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53 Avian flu Avian (or bird) flu is caused by influenza viruses that occur naturally among wild birds. The H5N1 variant is deadly to domestic fowl and can be transmitted from birds to humans. There is no human immunity and no vaccine is available. Crisis and emergency risk communication Crisis and emergency risk communication is the effort by experts to provide information to allow an individual, stakeholder, or an entire community to make the best possible decisions about their well-being within nearly impossible time constraints and help people ultimately to accept the imperfect nature of choices during the crisis. Furloughing Non-Essential Workers Voluntary or mandatory closure of all non-essential businesses and/or furloughing all non-essential workers. Influenza Influenza is an acute viral disease of the respiratory tract characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, prostration, runny nose, sore throat, and cough. Otitis media, nausea, and vomiting are also commonly reported among children. Isolation Separation of persons with specific infectious illnesses in their homes, in hospitals, or in designated healthcare facilities. Pandemic influenza Pandemic flu is virulent human flu that causes a global outbreak, or pan- demic, of serious illness. Because there is little natural immunity, the disease can spread easily from person to person. Personal protective equipment (PPE) Equipment or clothing worn to reduce hazard exposure. Quarantine Separation and restriction of the movement, usually of a group of people, who, while not yet ill, have potentially been exposed to an infectious agent. Seasonal (or common flu) Seasonal (or common) flu is a respiratory illness that can be trans- mitted person to person. Most people have some immunity, and a vaccine is available. Social Distancing Within the workplace, social distancing measures could take the form of: modifying the frequency and type of face-to-face employee encounters (e.g., placing mora- toriums on hand-shaking, substituting teleconferences for face-to-face meetings, staggering breaks, posting infection control guidelines); establishing flexible work hours or worksites, (e.g., telecommuting); promoting social distancing between employees and customers to main- tain three-feet spatial separation between individuals; and implementing strategies that request and enable employees with influenza to stay home at the first sign of symptoms. Glossary of Terms