provide complementary paratransit with service characteristics equivalent to the fixed route service. The ADA is very specific in what constitutes equivalent service and what kinds of persons must be provided this service. A plan describ- ing the service, which documents the planning process, must be submitted to the appropriate Federal Transit Administra- tion regional office and updated annually. Administration on Aging (AoA): An agency in the U.S. Depart- ment of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that is the offi- cial federal agency dedicated to policy development, planning, and the delivery of supportive home and community-based services to older persons and their caregivers. The AoA admin- isters the Older Americans Act (OAA) and works through the National Association of State Units on Aging, Area Agencies on Aging (AAA), Tribal and Native organizations represent- ing 300 American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal organiza- tions, and two organizations serving Native Hawaiians, plus thousands of service providers, adult care centers, caregivers, and volunteers. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA): A Federal law that requires public facilities, including transportation services, to be fully accessible for persons with disabilities. ADA also requires the provision of complementary or supple- mental paratransit services in areas where fixed route transit service is operated. This act expands the definition of eligibil- ity for accessible services to persons with mental disabilities, temporary disabilities, and the conditions related to substance abuse. The act is an augmentation to, but does not supersede, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohib- its discrimination on the basis of disability against otherwise qualified individuals in programs receiving Federal assistance. Area Agency on Aging (AAA): The local entity that plans senior services and advocates for the elderly within their com- munities, administering provisions of the Older Americans Act (OAA). Federal Highway Administration (FHWA): The agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) that admin- isters federal-aid highway programs. Federal Transit Administration (FTA): The agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) that admin- isters federal-aid transit programs. Grant: The award of funds to an entity. Federal funds are typically awarded either as formula (or block) grants, in which a predetermined legislative process establishes the level of funding available to an entity, or discretionary grants, in which the funding agency is free to determine how much (if any) funding an entity will be given based on the relative mer- its of the proposal. Private foundations also give grants based on similar criteria. Medicaid: Also known as Medical Assistance, this is a health care program for low-income and other medically needy per- sons. It is jointly funded by state and federal governments. The Medicaid program is administered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, an agency that is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Medicaid pays for transportation to non-emergency medical appoint- ments only if the recipient has no other means of travel to medical services. Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO): The organi- zational entity designated by law with lead responsibility for developing transportation plans and programs for urbanized areas of 50,000 or more in population. MPOs are established by agreement of the governor and units of general purpose local government that together represent 75 percent of the affected population of an urbanized area. Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21): The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Cen- tury Act (MAP-21) is a funding and authorization bill to gov- ern U.S. federal surface transportation spending. It was passed by Congress and signed by President Obama in 2012. This 2-year bill replaced the SAFETEA-LU legislation; it did not significantly alter total funding from the previous authoriza- tion, but it included significant reforms, such as consolidating programs like FTAâs Sections 5310, 5316, and 5317 programs. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS): A periodic national survey, to assist transportation planners and policy- makers who need comprehensive data on travel and transpor- tation patterns in the United States. Older Americans Act (OAA): Federal law first passed in 1965. The act established a network of services and programs for older people. This network provides supportive services, including transportation and nutrition services, and works with public and private agencies that serve the needs of older individuals. Persons with Disabilities: Those persons who have a physi- cal or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, have a record of such impairment, or are regarded as having such an impairment. Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU): SAFETEA-LU was a funding and authorization bill that governed U.S.
66 federal surface transportation spending. It was signed into law by President George W. Bush on August 10, 2005. It ini- tially expired on September 30, 2009, but Congress renewed its funding formulas 10 times after that expiration date. SAFETEA-LU was replaced with the Moving Ahead for Prog- ress in the 21st Century Act in 2012. Section 5310 Program: A Federal Transit Administration program, entitled Transportation for Elderly Persons and Per- sons with Disabilities, this program provides formula funding to states for the purpose of assisting private nonprofit groups in meeting the transportation needs of the elderly and persons with disabilities when the transportation service provided is unavailable, insufficient, or inappropriate for meeting these needs. Funds are apportioned based on each stateâs share of population for these groups of people. Funds are obligated based on the annual program of projects included in a state- wide grant application. Section 5311 Program: A Federal Transit Administration pro- gram, entitled The Formula Grants for Other than Urbanized Areas, is a rural program that is formula based and provides funding to states for the purpose of supporting public trans- portation in rural areas with populations of less than 50,000. Section 5316 Program: A Federal Transit Administration program, entitled Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC), provided funding for transportation services that provide job access and reverse commute trips. The JARC program was established to address the unique transportation challenges faced by welfare recipients and low-income persons seeking to obtain and maintain employment. Initially implemented as part of the TEA-21 legislation in 1998, important portions of the JARC program were modified by the SATETEA-LU leg- islation in 2005. Under the MAP-21 legislation, Section 5316 became a component of the Section 5310 program. Section 5317 Program: A Federal Transit Administration program, known as the New Freedom program, provided funding for services to persons with disabilities beyond the scope of services required by ADA. This program was created by the SATETEA-LU legislation in 2005. Under the MAP-21 legislation, Section 5317 became a component of the Section 5310 program. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS): The federal department responsible for overseeing a wide variety of human services programs that protect the health of all citizens and providing essential human services. Specific programs include those administered through AoA, Head Start, Medicaid, and other agencies. U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT): The federal department responsible for overseeing a wide variety of fed- eral funds and regulations for transportation facilities and programs. U.S. DOT includes FHWA and FTA. Urbanized Area (UZA): An area that contains a city of 50,000 or more population, plus incorporated surrounding areas, and meets set size or density criteria. Sources for the Glossary Association of Travel Instruction, http://www.travel instruction.org/forms/ATIAugust2011DefinitionOfTravel Training.pdf. Burkhardt, J. E., Hamby, B., and McGavock, A. T. TCRP Report 6: Usersâ Manual for Assessing Service-Delivery Systems for Rural Passenger Transportation. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. (1995). Clay County Rural Transit Dial-A-Ride Bus Service, http:// www.co.clay.mn.us/depts/ccrt/DialRide.htm (as of July 27, 2009). Community Transportation Association of America, Public and Community Transportation Glossary, http://web1. ctaa.org/webmodules/webarticles/articlefiles/Glossary OfTransportationTerms.pdf (as of May 2010). COMSIS Corporation, Guidebook for Planning Small Urban and Rural Transportation Programs, Volume 1, DOT-T-91-07, pp. V.2âV.5, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (1990). Conning Insurance Glossary, http://www.conning.com/ crcstore/glossary/c.asp (as of July 27, 2009). Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Admin- istration. Statewide and Metropolitan Planning Regulations, 72 FR 7224. Federal Highway Administration. A Summary of Transpor- tation Programs and Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Federal Highway Administration. Financing Federal-Aid Highways. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (March 2007). Federal Transit Administration. National Transit Database Glossary, http://188.8.131.52/ntdprogram/Glossary.htm#B (as of May 2010). Gray, B. H. (Ed.). Urban Public Transportation Glossary. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. (1989). Surface Transportation Policy Project and the Center for Neighborhood Technology. (1995). Transportation: Environ- mental Justice and Social Equity: Conference Proceedings. Fed- eral Transit Administration, Washington, D.C. (1995).