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31 Budgeting for Airport Terminal Preparedness Preparing an airport terminal to execute TIRPs requires foresight and ingenuity. The major costs fall into three categories: capital/initial procurement, one-time operational, and recurring operational. Appendix B provides a checklist of the line items for the services and supplies neces- sary to enable effective airport terminal evacuation, shelter-in-place, and repopulation events. Sound preparation may involve terminal construction or reconstruction for communications systems, information systems, signage, sensors, warning signs, and route marking. Areas with high risk of extreme weather hazards such as tornadoes may need to strengthen shelter areas and dedicate extra storage for emergency equipment and supplies such as drinking water. The plan- ning and design of spaces for evacuation, evacuation routes, rally points, and shelter-in-place locations is best included in the general terminal planning and design process. Small equipment such as handheld radios, flashlights, and electric megaphones can be bought once or at least infrequently since they do not spoil or expire. These types of expenditures are typically funded through operations budgets. Some emergency response materials such as water, emergency food supplies, and batteries have limited shelf life or are quickly consumed during a response, so they must be inventoried and restocked. Most airports inspect and restock or replace such supplies on an annual basis. As with durable small equipment, these supplies are typically funded through operations budgets. One airport periodically donates supplies nearing their expiration dates to charities and replaces them. Certain recurring services associated with planning, documenting, drilling, and exercising TIRPs, such as building materials and temporary repair services, will also normally be part of operations budgets. Some repairs or tasks, such as clearing broken glass or repairing damaged electrical systems, may be required before repopulation can occur. The types of incidents addressed by TIRPs are unlikely to involve presidential or state declara- tions of emergencies or disasters, so it is unlikely that services and supplies will be reimbursable by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or other agencies. C H A P T E R 7