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58 A P P E N D I X A A.1 Freight Facts and Figures A.1.1 Overview Freight Facts and Figures is an annual snapshot of the vol- ume and value of freight flows in the United States, the physi- cal network over which freight moves, the economic conditions that generate freight movements, the industry that carries freight, and the safety, energy, and environmental implications of freight transportation. This snapshot helps decisionmakers, planners, and the public understand the magnitude and impor- tance of freight transportation in the economy. The statistics are at the national level only. A.1.2 Sources Freight Facts and Figures derives its information from CFS, Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) (last con- ducted in 2002), the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF), Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS), and North American Transborder Freight (NATB) data. VMT estimates for trucks are based on the latest HPMS data avail- able. The FAF is used to estimate tons of freight moved by truck and the value of freight moved by truck. Number of trucks and truck VMT by product carried is derived from VIUS (data available stops at 2003). The NATB data are used to estimate the value and tonnage of trade with Canada and Mexico by truck and value of U.S. exports to and imports from Canada and Mexico by truck. Other information avail- able includes number of trucks (single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more, combination) and trucks as a percent of all highway vehicles. The source for that information is the VM-1 table in Highway Statistics, which relies on a variety of sources for its information, including vehicle-registration data and data such as the R. L. Polk vehicle data. A.1.3 Reliability Reliability of the information is dependent on the source used for estimating the specific tables. A.1.4 Time Series Reports have been produced annually since 2004. Tables that rely on VIUS only include time series through 2002. A.1.5 Availability The report is produced by the Office of Freight Manage- ment and Operations, FHWA. An electronic version is avail- able at www.freight.dot.gov. Statistical Compilations Freight Facts and Figures Definition of Truck Single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more, combination Data Items of Interest VMT Tons Value Geographical Level National Source Data Derived from Multiple Sources Data Gathering Method N/A Agency in Charge FHWA Years Covered 2004-2011 Table A-1. Freight Facts and Figures.
59 A.2 National Transportation Statistics A.2.1 Overview The U.S. Department of Transportationâs BTS is charged with developing transportation data and the information that will help to advance policy decisionmaking about transpor- tation systems. First published in 1970 and continually since then, the National Transportation Statistics (NTS) series and associated dataset captures a broad sweep of this information. The NTS includes transportation system physical components, related safety records, economic performance, energy use, and environmental impacts. A notably large resource, the 2011 NTS publication comprised more than 260 data tables with their associated sources and accuracy statements in addition to dis- cussion on a select set of transportation policy-specific topic areas (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2000â2011). A.2.2 Coverage NTS captures information on the transportation system, but is a critical piece to a collection of reports published by BTS. Release of the NTS usually coincides with the release of two companion document reports: Transportation Statistics Annual Report and State Transportation Statistics. Together these publications provide some additional policy insight and focused analysis on top of the transportation system data. In at least the most recent decade, the vehicle miles trav- eled (VMT) measure has been used through NTS to charac- terize traffic and roadway volume on segments of the U.S. transportation network. The NTS measure of VMT is based on data from the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS), which is a dataset maintained by FHWA. The NTS table âRoadway Vehicle-Miles Traveled (VMT) and VMT per Lane-Mile by Functional Class,â is entirely based on this VMT data. Here, VMT is reported for urban and rural areas by interstate, other arterial, collector, and local function classes from the HPMS source data. NTS also reports an inventory of truck fleets by use and tables that summarize the fuel economies of domestic and imported light trucks as well as trucks by weight. These inventories characterize the trucking population in terms of light, medium, light-heavy and heavy trucks by weight cat- egories ranging from less than 6,000 lb to 130,000 lb or more. Information about U.S. truck fleets also is presented. These summary tables present the annual total fleets of automo- biles and trucks that are used for a variety of purposes (busi- ness, government, utilities, police, taxi, and rental). The data is collected from private source Bobit Publishing Co., and specifically the annually issued Automotive Fleet Fact Book. Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., another private source, provides data covering ton-miles of freight carried by inter- city trucks (no distinction by truck characteristics) through the one-time report Transportation in America (2007), but otherwise ton-miles for truck freight shipments comes from BTS estimates (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2012a). A.2.3 Sources The NTS integrates data from a variety of sources includ- ing the Highway Performance Monitoring System, BTS publications, and private sources. A.2.4 Reliability Due to standard rounding of mileages reported by road and type, the component values may not add to the totals reported. In some cases, the number of road systems under- lying a mileage report differs from year to year. For exam- ple, 2012 NTS Table 1-36 notes that in 2009 data excludes 823 miles of federal-agency-owned roads and 71 miles of other non-federal-agency-owned roads. The data from 2008 exclude 788 miles of federal-agency-owned roads, 2007 data exclude 788 miles of federal-owned roads and 437 miles of local government-owned roads, 2006 data exclude 788 miles of federal-owned roads and include 274 miles of miscoded roads, and 2005 data exclude 770 miles of federal-agency- owned roads. This suggests that any comparison of the aver- ages from one year to the next should consider the underlying system of roads. National Transportation Statistics Definition of Truck Truck definition varies by source, ranging from detailed weight, axle, and other physical characteristics to a broadly aggregated truck category Data Items of Interest VMT (by vehicle type and geography functional class) Ton-miles (by geography functional class) Geographical Level National Source Data Secondary: federal databases and other national sources Data Gathering Method Integration of existing reports and surveys Agency in Charge BTS Years Covered 1970-1990, 1991-2011 (every year) always an annual Table A-2. National Transportation Statistics.
60 A.2.5 Time Series Between 1960 and 1990 new editions to NTS were added annually. Starting in 1991 the rate was increased to a 1-year release cycle with updates to much of the transportation data available on a quarterly basis through the BTS website. A.2.6 Availability Annual updates to the report are available on the BTS website. A.3 Transportation Energy Data Book (TEDB) A.3.1 Overview Policymakers and analysts need to be well informed about activity in the transportation sector. The organization and scope of the Transportation Energy Data Book (TEDB) reflects the need for different kinds of information. In this vein, the TEDB is a compendium of data on transportation with an emphasis on energy. Designed for use as a desktop reference, the TEDB represents an assembly and display of statistics and informationâe.g., VMT, value of cargo, tons, and average speedâthat characterize transportation activ- ity and present data on other factors that influence trans- portation energy use. The TEDB is produced by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the U.S. Department of Energyâs Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The TEDB was first published in 1976 and has continued to Edition 31. The purpose of this document is to present rel- evant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. In January 1976, the Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration contracted with ORNL to prepare a Trans- portation Energy Conservation Data Book to be used by TEC staff in their evaluation of current and proposed conserva- tion strategies. The major purposes of the data book were to draw together, under one cover, transportation data from diverse sources, to resolve data conflicts and inconsistencies, and to produce a comprehensive document. The first edition of the TEC Data Book was published in October 1976. With the passage of the Department of Energy (DOE) Organiza- tion Act, the work being conducted by the former Transpor- tation Energy Conservation Division fell under the purview of DOEâs Office of Transportation Programs. A.3.2 Coverage The coverage of the TEDB is slightly different across the editions. The latest edition of the TEDB consists of 12 chap- ters that focus on various aspects of the transportation indus- try. Among these chapters, Chapter 3, All Highway Vehicles and Characteristics, and Chapter 5, Heavy Vehicles and Char- acteristics, contain relevant data to truck activity while other chapters deal with energy, light vehicles, alternative fuel vehi- cles, fleet vehicles, household vehicles, non-highway modes, greenhouse gas emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Specifically, Chapters 3 and 5 have the following tables: â¢ Chapter 3: World Production of Trucks (2000â2010); Truck Registrations for Selected Countries (1960â2010); U.S. Trucks in Use (1970â2010); Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type (1970â2010); Trucks in Operation Transportation Energy Data Book (TEDB) Definition of Truck Two-axle, four-tire trucks (pickups, vans, and sport-utility vehicles) vs. other single-unit trucks; and combination trucks Light (light truck) vs. heavy vehicles (Class 3-8 single-unit trucksa and Class 7-8 combination trucksb) Data Items of Interest VMT, value of cargo, tons, ton-miles, and average speed Geographical Level National, selected local Source Data Highway statistics, federal Fleet Report, Commodity Flow Survey, Heavy Truck Duty Cycle Project Data Gathering Method N/A Agency in Charge Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Years Covered 1970-2010 a Class 3-8 single-unit trucks include trucks over 10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight with the cab/engine and cargo space together as one unit. Most of these trucks would be used for business or for individuals with heavy hauling or towing needs. Very heavy single-units, such as concrete mixers and dump trucks, are also in this category. b Class 7-8 combination trucks include all trucks designed to be used in combination with one or more trailers with a gross vehicle weight rating over 26,000 lbs. The average vehicle travel of these trucks (on a per truck basis) far surpasses the travel of other trucks due to long-haul freight movement. Table A-3. Transportation Energy Data Book (TEDB).
61 and Vehicle Travel by Age (1970 and 2001); and Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates. â¢ Chapter 5: Summary Statistics for Class 3â8 Single-Unit and Class 7â8 Combination Trucks (1970â2010); Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility (2002); Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks; Class 8 Truck Weight by Component; Gross Vehicle Weight vs. Empty Vehicle Weight; and Growth of Freight in the U.S. (Comparison of the 1997, 2002, and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys). The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices that include detailed source infor- mation for some tables, measures of conversion, and the defi- nition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are included. A.3.3 Sources As a secondary analysis, the TEDB refers to several primary data sources such as Highway Statistics, Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle Project, and Commodity Flow Survey. â¢ VMT of Medium/Heavy Trucks: The TEDB cites Highway Statistics, specifically Table VM-1. Data series is the total of vehicle travel data in Tables 5.1 and 5.2. â¢ Major Use of Trucks: The TEDB cites Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey. â¢ Fuel Economy for Class-8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination: The TEDB cites Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle Project Final Report, ORNL. â¢ Growth of Freight in the United States (Value of Cargo, Tons, and Ton-Miles): The TEDB cites Commodity Flow Survey, specifically Table 1a. A.3.4 Reliability In any attempt to compile a comprehensive set of statis- tics on transportation activity, numerous instances of inad- equacies and inaccuracies in the basic data are encountered. Where such problems occur, estimates are developed by ORNL. To minimize the misuse of these statistics, an appen- dix is included to document the estimation procedures. The attempt is to provide sufficient information for conscientious users to evaluate the estimates and form their own opinions as to the utility of the data. Clearly, the accuracy of the estimates cannot exceed the accuracy of the primary data, an accuracy that, in most instances, is unknown. In cases where data accu- racy is known or substantial errors are strongly suspected in the data, the reader is alerted. In all cases it should be recog- nized that the estimates are not precise. The majority of the statistics contained in the data book are taken directly from published sources, although these data may be reformatted for presentation by ORNL. Consequently, neither ORNL nor DOE endorses the validity of these data. A.3.5 Time Series The latest edition builds on a 36-year tradition of data books. Every edition the TEDB brings new data, more likely related to fuel economy. For example, the 30th and 31st editions added the following truck-related tables, respectively: â¢ Table 3.13. Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates: Data for heavy trucks, which had been in previous editions, is added back into the report. â¢ Table 3.1. World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000â2010: A new table comparing global production of trucks today and 10 years ago. A.3.6 Formats and Availability Editions are available for download in PDF format and as a single file; however, for ease of downloading, it may also be downloaded in sections. Spreadsheets of the tables in the TEDB can be found on the Web (cta.ornl.gov/data). As of August 2012, a hard copy for Edition 30 and 31 is also available by e-mail request. There is no charge for the book or for shipping. A.4 Trucking Activity Report (TRAC) A.4.1 Overview Trucking Activity Report (TRAC) is a newsletter based on confidential information furnished by ATAâs members (i.e., motor carriers). TRAC includes a summary of trucking activ- ity, looks at key aspects of motor carrier operations, and pro- vides a summary of economic events directly affecting the trucking industry. TRAC also provides benchmarking statis- tics for both truckload and less-than-truckload carriers. The monthly report is generated from surveys of participating ATA member carriers and provides information on changes in traffic, revenues, mileage, and equipment trends. In this report, VMT and average load are highlighted. A.4.2 Background Based on an ongoing survey of truckload and less-than- truckload carriers, TRAC provides the following information: â¢ VMT by operation range: Truck mileage by 0â500 miles; 500-1,000 miles; and 1000+ miles; â¢ VMT by equipment type: Dry van; flatbed; refrigerated; and bulk/tank;
62 â¢ Average load by operation range and equipment type; and â¢ Other: revenue; equipment utilization; traffic; and employee turnover and workforce changes. A.4.3 Sources Each month, ATA sends surveys out to for-hire motor car- riers asking them for the data published in TRAC. ATA then matches up the carriers in the latest month and only uses those carriers that also provided data in the previous month. ATA then calculates a percent change for all the carriers com- bined (or for selected groupsâdry van, flatbed, refrigerated, and bulk/tank) for all data categories (e.g., loads, revenue, miles, etc.) and moves the previous not seasonally adjusted index for that category up or down by the percent change. A.4.4 Reliability Since the survey is conducted only on member carriers, the results are subject to sampling errors. So, ATA Economics and Statistic Department uses normative units such as Truck Tonnage Index rather than natural units. For quality control, ATA also compares the seasonally adjusted (SA) index with the not seasonally adjusted (NSA) index. A.4.5 Time Series A complete historical monthly database of the TRAC indexes goes back to the early 1990s. A.4.6 Formats and Availability TRAC is available to only individual subscribers. TRAC is e-mailed to subscribers between the 14th and 18th of every month. In parallel with TRAC, ATA also publishes the Monthly Truck Tonnage Report (MTTR) every month and the Motor Carrier Report (MCR) every year. Like TRAC, ATA con- ducts a confidential survey of motor carriers but focuses on their balance sheets and income statement data along with information on tonnage, mileage, employees, transportation equipment, and other related items. The aggregate results are available in these reports. MTTR includes an up-to-date, comprehensive analysis of tonnage trends exploring the underlying factors affecting the demand for trucking services. MTTR contains the sum- mary of general freight carriersâ system-wide tonnage volume indexed and adjusted, and provides comparisons with other pertinent economic indicators. The data ATA collects for the MCR are very similar to the financial and operating statistics forms that motor carriers with revenue in excess of $3 million are required to file with the U.S. Department of Transportation. Since DOT will not distribute the post-2003 annual Form M filings to ATA or the public at large without an expensive Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request, the ATA Motor Carrier Annual Report is the only source for aggregate data. A.5 Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) A.5.1 Overview The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) pres- ents key indicators along with data and information about the performance and impacts of the U.S. Transportation Sys- tem. The report focuses on closing data gaps and improving the ways in which transportation statistics are collected, ana- lyzed, and published. In this sense, it is a very different type of report than other transportation summary studies in that it reports on the practice of transportation reporting. The 16th edition of the report was released in 2010, containing more than 260 data tables, citations for all original data sources, and a full glossary and list of acronyms. TSAR specifically focuses on 13 topics, as mandated by Congress through US Code 49, section 111(c)(5). These thir- teen areas are: 1. Productivity in various parts of the transportation sector, 2. Traffic flows for all modes, Trucking Activity Report (TRAC) Definition of Truck All trucks (excluding vehicles used by the government and on farms, but including all weight classes) Data Items of Interest VMT, average load Geographical Level National Source Data N/A Data Gathering Method Survey of members Agency in Charge American Trucking Association (ATA) Years Covered 1973-2012 Table A-4. Trucking Activity Report (TRAC).
63 3. Intermodal transportation database, 4. Travel times and measures of congestion, 5. Vehicle weights and characteristics, 6. Demographic, economic, and other variables influencing traveling behavior, 7. Costs for passenger travel and goods movement, 8. Availability and use of mass transit, 9. Frequency of vehicle and transportation facility repairs, 10. Safety and security for travelers, 11. Connectivity and condition of the transportation system, 12. Transportation-related variables that influence domestic and global competiveness, and 13. Consequences of transportation for the human and natural environment (U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, 2012b). A.5.2 Coverage Data points reported on TSAR are based on a variety of BTS, DOT, and RITA initiatives to capture information about the transportation system in the United States. BTS serves as the lead federal statistical agency responsible for culling information from such data sources as the Survey of State Funding for Public Transportation, the Livable Com- munities and Environmental Sustainability highlights from the Omnibus Household Survey, and information about hazardous material shipments as reported on the Com- modity Flow Survey (CFS). This information is organized in TSAR around the DOT strategic goals: promoting safety, building livable communities, improving the state of good repair, fostering economic competitiveness, and support- ing environmental sustainability of the U.S. transportation system. BTS-specific recommendations for improving the existing survey methods used to capture transportation patterns are presented in the TSAR section âImproving Transportation Statistics.â As a composite of many differ- ent surveys, the coverage for TSAR is limited to the data sources underlying any given table (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2011). Hazardous material shipments made by freight trucks are reported by value, tons and ton-miles at the national level by hazard class (e.g., explosives, gasses, flammable liquids). This information is from the 2007 Commodity Flow Sur- vey released by BTS and U.S. Department of Commerce. On another table, hazardous waste shipment patterns for 2007 are compared to non-hazardous waste by transportation modeâin this case, the truck category is characterized in the aggregate as well as by âfor-hire truckâ and âprivate truck.â A.5.3 Sources Sources include a variety of transportation surveys and reports generated for the national level by the federal gov- ernment, state departments of transportation, local govern- ments, and other organizations invested in the health of U.S. transportation. All sources and references are documents in TSAR. Data for shipments made by truck is limited to infor- mation on the Commodity Flow Survey. A.5.4 Reliability As a composite of information from several data sources, TSAR reliability depends on the data sources underlying any given table. For truck data this is specific to the Commodity Flow Survey. A.5.5 Time Series TSAR was first published in 1994 and continued through 2010; updates after that period are not available. A.5.6 Availability TSAR reports are available on the BTS website. Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) Definition of Truck Truck is only reported at the aggregate level and is based on the Commodity Flow Survey data Data Items of Interest Ton Ton-miles Value of cargo Geographical Level National Source Data Summary tables are primarily based on data from the Commodity Flow Survey Data Gathering Method Reproduction of data from other transportation reports Agency in Charge BTS Years Covered 1994-2010 Table A-5. Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR).
64 References U.S. Department of Transportation. 2012a. Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Statistics, Reports for 2012 accessed 12 Aug 2012 online at http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_ transportation_statistics/pdf/entire.pdf U.S. Department of Transportation. 2012b. Research and Innovative Technology, Administration Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Transportation Statistics Annual Report 2012 (Washington, D.C.: 2013) accessed from online source on 18 Aug 2012 at http://www. bts.gov/publications/transportation_statistics_annual_report/ U.S. Department of Transportation. 2011, Research and Innovative Tech- nology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Trans- portation Statistics Annual Report 2010 (Washington, D.C.: 2011), accessed on 18 Aug 2012 from online source http://www.bts.gov/ publications/transportation_statistics_annual_report/2010/pdf/ entire.pdf U.S. Department of Transportation. 2000â2011. Research and Innova- tive Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Sta- tistics, National Transportation Statistics, Reports for 2000â2011 accessed 11 June 2012 online at http://www.bts.gov/publications/ national_transportation_statistics/2011/index.html